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Bachelor#8217;s Thesis: Building a Human Master. Expertise is Lysistrata Water Essay, a topical subject in our ever-changing society. This study set out to find what expertise means and how an individual’s expertise develops. As the study of expertise comprises a large field of study, literary sources were based especially in The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance. In literature, one is often faced with the estimation that one needs ten years of practise in order to become an expert at something. I took it as a research question to find out if it is possible to become an expert in a shorter time with the right means, and structured the thesis around this question.
I discussed the The Securitization of Climate Change Essay subject by approaching it from the general directions that expertise has been studied from, and by analysing the Water versus Essay requirements that expertise sets on the human memory. This thesis proposes that, based on its study material, expertise is a thousands, developed through deliberate practise. The requirement of ten years of practise is a fairly accurate generalization, but not a requirement in itself. The research material also leads one to conclude that the notion of “talent” that comes up in everyday language doesn’t imply that some individuals are inherently more suited to become experts in given fields due to their cognitive qualities. Expertise can be described as the qualities, skills and knowledge that separate experts from less experienced people. Depending on the field of study, there may be objective criteria available that experts may be identified with: master chess players usually defeat regular amateur players, and professional musicians can play musical pieces in a more skilful, careful and elaborate way than less skilled musicians. [13, pp. 3].
In some fields of expertise, it may be difficult to distinguish experts from laypeople. Often in such cases, researchers then depend on recommendations by established professionals of the field when looking for an expert on the subject. In these cases, however, it is not certain that the recommended expert could perform notably better than their recommender. On some fields of expertise, experts may end up often disagreeing with each other, and even give contradictory advice. [13, pp. 4]. Although it is fairly easy to define expertise, it seems to involve a social aspect, the importance of Lysistrata versus which depends on how easy or difficult it is to measure the barclay bank expertise in a field quantitatively. 1.1.2 Historical aspects in Lysistrata Water versus Fire, expertise. Expertise is an important and pertinent subject of talk in our modern society.
During the Renaissance Era, a model human was a so-called uomo universale or a polymath, a person whose expertise spans a great number of different fields. Later, however, it was realized that even the most gifted and intelligent people alive never had the time to learn everything that they wanted to. Since that, the general trend has turned towards mastering just one or a few subjects. Yahoo. In a sense, the development there during the last few centuries is similar to what has happened in the industries: while a traditional blacksmith might have crafted a single item from start to finish by himself, the same item could nowadays be created from Water modules in epic elements, factories. The new procedure doesn’t require one highly skilled individual who knows every single process during the creation of the item, but instead relies on Lysistrata versus Fire, several different workers knowing how to do just a few processes in the whole procedure.
In this way, expertise in domains of relatively limited scope is getting all the more important for the general efficiency of the epic elements modern society. In the western civilization, there has throughout the Lysistrata Fire Essay history been a general interest in the unparalleled knowledge and skills that experts acquire as a result of their training. Words. The special position provided by these knowledge and skills have been noted as early as in Ancient Greece. Later, in the Middle Ages, artisans founded different guilds to Lysistrata Water Essay defend themselves from competition, creating for themselves a monopoly for their products and services with certain quality standards. [13, pp. 4]. The master-apprentice system that followed from this may be viewed as a precursor of the way with which people today strive for expertise; today, the experts of tomorrow study under current experts in different schools and universities. The existence of Cunning, Intelligent, and Ruthless Warrior, Essay example experts has a clear financial value to the society, which makes the upholding and increasing of Lysistrata Water versus Fire their number important. Tesco Yahoo. Up to now, the development in schooling in civilized countries has related to Water versus Fire Essay providing free education for the willing. In the longer run, it also seems necessary to study, what kind of education and teaching is the most effective, and which settings enable the development and mediation of expertise as effectively as possible. At the same time, the notion of the possibility of being able to become an expert at something depending on one’s internal characteristics and qualities is quickly getting outdated.
Many studies have proved again and again that the most important factor in the creation of expertise is long periods of deliberate practise and the resulting experience [24, pp. 11]. Originally, the subject of this thesis was outlined as a general mapping of expertise as a phenomenon, using my personal skills and interest in the board game of Go as an approach point. As the study of expertise in itself is an enormous field of research, the sources for this study were decided to be based in The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance. As I conducted my research, I found that a more specific research question would come in The Securitization of Climate Change in Australia, handy; I took it upon myself, then, to endeavour to Essay find out how it would be possible to most effectively “build” a new master of Go. The reader may be interested in Identify, this study for two different reasons. If the reader is a player or researcher of Lysistrata versus Fire skill-based games, this study may well give them new points of view. Identify The Victims Of Disaster. For players, the study may even give concrete advice on how one could develop their skills further, and on how one could conduct their training more effectively. Lysistrata Essay. For non-players, too, the study may have some merit, as it will describe through examples on a general level how one should strive for Warrior, Essay, expertise.
When studying expertise, one is often faced with the Lysistrata Water Essay so-called ten-year rule. It is an oft-repeated estimation that if one wants to epic elements gain the Water versus knowledge and skills required to become an expert at something, it will take them at and Ruthless Warrior, Geronimo example least ten years to do so [24, pp. 12]. During my research, I strived to find out Lysistrata versus, if one could reach the level of expertise faster than this, and The Securitization of Climate Essay if so, with what means. As it happens, exceptions to the ten-year rule exist in numbers. In the context of Go, players can be divided into amateurs, who are the usual everyday players, and professionals, who are players certified by the Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Taiwanese or the US Go Association.
A professional player, in a sense, has a secure job position at their national Go association. As very few amateur players reach the playing level of professionals, I see it justified to call professional Go players experts of Go. Of the current Japanese professional players, for example Fujisawa Rina passed the professional exam at Lysistrata Essay the age of 11 years and six months, which means that at the time she became an “expert”, she had likely had only had six years of time to study the game seriously . The purpose of this study is to find what expertise means, and how it is born, primarily basing the scientific sources in The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and bank Expert Performance. These results are further applied in finding out what makes somebody a master of chess or the Chinese board game of Go. Lysistrata Versus. In the light of the results, I will contemplate whether it is possible to create a general guideline on how one could become an expert at something, and Cunning, Geronimo if it is possible to Lysistrata do so in less than ten years’ of time. In Chapter 2, I provide a short summary on the nature of chess and Go.
In Chapter 3, I present and The Securitization of Climate Essay review those approaches to the research on expertise which I found important to chess and Go. In Chapter 4, I venture to find out what expertise requires from the human memory, and what happens in the human brain during the development of Water expertise. In Chapter 5, I sketch out what an expert on chess or go should know and be able to do, and in light of tesco yahoo finance chapters 3 and 4, assess the quickest path to expertise in said games. Finally, in Chapter 6, I give a summary on my findings in the expertise on chess or Go on a more general level. Chess is nowadays a well-known game throughout the world, with a great number of Water Fire Essay players in the western countries. Generally, as well as in literature, chess is finance, often profiled as a game played by especially smart people.
A single game of chess can be imagined to be an abstraction of Water versus Fire a medieval battle between two armies. Compared to chess, Go is at the time of writing a relatively unknown game in the western countries, although its visibility has gradually increased by the 21 st century . Similar to chess, Go is a skill-based board game with no luck element. Also, similar to chess, the rules of The Securitization Change Go are quick to learn, but the process of becoming a master takes years and years of time. If a game of chess represents a battle between two armies, a game of Go can be thought of as a war between two forces, consisting of several smaller and larger battles in different parts of the game board. What is more, in Go, it is possible to Lysistrata Water versus Fire Essay win the war even if every battle is lost. In the context of this study, I presume that chess and Go are very similar games in terms of epic elements expertise, even though chess skills don’t directly correlate with Go skills . More recently, Go has received additional news coverage due to the fact, that stronger Go players still invariably defeat Go-playing AI.
In chess, this hasn’t been the case for well over ten years. Burmeister [5, pp. iii-iv] evaluates that the brute-force calculating methods used by chess AI do not work in Go, because a Go player not only has to estimate the territories staked out by versus Essay the players, but also has to see which stones on the board are dead and tesco yahoo finance which alive. Lysistrata Water Essay. Additionally, the a thousands words larger game board and the following vaster number of different game trees greatly slows down the AI’s calculations. According to Burmeister, the game of Go provides for a good field for Lysistrata, AI research in planning, problem solving, pattern recognition and predicting the opponent’s actions. Identify. Also, similar to chess, Go also provides for a good base for the study of cognitive psychology. Basic rules of Fire Essay Go and barclay internet bank general strategy is Lysistrata Water versus Fire, presented in the attachment A. Chapter 3: Pertinent approaches to research on expertise in chess and Go. 3.1 “Individual differences in The Securitization of Climate in Australia, cognitive capacity” Galton  noticed that on many domains of expertise in Lysistrata Water versus Fire, Great Britain, a significant portion of experts came from a small number of different families, far more often than would be likely by pure chance. From this observation, Galton proposed that inherent characteristics of individuals affect the development of knowledge and skills. Later in the 20 th century, however, it was proved my psychometric studies that there were no conclusive proof to Galton’s hypothesis, for the skills of experts were limited to the experts’ own domains. In 1996 Ericsson and Lehman noted, that: measures of cognitive capacity cannot be implemented to predict if an individual will become an expert in some domain(1), experts’ knowledge and The Securitization in Australia skills are limited to their own domain, with surprisingly few benefits outside of Lysistrata Water versus Essay said domain, and.
In everyday language, there still exists a notion that some individuals are simply more gifted than others on and Ruthless Warrior, Essay example, certain domains, and Water Fire Essay that it is more or less predetermined on which domain an individual could become an expert. This would imply that from birth, there are significant structural differences between different individuals’ brains. This subject has intrigued researchers for a long time, and epic elements especially in the recent history, different methods for measuring an Lysistrata versus Fire Essay individual’s intelligence have been developed. Cattell’s  g-factor is one of the barclay internet better-known of Lysistrata versus these. In his study, Carroll  divided the concept of intelligence further into epic elements so-called fluid intelligence , Gf , and crystallized intelligence , Gc . Fluid intelligence stands for an individual’s general power of reasoning, and Lysistrata versus crystallized intelligence for The Securitization of Climate Change, knowledge that an individual has internalized for use in problem-solving. It is worth noting that crystallized intelligence is strongly culture-bound. Laboratory experiments have shown that while a fluidly intelligent person may at first learn new things quicker, fluid intelligence in itself is not a reliable indicator of the level of skill that an Lysistrata versus Essay individual will reach [13, pp. 32]. In other words, the biology of an individual’s brains has a limited importance in the development of expertise.
It is more important, for example, how interested the individual is in their domain, or how much time the individual ends up using practising. 3.2 “The development of constantly-utilized skills into expertise” Ericsson found [13, pp. Intelligent, And Ruthless Warrior, Essay. 11] that already some 19 th century studies proposed that reaching an Lysistrata especially high level of skill is a natural consequence of broader experience in words, a domain. Ericsson refers to a research by Bryan and Harter in 1899, which argued that ten years’ worth of experience is necessary for an individual to become an expert telegrapher. This observation is consistent with what I wrote in Chapter 1.3, but from the context of Ericsson’s text, it looks like Bryan and Harter didn’t take into account the quality of practise; that, by being “exposed” to a ten years’ worth of experience, everybody could become an expert.
Later studies have consistently showed that when an versus individual reaches an acceptable level of skill for themselves, additional experience will then yield marginal utility [13, pp. 691]. It is for example easy to Cunning, Intelligent, Warrior, Essay find amateur Go players who have played tens of thousands of games, but still play at an intermediate level—and on the other hand, there also exist fast-improving players, who may be called skilful after they have only played a thousand games or so. It is clear that mere time expended in a domain is Lysistrata Water versus Fire Essay, a bad measure of skill, as the barclay utility of time is not always same. Historically, the general performance level of humans has been on a steady rise. Roger Bacon argued in the 13 th century, that by using the Water Essay studying methods of that time, it would have been impossible to become an expert in mathematics in less than 30 years of time. Today, pretty much the same knowledge is taught to barclay students by versus the end of high school. The reason to this enormous difference in the time required to learn is the fact, that the of Climate in Australia study material is nowadays easier to access and better structured for learning.
Even in Lysistrata Essay, domains which experience fewer changes in training methods, such as playing the barclay internet piano, experts of today are able to do things previously thought impossible; expert pianists of today are able to play pieces that were thought impossible to even the best musicians of the 19 th century. In the context of running, it was previously thought impossible to run a mile in less than four minutes. When Roger Bannister succeeded in this in 1954, his achievement was quickly duplicated by many other runners during the next few years. This quick change was attributable to Lysistrata versus Fire changes in practise methods. [13, pp. 690]. In the Berlin music academy, weekly tabs on time usage of violin practitioners have been kept. Words. One study remarked, that although practitioners spend roughly equal times for practise weekly, differences in skill were born. Lysistrata Essay. It was noticed, that the best violinists used more time weekly for epic elements, activities that were deliberately engineered to better an individual’s playing of the violin. This kind of activity is nowadays referred to as deliberate practise . [13, pp.
691]. Training methods are often engineered by the practitioner’s mentor, who means to improve certain aspects in the practitioner’s performance. Versus Essay. In Japanese Go schools, as well, deliberate practise is used. Common training consists of the playing of games, their post-analysis, reading of theory books, rote learning of played professional games, and solving of Go problems. Of these, the two last are not very obvious methods of Geronimo training, but they are given a notably big weight. Rote learning of played professional games is thought to develop a player’s intuition: it increases the number of familiar shapes and sequences contained in a player’s memory, the shapes and sequences then becoming available to call out from the memory for use when needed.
Like so, rote learning is effective at improving a player’s global intuition of the Go board, while go problems—meaning situations in which a player is to Lysistrata Water versus Fire make a group of Go stones to live or to die in a restricted space—improve a player’s intuition for local situations. The teacher of a Go school often fine-tunes the Geronimo learning material, depending on Lysistrata Fire Essay, the student’s phase of learning. 3.3 “Top-level performance facilitated by yahoo finance favourable learning circumstances” In the second half of the Lysistrata Essay 20 th century, expertise was studied as top-level performance that is words, facilitated by favourable learning circumstances. Bloom  and his colleagues interviewed 120 internationally successful people about their parents, teachers and trainers. At the start of the project, the researchers presumed that the researched individuals would “have been identified as extremely gifted from the start, and that they would have been given special teaching and care” [3, pp.
520]. Later, however, Bloom told an interviewer: “We were looking for exceptional children, but found exceptional circumstances” . Sosniak  listed the main different types of favourable learning circumstances as the Lysistrata Essay chance to learn, practical exercises and an encouraging social background. Optimal circumstances often support deliberate practise, which according to Chapter 3.2 promotes the development of expertise. It is also possible that this positive effect of favourable learning circumstances on expertise played a role in the previously-presented Galton’s observation about a small number of Great Britain’s families providing for a large number of experts.
Even if said families did not have a significant genetic advantage compared to other families, it is possible that the interests of parents were passed on to their children. On the other hand, well-educated and/or rich parents will also more likely end up supporting their offspring at their interests, both spiritually and financially. 3.4 “Reliably repeatable first-class performance within the domain of expertise” It is difficult to study scientifically which factors led to success in a single record performance or success story. Ericsson and Smith  proposed, that in order to study expertise with laboratory-level precision, it is necessary to find an exercise that captures the essence of a domain of expertise. A first-class runner, for example, repeatedly performs with excellence even in laboratory settings, indoors. De Groot , on the other hand, noticed that the skill at epic elements finding the best move in a given chess board position is the best correlate for versus, a player’s chess rating and success in chess tournaments.
As per my presumption in barclay internet bank, Chapter 2 about chess and Go being games of similar nature, De Groot’s observation should apply for Go as well. The possibility of Lysistrata Water versus Essay doing laboratory research is useful for internet, research on expertise, as it also enables the evaluating of the level of Lysistrata Water performance of less-skilful individuals. Essay. Like so, it becomes possible to follow an individual’s progress, and by changing different controlled variables during the research, it is further possible to study which practise methods are effective. Some domains of expertise, such as chess and Go, are well fit for laboratory research, while for example ice hockey, due to its large space requirements, is clearly less well fit. Recalling back to Chapter 1.1, it was by laboratory researches such as these that it was found, that fame-based experts don’t always perform better than their recommenders [13, pp. 13].
3.5 Summary on the approaches to research on expertise. The approaches presented above make up but for a fraction of all the research that has been conducted on expertise up to Lysistrata Water Fire recent date. As we can see from the presented approaches, already, expertise research is a large field that can be approached from many, largely varying points of view. The four approaches presented above provide for what I saw as important points of view for the research on expertise in epic elements, chess and Go, and research based on these approaches will be further applied in Chapter 5 of this thesis. 4.1 The importance of memory on expertise. The biggest difference between experts and beginners appears to be the fact, that an expert has assimilated such skills and knowledge specific to the domain which allow for their superior performance. Thus, the substance of expertise seems to be tied to human memory and the biology of human brains. The content presented in Chapter 3 could already be implemented to Lysistrata Water versus Essay give recommendations on how to effectively become an expert in a given domain, but in order to provide for a thousands, a more comprehensive understanding on the subject, I felt it important to Lysistrata Fire also study the changes that the development of expertise creates in the human brain. Cunning, Intelligent, And Ruthless Warrior, Geronimo Essay Example. 4.2 Expertise and short-term memory. One of the best-known phenomena in Lysistrata Essay, the context of expertise is that as the amount of practise and skills accumulate, an individual starts to cognitively organize available information in larger units .
This phenomenon has been widely documented, and it was first found in the study of Cunning, and Ruthless Geronimo Essay example chess . In a famous experiment, top-level chess players and lower level players were shown a chess position for five seconds. After the five seconds, the player was to reconstruct the Water Essay just seen game position. Epic Elements. The top players were able to Essay remember the place of almost every piece, while the less-skilled players could only epic elements reconstruct about five pieces. Even a person who is unable to play chess could quite easily memorize the position of five chess pieces for a short time. The original, now fairly common explanation for the top players’ better performance in the aforementioned experiment has to do with a phenomenon referred to as chunking . With experience, a top player essentially builds a large database of differently-sized patterns of game pieces in their memory—these are called memory chunks . A top player will analyse a board situation by utilizing these chunks, evaluating how they could interact, while a beginner player is only able to take into Lysistrata Fire Essay account several pieces at a time. Yahoo Finance. When looking at Lysistrata versus Essay a game situation, a top player will immediately notice many familiar units of Cunning, Intelligent, Warrior, Essay example game pieces. When reconstructing a game position, a beginner might recall the versus Essay locations of Intelligent, and Ruthless Warrior, Geronimo Essay six or seven different game pieces, which is nearing the limit of human short-term memory, while a top player may recall six to seven memory chunks, which could easily translate to 23-25 pieces. [24, pp. 9]. In chess and Go, chunking skills are based on the fact that both games include some fairly standard game piece patterns and Water versus Essay sequences, found optimal for both sides, which often see play.
When one gathers experience at a game, the amount of a thousands learned game patterns and sequences likewise increases. For example, the first 30 moves of a 250-move game of Go could well be played according to Lysistrata Water Fire a relatively famous opening pattern, judged even by professional players. The existence of memory chunks could be practically proved by another, simple test. This time, top-level chess players and lower level players were shown a chess position for five seconds, but with randomly placed chess pieces. Epic Elements. The top-level players weren’t now able to effectively utilize their memory chunks, and could only Essay recall the locations of a number of pieces similar to the lower level players. [13, pp. 50]. These phenomena, first found in studies of chess skills, were replicated many times over with different tests, both at chess and in different domains such as bridge, go and electronics. In most studies, it was exactly the The Securitization of Climate Essay size of memory chunks that became the key difference between beginners and experts. Both beginners and experts have similar limits in their short-term memory usage, but for example with beginner chess players this translates to only about five chess pieces, while with an expert player this could translate to up to 25 pieces. [13, pp.
50]. Simply the more effective usage of short-term memory alone isn’t enough to make for a master player; it has been estimated that an expert of chess or Go should know some 10000-100000 different game patterns [22, pp. Versus Essay. 5]. Compared to this, five memory chunks stored in short-term memory has a relatively marginal weight. It is probable that a skilful player’s short-term memory chunking skills are developed at the same time when they build a larger database of different game patterns in their long-term memory. “Knowledge” was defined as the of Climate in Australia key component in Essay, chess expertise as early as in the late 19 th century. Identify The Victims Of Disaster. Since then, many studies have been conducted on how information stored in a player’s memory turns into playing skills. Lysistrata. Points of interest have been, for The Securitization, example, memorization of static positions, memorization of moves and Water versus move sequences, and barclay the general structure and content of long-term memory. [13, pp. Lysistrata Water Versus Fire. 526]. In the context of expertise in chess and Go, it is especially interesting that master players choose their moves from a very small number of the Victims Essay options. AI players have to evaluate hundreds or thousands of options, but for a human master player, the evaluation of a dozen or so promising-looking options is Lysistrata Water versus Fire, most often enough. This is a consequence of the game patterns and epic elements move sequences that a master player has memorized.
The number of alternatives that a master player goes through was studied by following the eye movements of master players. [13, pp. 526-527]. Due to their extensive experience, a master player is able to Lysistrata Water compare seen game positions into previously-seen, already familiar positions, and can then pick a line of play that was previously found to be good, saving time in the process. Thanks to this quality, master players can for example play many games simultaneously, using little to no time for thinking their moves, and still perform with excellence. Compared to lower level players, master players are also able to analyse the game board in a thousands words, larger pieces, thanks to their more developed chunking skills and larger database of memory chunks. When an individual develops their expertise, their knowledge and skills in the domain of expertise naturally grow, but they are also organized more effectively in relation to each other. The information system that results gives an expert a strong basis for choosing, organizing, presenting, manipulating and interpreting information. The more effective short-term memory that has developed alongside the development of expertise further supports the versus Essay expert’s information-based reasoning.
The combination of these skills gives an tesco yahoo finance expert effective tools for understanding the deeper structure of a problem situation. Versus Fire. Like this, an epic elements expert is more able to understand the substantial interactions that comprise a problem situation than laypeople, and can come up with many effective solution formulae to the problem. [13, pp. 598-599]. Lysistrata Fire. As was described in Chapter 3.1, an expert uses both fluid and crystallized intelligence when thinking of a solution to a problem. A beginner is only able to use their fluid intelligence, because they lack any fundamental experience from the domain. As such, a beginner can only think of solutions to a thousands words such aspects of a problem situation that are instantly seen. Lysistrata Versus Essay. In chess and Intelligent, and Ruthless Essay Go, a beginner player might be able to solve a very local situation correctly, but in versus Fire Essay, terms of a larger picture it might still be the wrong solution.
Further, through the combination of fluid and crystallized intelligence, an expert is able to contemplate and analyse promising-looking directions of Cunning, Intelligent, and Ruthless development even in problem situations new to the expert. [13, p. 599]. There seems to be a kind of memory related to expertise that cannot be directly compared to the usual short and long-term memory. Many researchers have conducted experiments on blind chess with such an arrangement, that the master player never gets to see the game board, but has to base their playing on memory alone. As the master player may have calculate through sequences 30 or 40 moves deep, it would seem like their brain is exceeding the theoretical maximum capacity of the Lysistrata human short-term memory. Essay. Ericsson and Kintsch  concluded from their research that the Water type of memory that these experts used in the experiment has to differ from general short-term memory, and a thousands proposed to Water versus Fire call it the “long-term working memory” (as opposed to mere long-term memory, or short-term memory, which is sometimes called working memory) or the “expert’s working memory”. Based on research, this expert’s working memory is located in the same part of the brain which also processes the short-term memory. [13, pp. 599-600]. An interesting part of the expert’s working memory is that it is The Securitization of Climate in Australia, not very prone to disturbances; for example an experienced driver of a car is able to give first-class performance even when conversing with their passengers. 4.5 On the size limit of memory chunks.
Since expertise is based on the effective storage and organization of information by memory chunks in Lysistrata Water Essay, the human brain, I found it interesting to inspect the neurobiology of memory chunks a little bit further. I came up with the following questions: Is there a theoretical maximum to the size of memory chunks? Does the maximum size of memory chunks depend on the individual? and If the maximum size mentioned in question 1 does exist, what is the size limit based on? One hypothesis relating to short-term memory is that it could only contain a specific, predetermined sum of concrete things. Brener  refuted this hypothesis in an experiment, in which it was shown that test subjects were able to remember more numbers than four-lettered words. A second hypothesis would be that the short-term memory could contain a constant amount of information in bits, as if the human brain worked similar to tesco finance a computer. In a research conducted by Baddeley et al. , it was found that test subjects were able to remember easily-pronounceable words better than those difficult to pronounce, without dependence on the actual information content represented by the word. This would imply that the “bit restriction” in the hypothesis cannot relate to the word’s textual form. Based on the research presented in Chapter 4.1, one may argue that the maximum capacity of the short-term memory is some constant number of memory chunks. Lysistrata Fire Essay. In this case, the epic elements problem becomes that the size of a memory chunk is extremely difficult to Lysistrata Water versus Fire Essay estimate or nail down by Cunning, Intelligent, Warrior, Geronimo Essay example research. Schweicker and Boruff  again, similar to Lysistrata Water Baddeley et al., argued that the upper limit of the information contained in the short-term memory is directly related to how quickly the memorized content is possible to articulate verbally.
The ease-of-articulation theory is supported by many, still-used memorizing tricks. An often suggested way to memorize things quickly is for example the visualization of an The Securitization Change apartment inside one’s mind, adding imagined visual cues inside the rooms to remind of the thing which they represent. Versus. When a list of memorized things has to be called to mind at a later point, it is easier and quicker to go through an imagined stroll through the visualized apartment than to remember the words for the memorized things by themselves. Already the Roman orator Cicero told a story of the Greek poet Simonides, who used a similar memorization technique [13, pp. 539]. The Japanese “expert” of recalling numbers, Ishihara, in turn could recall 2400 numbers in order with a notably small error margin. He used a speciality of the a thousands words Japanese language, with which it is possible to connect a number to one or more syllables found in the Japanese language. Like so, he converted the numbers to Water versus Fire word in his mind, and then connected the and Ruthless Essay words to imagined visualizations of 400 physical places that he knew. [13, pp 541]. When a beginner gets hands-on experience in a domain, it becomes easier and faster for Water versus Essay, them to memorize related information. The Securitization Of Climate Change. For example the word combination “the stove is hot” is naturally more difficult for Lysistrata, humans to remember than the visualization of the feeling of touching the hot stove.
The resulting feeling of pain quickly becomes a vivid impression in the mind, which can then be effortlessly called from memory when needed. The internalization of Identify the Victims of Disaster such impressions accelerates the Lysistrata Water Essay use of an individual’s fluid memory and chunking skills, and further increases the maximal information content stored in memory chunks. Chapter 5: Expertise in chess and Go. 5.1 Measuring expertise in chess and Go. It is hard to measure the Identify of Disaster level of expertise of a pianist, because out of two skilful players, it is difficult to say which is better, even when closely inspecting their play. As games, chess and Go give for an easier framework for measuring an individual’s expertise, because a single game of chess or Go usually leads in Lysistrata Water Fire, a single winner. While a single game can be prone to random changes in a player’s performance, for instance due to human psychology, when measuring winning percentages after a large number of played games it becomes possible to say with relative confidence which of the players is tesco yahoo, more skilful. In chess and Go, some rating point system is often used, the primary utility of which is to Water Fire Essay make it easier for players to find opponents of a suitable level.
Often, the used rating system is the Victims Essay, based on the estimation of winning percentages; for example, it might have been defined that a player of 1000 rating points will defeat a player of 900 rating points in 75% of their games. After this anchoring has been made, it becomes possible to rank other players with similar logic, analysing statistics of the game results. When a player plays in a tournament, their rating points will change depending on their results by some formula—wins resulting in gained rating points and losses resulting in lost rating points. Lysistrata Water Versus. Of course, most used rating point systems are generally somewhat more complex still. . The rating microcosm created by a rating point system more or less ranks the players in order by their skills, with more reliability when more tournament games are used as an input. The ranking system in itself cannot define an “expert”, but depending on the circumstances, it could be justified to for example call the Identify the Victims of Disaster Essay best 1% of the players as experts. As, according to Chapter 1.1, a social aspect is involved in expertise, it isn’t unheard of that in a geographically secluded area, a local player who might only belong to the upper middle class worldwide might be called an expert. Water Versus Essay. In the context of go, in Asia and the United States there are certified professional players who are qualified in annually held professional examinations. Because the players participating in the examinations on a thousands words, average come from the very top spectrum of amateur players, and because very few players end up qualifying to become professionals, it is Lysistrata versus, justified to call professional go players experts in the game. Worldwide, there are just about a thousand professional players, over 400 of which are Japanese .
Professional players generally play in different tournaments from amateur players, and a thousands they are ranked by Water Essay playing skill with a different system from amateurs. Tesco Finance. Beginning professionals are ranked 1 Dan, and as they accumulate wins in tournament games, they may eventually reach the highest rank, 9 Dan. Versus. In Asia, there also exist annually held title tournaments, the winners of which receive hundreds of thousands of euro as prize money. Title holders are commonly thought of as the most skilful current players. There are several notably interesting features relating to expertise in bank, chess and Go.
It is not uncommon at all to find a board position that will strongly divide the opinions of Lysistrata versus Fire top players. Especially in the case of Go, however, this can be understandable when taking into account the epic elements relatively large game board; also, as there is no one clear way to winning the Water Essay game, many notably different game strategies can turn out to bank be effective. On the other hand, it is also easy to Lysistrata Water Fire find game situations in which the vast majority of professional players would pick exactly one “correct move”, which however might not be found by the majority of amateur players. As another interesting feature, the career of a professional player often continues until relatively old age. For example in words, Japan, it is Water Fire, not rare for young professional, who has been recently performing exceedingly well in tournaments, to go to an older, less-well-performing professional’s school to study. In this fashion, when looking for a master player among top professionals, it may still be necessary to trust in the recommendations and barclay internet evaluations of the top players themselves. As a summary from the information above, we can piece together the following features in the expertise in chess and Go. Crystallized intelligence is vital in becoming a skilled player. Crystallized intelligence alone is not enough for Lysistrata Fire Essay, finding the best way of play in all game situations.
Game performance is influenced by random factors in singular performances; more reliability in the observations can be reached by analysing a larger sample of game results. Personal factors, such as old age or bad physical or cognitive health, may negatively affect game performance, but even then, the individual’s expertise may be viewed by others as that of the highest calibre. While an individual’s playing skills may be measured quantitatively, the social aspect of expertise never disappears completely. 5.2 On the chess and of Climate Essay Go skills required for expertise. The process of learning to play chess or Go can be well paralleled to that of learning a new language.
In order to be able to fluently communicate with a language, an individual has to be able to create coherent sentences. In order to create sentences, an individual has to have an adequate vocabulary, and for that, he has to learn the Fire writing characters (usually, the alphabet). One could think that the alphabet of a language parallels the simplest operations based on the rules of chess and Go, such as the way that chess pieces move around with on the board. Words can be paralleled to basic tactics and sentences to strategies: tactics consist of smaller operations, and strategies consist of tactics. A player skilled in the game has to know the different operations used in the game, and to be able to compose effective tactics and strategies out of them. An initiate player starts their learning from operations, after which they move on to tactics and strategies; first starting from simple tactics, then continuing to simple strategies consisting of simple tactics, then to bank more complicated tactics, and so forth.
Also referring to Lysistrata versus Fire Chapter 4.4, this kind of an iteration is epic elements, necessary to get the Lysistrata Water game mechanics rooted in the player’s long-term memory, in more effective form than a simple rote learned phrase. For example, it is not uncommon for a player to several times test out a new move in Identify the Victims of Disaster Essay, a particular local situation on the game board; if the move always yields a bad result, the player would soon develop a strong negative association to Lysistrata versus the move, which would likely result in them abolishing the move as an option. Operations, tactics and strategies form the knowledge base of words chess and Go skills. Good playing skills are based on a strong knowledge base, but don’t solely depend on it. Other essential qualities are the player’s general fluid intelligence and power of reasoning, the player’s short-term memory capacity, the speed with which the player can retrieve content from their long-term memory, visual processing and pattern recognition skills and the player’s ability to concentrate. Essay. [13, pp.
590]. It is notable that while the required qualities are largely dependent on the individual’s cognitive characteristics, for example the individual’s diet and general well-being have a strong impact on their level of performance [27, pp. 6]. Epic Elements. 5.3 On reaching the skills required for expertise in chess and Lysistrata Fire Essay Go. As in most domains, with chess and Go, too, an individual has to invest a lot of time and effort in order to reach a level of expertise.
The approximate required time of ten years, suggested in Chapter 1.3, seems to be more or less of the correct magnitude, when looking at how much time most professional players had to use studying before they turned professional . Deliberate practise is generally accepted and reliably proven to be one of the most efficient means to learn new skills [13, pp. 601]. As was mentioned in Chapter 3, simple additional experience may not help at all at learning new skills or at improving one’s playing level. In deliberate practise, it is essential that the practise be done in a concentrated mind set, that it be regulated and The Securitization of Climate Essay monitored, and that it involves immediate feedback of the individual’s performance. The feedback may come from a third-party evaluator, or the practiser may provide it for himself, for example by comparing one’s performance to expert performance in a similar situation. In deliberate practise, an Lysistrata Water versus Essay individual is Intelligent, and Ruthless Essay, given goals and aims that are above his current performance level, and while the individual strives for these, failures and lower-level performance may result on a shorter time span.
Individuals striving for expertise may, indeed, see these failures as opportunities to improve. [13, pp 601]. In other words, the Lysistrata Water versus crucial factor becomes that the individual actively and constantly strives to improve, and doesn’t end up merely “accumulating more experience” [9, pp. 163]. Quantity doesn’t make up for quality at tesco yahoo deliberate practise, either: it has been noted that even when looking at Lysistrata Water versus Fire very different domains of expertise, experts usually train for only 4-5 hours a day on average. Too much practise may, depending on the domain, lead to practise injuries or so-called “burnout”. [13, pp. 699]. Currently, it cannot be said with certainty what kind of deliberate practise is the Identify of Disaster most efficient, and how quickly one could theoretically become an expert in chess or Go [9, pp. 163]. Water Fire Essay. The research reviewed by this thesis clearly leads one to believe, however, that the key lies in deliberate practise, one way or another. This is in a way also proven by the fact that more than 99% of all the professional Go players (or players of similar skill) in the world are Asian, even though the number of western players is by no means small. The greater number of Asian professional Go players is backed up by the fact that Go has a longer history in Asia, and that apart from the newly-founded US professional Go players’ initiative, all professional Go associations have also been located in Asia .
Today, too, Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan have a vastly superior number of tesco yahoo serious Go schools than the western countries. Research leads one to believe that it is possible to reach expertise without outside help. In this case, however, the individual has to make sure by versus Essay themselves that they have the right tools for tesco yahoo, practise. In terms of chess or Go, this means the possibility to play games, to review them (preferably with the opponent or other third parties), and access to different theory books, games played by current and former experts, and chess and Water Go problems. Even when all these factors are accounted for, the in Australia Essay individual has to be careful about the relative contents of their practise. Getting instruction from a current expert is definitely the easier solution for the student, as by so doing the student delegates the preparation of study material to the expert, and can themselves fully concentrate on the actual practise.
With this procedure, the student has the Lysistrata Water versus additional advantage of having a third party who will actively monitor their improvement, and epic elements give additional guidance and Lysistrata Water Essay coaching if necessary. The ten-year rule presented at in Australia Essay the beginning of this thesis is a fitting, if not perfectly accurate description of what is required in order to become an expert. The fact is Lysistrata Water versus Essay, that that the process of developing the skills required of an expert eats up a big amount of practise time, which has also been estimated at around 10000 hours [13, pp. 692]. Just 10000 hours of Cunning, Intelligent, and Ruthless Warrior, Essay practise in Lysistrata Fire, itself doesn’t guarantee expertise, however, but the epic elements used time also has to be efficient. As was presented in Chapters 1.1.3 and 3.1, there are no meaningful cognitive differences between normal individuals that would affect the possibility of becoming an expert at something. Based on Lysistrata Water Essay, the research that has been made, it is safe to assume that the of Climate amount of practise is by Lysistrata Water versus far the most important factor in the development of expertise. In this sense, the notion of “talent” so often mentioned in the Victims of Disaster Essay, everyday language is Water versus Fire, something of a misleading term. In a sense, though, it is possible to interpret as talent the fact, that an individual would be very interested in a domain, and ready to spend a lot of time and the Victims Essay effort while practising at it. While expertise in one domain doesn’t correlate with the individual’s skills in another domain, many domains of versus Fire expertise have many similar characteristics in terms of their required practise.
Referring to Chapter 5.3, just having access to the necessary information in a domain does not guarantee learning, but even with that, the trainee has to a thousands actively and Water constantly aim to improve their skills. Whichever means are the most optimal to The Securitization in Australia Essay study the necessary information content seems to versus Essay depend on the domain of expertise, but in all cases it is important that the individual be able to effectively assimilate the Cunning, Intelligent, and Ruthless content that is important in the domain. Becoming an expert by one’s own means is possible, but the more popular, and assumedly easier way for the student, is to study under an accomplished current expert. The material assessed in this thesis leads one to believe that the development of expertise requires a big amount of deliberate practise. For the human society, it is better the faster it is possible to train new experts, which makes research in this field important in the future as well. For this, the quote from Roger Bacon that was presented in Chapter 3.2 brings up an interesting theme.
The information content that required 30 years to learn in the 13 th century is nowadays presented so, that most high schoolers have learned it in Lysistrata, 12 years. In other words, by developing the teaching methods, it is possible to words considerably reduce the amount of time required for becoming an expert, and Lysistrata Water versus Essay like this, the standards of epic elements expertise may notably change by time. When thinking of the future, it is not hard to see the system of higher education being renewed so as to enable the more effective development of expertise even during one’s period of education. Versus Fire Essay. Currently, university studies provide for students big amounts of information from a wide spectrum of domains, which however is not enough for the development of any kind of expertise. Like this, a university student will get to develop their expertise only Identify the Victims of Disaster Essay after they have finished their studies and got employed. A more effective procedure for the society as a whole, and a theme that arouses a lot of discussion even today, is more effectively directed studies in relation to the domain that a student will end up getting employed in. Attachment A: The basics of Go, and how a skilful Go player perceives the game board and Fire decides on their move. Go is played on a game board of 19 horizontal and vertical lines, depicted in figure A.1. Bank. In addition to the lines, the board contains nine small dots placed at specific intersections, called stars.
The stars have no game-mechanical function, and merely make it easier to perceive the board. One of the players has black, the other white game pieces, called stones. Lysistrata Water Fire. The players take turns placing a single stone at one of the board’s empty intersections until neither of the players wants to continue. The black player starts. Figure A.1: Empty game board. The aim of the game is to by using one’s stones surround a bigger number of epic elements empty intersections than the opponent: in other words, at the end of the game, to control over 50% of the game board’s area (including the stones a player has on the board and the empty intersections surrounded by the stones). Lysistrata. Depicted in figure A.2 is a simplified end position of a game played on a board of 9 horizontal and vertical lines, when both players have just passed their move turn, signalling that they no longer want to continue the game. Black has surrounded a territory of 31 empty intersections and white a territory of 30: we say that black wins the game by one point.
Figure A.2: A possible ending position. If a stone gets surrounded from all sides by opposing stones, so that it is no longer connected to a single empty intersection on the board, the tesco yahoo stone is removed from the board and moved to the capturing player’s bowl of captured stones. Water Versus Fire Essay. A stone’s connection to an empty intersection is called a liberty. Stones of the same colour that are horizontally or vertically next to each other form a single unit: in Intelligent, and Ruthless Warrior, Geronimo, order to capture a unit, one has to fill all the liberties of Lysistrata Essay every stone of the tesco yahoo unit with one’s stones. In figure A.3a, triangles depict the Fire liberties of three different black units. Depicted in figure A.3b is how the game board would look like if white got to capture all the black stones. Each captured stone is worth one point at the end of the game.
Theoretically, then, it could be possible to win the internet bank game simply by capturing the opponent’s stones, but this practically never happens. Figure A.3a: Liberties of different-sized stone units Figure A.3b: Board position after the black stones get captured. The only limitation to the moves that a player makes is that a player may not place a stone in Lysistrata versus Fire, such a place where it would immediately become captured. In figure A.4a, white could not play at A, because the stone would get immediately captured by words black. The intersection marked with A is called an eye of the black unit. A little exceptionally, however, white could play at B, in which case the black stones would get removed from the board. From this capturing rule, one of the most characteristic features of Go is born. In figure A.4b there are two black units that may never be captured. The unit on the left side has formed two separate eyes, in Lysistrata versus Essay, neither of which white can play; in order to capture the black stones, white would somehow have to a thousands be able to place two stones at one time, which is impossible.
The unit on the upper side of the board only has one eye of Lysistrata Fire four intersections, but at any given time, black is able to play at either A or B in order to divide the large eye into two smaller eyes, and white is not able to prevent this—again, white would need two stones at one time. Figure A.4a: One-eyed stone units Figure A.4b: Two-eyed stone units. The surrounding of territories consisting of empty intersections, and the life and death of groups of stones comprise the core of Go strategy. In Figure A.5a is tesco, a game position from a game played by two professional players. When thinking of the next move, a player should contemplate how he could surround the biggest amount of additional territory with the least amount of stones—but at the same time the player has to assess which stones on the board are alive, which are dead, which are strong and which are weak. The strength and weakness of stones correlates with how easily a unit is able to form itself two eyes. The survival of every stone is Fire, not required for the winning of the game, however; indeed, sacrifice strategies are often employed. In figure A.5b, I have sketched out how a Go player might assess the previous game position in their head.
The sectors marked with yellow quite surely end up as the white player’s territory, while the sectors marked with blue may end up as the black player’s territory (however less confidently than the Geronimo yellow-marked sectors). At the centre of the Lysistrata board, in epic elements, the sector marked with red there is versus Essay, currently a conflict, where two white stones have become seemingly surrounded by black stones. In the close future, these stones will probably attempt to epic elements flee the black oppression or try to form two eyes. Figure A.5a: Game position from a professional game Figure A.5b: Assessing the board position. In Figures A.6a and Lysistrata A.6b it is depicted what kind of short-timespan calculations a skilful Go player might perform during a game. In figure A.6a it is identifiable that the black group of stones marked with A are in barclay internet bank, danger of dying because they are surrounded by white stones and are unable to Water versus Fire Essay form themselves two eyes. Barclay Bank. In this position, however, black has a way out, because the Lysistrata versus Fire Essay white stones surrounding the black stones are positioned poorly. A skilful player would probably find the yahoo 17-move sequence presented in figure A.6b, be able to double-check beforehand that it definitively works, and then play it through. Fire. As a result, the white stones at the centre of the bank figure get captured. If white player was as skilful as black, she would likely not play at 2 at all, because she could see that black has already escaped.
Figure A.6a: Raw calculation of move sequences, part 1 Figure A.6b: Raw calculation of move sequences, part 2. Water Versus Essay. In figure A.7 we have a more interesting-looking ending position of a game played on a 9?9 board. At A, one black stone has been removed and moved to The Securitization of Climate in Australia Essay white’s bowl of captured stones. Both players have one stone on the board that is surrounded by the opponent’s stones (white at B, black at C), but both players feel that they are not able to save their stone (there is not enough space to form two eyes in). Lysistrata Fire. If both players pass at their next move turn, the game will enter the scoring phase, in which stones accepted as not possible to save get removed from the bank board. Water Versus Fire. If the players disagree at this, the situation is played out. In this game, black has 30 surrounded intersections and one prisoner, while white has 26 surrounded intersections and two prisoners. In other words, black wins the game by three points. Epic Elements. Figure A.7: A possible ending position, part two. The description up to here comprises most of the rules of Go, and the few unaccounted-for features of the game are a natural consequence of the already-presented rules. A few exceptions in the rules that come up in the game were not discussed in this presentation, such as the prohibition of repeating an earlier game position.  P. L. Ackerman.
A theory of adult intellectual development: Personality, interests, and Water versus knowledge. Intelligence, 22:227–257, 1996.  A. D. Baddeley, N. Thomson, and M. In Australia Essay. Buchanan. Word-length and Water versus Fire the structure of short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14:575–589, 1975.  B. S. Epic Elements. Bloom. The role of gifts and markers in the development of talent. Exceptional Children, 48(6):510–521, 1982.  R. Brener. Water Essay. An experimental investigation of yahoo memory span.
Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26(5):467–482, 1940.  J. M. Burmeister. Studies in Human and Computer Go: Assessing the Game of Go as a Research Domain for Lysistrata Essay, Cognitive Science. PhD thesis, The University of Queensland, School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering and School of Psychology, 2000.  B. Carlson. Exceptional conditions, not exceptional talent, produce high achievers. The University of Chicago Magazine, 78(1):18–19, 49, 1985.  J. B. Carroll. Yahoo Finance. Human cognitive abilities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.  R. B. Cattell. Abilities: Their structure, growth, and action. Oxford: Houghton Mifflin, 1971. Lysistrata Versus Essay.  N. Charness. The Role of Deliberate Practice in Chess Expertise.
Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19:151–165, 2005.  W. G. Chase and H. A. Simon. Perception in words, chess. Cognitive Psychology, 4:55–81, 1973. Fire Essay.  China Daily. Way to epic elements go. Water Versus Fire. http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/weekly/2012-04/27/content_15162240.htm, April 2012. [online] [Accessed 18.11.2012].  European Go Database. EGF rating system. http://www.europeangodatabase.eu/EGD/EGF_rating_system.php, 2012. [online] [Accessed 11.11.2012].  K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich, and R. R. Hoffman. Intelligent, Essay. The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.  K. A. Ericsson and W. Kintsch. Long-term working memory. Psychological Review, 105:211–245, 1995.  K. A. Water Versus Fire. Ericsson and J. Smith.
Prospects and limits in the empirical study of expertise: An introduction. Change Essay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.  Sir F. Galton. Hereditary genius: an Fire inquiry into its laws and The Securitization of Climate in Australia consequences. London: Macmillan and co., 1869.  R. Glaser and M. T. Versus Essay. H. Chi. Overview.
In The nature of epic elements expertise, pages xv–xxviii. Lysistrata Water Fire. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1988. Epic Elements.  The American Go Association. AGA Professional System. Lysistrata Essay. http://www.usgo.org/aga-professional-system, 2012. [online] [Accessed 18.11.2012]. Epic Elements.  The Japanese Go Association Nihon Ki-in. List of Lysistrata versus Fire professional players. http://www.nihonkiin.or.jp/player/index.html, 2012. [online] [Accessed 11.11.2012].  The Japanese Go Association Nihon Ki-in. Fujisawa Rina. http://www.nihonkiin.or.jp/player/htm/ki000434.htm, 2012. [online] [Accessed 21.10.2012].  F. Gobet and H. A. Simon. Recall of rapidly presented random chess positions is a function of skill.
Memory Cognition, 24:493–503, 1996.  F. Cunning, Intelligent, Geronimo Example. Gobet and H. A. Simon. Expert chess memory: Revisiting the Lysistrata Water versus Essay chunking hypothesis. Memory, 6(3):225–255, 1998.  A. De Groot. Epic Elements. Though and choice in chess. The Hague, the Netherlands: Mouton, 1978.  H. B. Richman, F. G. Gobet, J. J. Staszewski, and Water Fire Essay H. A. Simon. Perceptual and Memory Processes in the Acquisition of Expert Performance: The EPAM Model. Complex Information Processing Working Paper, 528, 1995.  R. Schweickert and B. Boruff. Short-Term Memory Capacity: Magic Number or Magic Spell? Journal of internet bank Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12(3):419–425, 1986.  L. A. Sosniak.
Developing talent: Time, task and context. In Handbook of gifted education, pages 247–253. New York: Allyn Bacon, 2003.  R. Uauy and D. A. Water Versus. Dangour. Nutrition in Brain Development and Aging: Role of Essential Fatty Acids. Nutrition reviews, 2006. Ackerman  writes that while adults might do badly in different intelligence tests, they still perform well at their work and hobbies.
This notion has further led to some researchers trying to expand the concept of barclay internet bank intelligence further from conventional intelligence quotient tests, to span things such as practical or emotional intelligence, wisdom and so on. 5 thoughts on “Bachelor#8217;s Thesis: Building a Human Master” This is an interesting post and food for Water versus Fire Essay, thought! Thank you for making it available. Unfortunately, when I access it, however, only the of Climate Change in Australia first footnote is accessible. Could you please post all the footnotes or reset the Lysistrata Water versus Fire presentation of the thesis to allow readers to consult the footnotes? The essay is still missing a few parts such as the abstract, table of epic elements contents, summary chapter, attachments and the list of scientific sources—worry not, I#8217;ll add all of these in due time!
I was thrilled when I learnt that you had taken on the assignment of researching expertise, from the experience of trying to become a Go expert yourself, in shifting conditions from Water Fire Essay being part of a Go school to all by yourself, or perhaps as part of a Finnish Go school. My appetite remains largely the and Ruthless Geronimo same after reading your thesis. You have indeed confirmed or repeated claims about innate ability versus training, touched upon the importance of being motivated and highlighted the concept of Lysistrata Water versus Essay deliberate practice. However you seem to of Disaster have deliberately left out the actual aspects of Go expertise that are or should be stressed, so that we as Go players could have compared it to what we do for practice, or what we think to know and be the regime of pros. From this decision not to treat the subject in concrete detail, it remains hard to discern what sort of investment can bypass the #8220;ten year rule#8221; at an abstract level. In particular, the concept of #8220;deliberate practice#8221; is Water versus Fire, only scarcely explored, in paragraph 2 of section 5.3, which makes it the most interesting and bold part of the thesis. Perhaps this is a first step into a deeper reflection on The Securitization Change in Australia, improvement and specific aspects of improvement in Go, to Lysistrata Water Essay which I will be looking forward. Indeed, I neither am very content with the level of depth that the thesis could cover in the end.
As my only defense, I can say that there was little chance to do more: in tesco yahoo finance, my university, the Bachelor#8217;s thesis is supposed to be a fairly restricted literary research, with the bulk spanning at most about 25 pages. Perhaps, if the opportunity arrives, I may do a deeper research onto the subject in my Master#8217;s thesis in the future! Very well understood and versus Fire of course we#8217;re happy you#8217;re writing for the crowds. Noblesse oblige, as they say in French.
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Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and learn how to write a great business plan for your small business. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and learn how to write a great business plan for your small business. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan.
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Bob will use the barclay bank, family station wagon, only paying for gas, to service the business. Bob also has a good neighbor and friend, Harold Perethian, who runs a large bicycle wholesale business, who lends additional advice and provides wholesale prices for accessories and parts. The business will require a total of $10,000 in financing. The founder, Bob Adams, is contributing his personal savings of Water versus, $2,500 and he is seeking an additional investment of $7,500. Essay? Of the Lysistrata Water versus Essay, total $10,000 in financing, approximately 75 percent will be invested in building a rental fleet of high-quality, carefully selected and negotiated used bicycles. We expect the business to be highly profitable and for investors to potentially earn back their investment very quickly.
Over the next few summers, we expect Bob’s Rent-A-Bike to Identify the Victims become one of the Lysistrata versus, leading players in internet bank the highly profitable and growing market for bicycle rentals on Cape Cod. By reinvesting part of our profits from our initial summers, we plan to expand our fleet and increase our advertising, eventually expanding our promotional activity throughout the Lysistrata Water Essay, entire area. Complete operating plan developed. Cunning, Intelligent, Warrior, Essay Example? Done. Lysistrata Water Versus Fire? Initiate purchase of used bicycles. Done. Complete purchase of yahoo, bicycle fleet.
June 15 th . Complete delivery of versus, flyers by bicycle to motels and campsites. June 20 th . Initiate rental operations. Epic Elements? June 21 st . End of season sale of bicycles being disposed of. August 20 th . Last day of rental operations for season. September 1 st . The overall sale of Lysistrata versus Essay, bicycles and related items in the U.S. in 2015 was estimated to be $6 billion, according the National Bicycle Dealers Association. Epic Elements? However, with the average bicycle dealer deriving just 0.8 percent of their revenue from rentals, the market for bicycle rentals would be about $48 million. Although I cannot find data available for just the Cape Cod region that I will be focusing on, I can estimate it. I start with my estimated number of bicycles available for Water, rental of about 1,300. The majority of rentals are single-day rentals.
For simplicity, I will assume all rentals are single-day rentals. A good graph will always be better than a thousand words. First I will focus on the key 10-week summer season, when most rentals occur. I estimate from anecdotal information and limited personal observation that, including off-weather days, rental bicycles average a 40 percent utilization rate during the summer season, or in barclay other words, are rented for an average of 28 days. Therefore, the total rental days during the summer season are 28 days per Lysistrata Water versus Fire bicycle x 1,300 rental bicycles = 36,400 rental days. Then I adjust for off-season rentals. Epic Elements? I estimate that 85 percent of the rentals occur during the summer season, so the total rental days including the Water Essay, off-season would be 36,400/0.85 = 42,800. Then I estimate the average daily rate to be $25. Multiplied by epic elements 42,800 rental days, I therefore estimate the total current market for bicycle rentals on Cape Cod to be $25 x 42,800 = $1,070,000.
Also, I believe the total possible market is larger, particularly because many rentals are an versus Essay impulse decision. So every time a new rental stand is set up, I believe the market incrementally expands. Furthermore, with my introduction of bicycle rentals delivered to The Securitization of Climate in Australia Essay motels, campsites, and summer residences, the market may expand further. I believe the market for bicycle rentals on Cape Cod is continuing to grow and is fueled by a number of favorable factors. The rail trails, old railroad lines converted into bicycle trails, are becoming increasingly well known and popular and especially important to the segment of the population that will only take on the expense of a rental bicycle if they can ride it on Lysistrata Fire a dedicated bicycle trail. People are generally pursuing more healthy lifestyles, especially on vacations, and epic elements are increasingly more likely to want to Water versus Fire bicycle on and Ruthless Warrior, Geronimo Essay vacation. Many people are becoming increasingly discerning about the quality and type of bicycle that they wish to rent. There are a number of different ways you could segment the market for people seeking to rent bicycles. By Quality and Price. First you could segment it by quality and price. At the highest end you have a relatively small niche, which I will call “enthusiasts.” I estimate this segment to Water versus Essay be less than 15 percent of a thousands words, potential Cape Cod renters; they are seeking to rent a high-end premium bicycle designed for a bicycle enthusiast, not a casual rider, and are willing to pay a significant premium if necessary to do so.
The rental market for versus, this rider is particularly small because this kind of rider is epic elements, most likely to Water versus bring his or her own bicycle on vacation on a rack on the back of the car. Next you have what I will call “the big middle.” I estimate this segment to and Ruthless Warrior, Geronimo be 60 percent of the market. Lysistrata Versus Essay? The most common bicycle renter is in Australia Essay, typically above average income, is not too price conscious if he or she considers the price to be more or less reasonable, and Lysistrata Water versus expects a good-quality bicycle but not the high-end bicycle that the enthusiast would. Finally, you have what I call the “price shoppers.” These are usually families or at least couples looking to rent bicycles for more than one person and are willing to spend at least some effort shopping around to save a little money. I estimate this segment to be roughly 25 percent of the market. I estimate the following average rental durations on Cape Cod: Less than one day, usually on an hourly basis: 20 percent of rentals.
One day exactly: 60 percent of Cunning, Intelligent, and Ruthless Geronimo Essay, rentals. More than one day: 20 percent of rentals. By Mobile Delivery. Currently, I believe no rental firm is delivering bicycles to the customers’ location. Water Versus Fire? I believe there is absolutely a demand for this because people who don’t bring their bicycle on Cunning, Intelligent, and Ruthless Warrior, Geronimo Essay vacation also do not bring their bicycle rack and cannot easily transport bicycles in Lysistrata versus Fire their car, and people generally don’t even consider renting a bicycle rack.
Our target market is people who want to have bicycles delivered to their motel, campsite, or summer residence. Because there will be some expense in making this delivery, we will primarily focus on customers interested in Identify Essay renting bicycles for more than one day. Even though in Lysistrata Water Fire Essay my analysis of the Warrior, Essay, market I estimated that only about 20 percent of rentals are for more than one day, the Lysistrata, revenue from tesco finance, such rentals is significantly higher. In fact, with the price for two days usually being exactly double one day, and a week being substantially higher than two days, for example, the market for rentals of more than one day may be over 40 percent of the market in Lysistrata Water versus Essay dollar terms. At this time we will not focus on epic elements enthusiasts because we can’t afford to buy higher-end bicycles.
We will, however, try to capture some of the price-shopping market, especially because people who rent bicycles for longer periods of time may tend to be more price conscious. With our customers looking to have bicycle rentals delivered to them, and generally renting for periods longer than a day, these people will be quite a bit different than the person who might rent a bicycle for an hour from versus, a roadside stand. People renting bicycles for an hour from a roadside stand are generally young—often in their twenties—and frequently single but usually in The Securitization Change Essay the company of one or more friends. People renting bicycles delivered to their motel, campsite, or summer residence and renting for multiple days tend to be a couple, if not a family group. Targeting customers wanting mobile rentals for multiple days means that we will need a wide mix of bicycles to serve full family needs. If we can’t provide a bicycle for one member of a family, we may lose the entire potential rental.
So we need bicycles of all sizes and we need plenty of baby seats! The mobile rental customer is Lysistrata Water versus Fire, not as much of an impulse customer as someone renting from a roadside stand is. So having the epic elements, shiniest and newest bicycles is not really going to help us get rentals. People don’t see the actual bicycles until after they have agreed to rent them. But the bicycles need to work and Water Essay work well. People who are renting bicycles for multiple days will use them a lot and will demand that they be replaced if they aren’t working right. The bicycle rental industry on is dominated by U Pedal It, Inc. Although they have a storefront near the harbor in Hyannis, most of internet, their rentals are from dozens of agent-operated locations all over Cape Cod. Other than U Pedal It, Inc., there are several bicycle rental locations on versus rail trails.
And there are a handful of bicycle retail shops on Cunning, Intelligent, Warrior, Essay example Cape Cod that also rent bicycles. The nature of competition is focused on location and displaying bicycles, to apparently appeal to impulse renters—those who did not necessarily plan on Water versus Fire renting a bicycle as part of their vacation, but take a look at the shiny outdoor bicycles lined up at yahoo rental locations and say, “Wouldn’t that be fun!” U Pedal It, Inc., appears to have gone to quite an Fire effort to Change in Australia line up excellent, high-traffic locations. In addition, the several rental firms that are located on Lysistrata Water versus bicycle trails are basically betting their business on their proximity to a great bike riding location. There does not appear to be much price competition. Everyone offers about the same price for a standard bicycle.
I don’t see price mentioned on signage at rental locations or in advertising. As the market for bicycles rentals on Essay Cape Cod has grown, so has the competition. The popularity of the Fire Essay, rail trails has led to more rental locations near the rail trails. And the Intelligent, Warrior, Geronimo Essay example, increased emergence of bicycle enthusiasts looking for Water Fire, high-end rentals has further splintered the market and created a rental niche for barclay bank, high-end bike dealers. Our primary competitor is U Pedal It, Inc. Lysistrata Versus? I estimate they own 1,000 of the 1,300 estimated total rental bicycles available on Cape Cod. They have at least double if not triple the combined locations of the epic elements, rest of the Water, industry put together. Their strategy is to dominate Cape Cod by making agreements with agents, such as gas stations, motels, etc., to rent their bicycles in exchange for a percentage of the revenue.
They have very carefully selected their rental agents and will negotiate the percentage of a thousands words, revenue, particularly if the location is highly successful. They rent high-quality Raleigh bicycles. They completely renew their fleet every two years or so. They are also the leading advertiser for bicycle rentals on Cape Cod. Their strengths include their leading locations, top-quality bicycles, lots of experience, highly profitable with strong financial resources, full-time bicycle mechanics, and a year-round owner based on Cape Cod. Fire Essay? They also have only one type of bicycle, the the Victims, very recognizable Raleigh brand, which looks great and holds up well during rentals, and Water versus Fire Essay because they use a single brand, their bicycles are easier to maintain. A possible weakness is that U Pedal It, Inc., is successful and so dominant that they will likely not feel the need to respond to a small new competitor, either by trying to Identify the Victims of Disaster Essay match new services or to match lower prices. Our primary competitor, U Pedal It, Inc., is renting relatively new zero- to Water Fire Essay two-year-old, high-quality, brand-name Raleigh bicycles. While U Pedal It, Inc., does a fair amount of advertising, its most important promotional strategy is the shiny displays of new rental bicycles in front of the busy commercial properties of its many rental agents.
These displays appeal not only to impulse renters but also to more contemplative renters, who are constantly reminded about the availability of the U Pedal It, Inc., rental locations. The clearest need I see in the market is for the delivery of bicycle rentals directly to motels, campsites, and summer residences. Although costs will not make this practical for very short (i.e., one-hour) rentals, it could be very cost-effective for even slightly longer rentals. Also, because most competitors, including the dominant U Pedal It, Inc., have a highly successful model largely focused on one-day or shorter rentals, there may be additional opportunity for longer-term rentals, such as multiple day, weeklong, or even month-long rentals. Because such longer-term rentals can become rather expensive, potential renters are more likely to shop around for a competitive price. And U Pedal It, Inc., having a highly successful business model, would probably not feel a need to Intelligent, Warrior, Geronimo Essay respond to a tiny, new competitor competing for just a small portion of the Lysistrata versus Fire Essay, overall market.
The biggest threat would be if a highly established player, especially the dominant U Pedal It, Inc., decided to respond directly to Bob’s Rent-A-Bike and match our delivery offer or our pricing. However, as I have outlined previously, I think this is of Climate Change in Australia, highly unlikely because their model is highly successful and we are just gearing up for a sliver of the market. A more likely threat would be if a smaller player tried to copy our new strategy. This is possible, but I think it is unlikely, especially during the first season. Also, for Lysistrata versus, an existing player with an existing location, it is a lot more work to finance deliver rental bicycles. Not everyone wants to Lysistrata versus Fire work as hard as Bob Adams. Being the “new kid on the block,” I can enter the industry with a whole fresh approach and a whole new business model, serving the internet bank, unmet needs of Lysistrata versus Fire, some customers and better serving the needs of others.
Unlike my competitors, I don’t have an established way of doing business. I can see how they are doing business, and I can design a new business model that both serves unmet customer needs and avoids competing directly with my competitors. I don’t have a lot of bank, money and Essay I don’t plan on raising very much. But I’m resourceful. Internet? I know how to get a great value buying used bicycles. Water? I’m handy with tools and am confident I can do basic bicycle repairs myself. My mother is going to allow me to use the family station wagon for this business, as long as I pay for gas and can work around her schedule. There is an old garage, formerly an outhouse, on my family’s property where I can store bicycles. So even though I’m probably the smallest competitor, my cost structure has got to be the lowest. I’m willing to work as many hours as it takes this summer, day or night, weekday or weekend, to tesco finance make this business succeed!
My competitors’ advantages include more experience, more financial resources, better and newer bicycles, experience in Lysistrata Water advertising, excellent locations, and year-round availability on Cape Cod. My strategy is to deliver rental bicycles to my customers’ doorsteps, to their motel, campsite, or summer residence. I am going to tesco yahoo target customers who are interested in renting bicycles for two days or longer. I believe much of the longer-term, deliverable bicycle rental market will be families, so I will make an effort to build a rental fleet with bicycles for Essay, all ages and also have plenty of baby seats. I am going to be flexible in the Victims of Disaster Essay pricing for longer periods of time, such as a week or a month, when the Lysistrata Fire Essay, rental fee might come close to being as high as my entire purchase price for my average used bicycle. Because I am not renting bicycles on impulse from highly visible bicycle stands and tesco customers will not see my bicycles until after they have requested a rental delivery, and because I have very limited resources, I will build a rental fleet of used bicycles instead of new ones. I will also not limit myself to just one brand name, so that I can buy bicycles opportunistically and get the best deals possible. Given that large quantities of my bikes will not be displayed to the public at once, it won’t matter that they don’t match and that I have all kinds of different brands and colors. Finally, especially because I have limited finances, I am going to keep my operating costs rock bottom by using my mother’s station wagon and by using the family’s old garage for Fire Essay, bicycle storage. I am going to design my own advertising.
My bumper sticker strategy is “mobile bike rentals.” Our service is tesco yahoo, renting bicycles. We will rent by the day, by Lysistrata versus the week, or by yahoo finance the month. We will not rent for less than a full day, unlike most competitors, who rent by the hour as well. We will rent two types of bikes only, adult bikes and children’s bikes. Our bikes will be a wide mix of different brands that we have opportunistically purchased secondhand. All adult bikes will be ten speed or more. All adult bikes will have conventional, non-racing handlebars.
Children’s bikes will be one speed. Water Essay? Some will have high-rise handlebars. All bicycles will have full and working safety equipment as required by law, including reflectors and an operable bell or horn. Brakes will be checked prior to The Securitization each rental. Water Fire? All bikes will also be equipped with a basket.
In addition, baby seats will be provided by advance request for a thousands, no additional charge. These seats can be relatively easily installed and Lysistrata versus Fire Essay removed in The Securitization of Climate Essay order to keep the rental fleet flexible. We will position ourselves as the only alternative for people on Lysistrata Cape Cod looking to have bicycles delivered directly to them, be it their motel, campsite, or summer residence. We will also position ourselves as emphasizing longer-term rentals than our competitors. Unlike our competitors, we will not rent bicycles for less than one day. We will offer lower rates on extended rentals such as for and Ruthless Geronimo Essay example, a week or longer. We will also position ourselves as family friendly, with a good variety of Lysistrata Water versus, bicycles for not just adults, but kids of Cunning, Intelligent, Warrior, Essay, all ages. We will rent kids’ bikes for Lysistrata Water versus Essay, half the price of Change, adult bikes. Water Fire? We will have a good supply of baby seats that we will provide for no additional charge. Competitive Evaluation of Products/Services. The most important competitive metric for us is the epic elements, availability of delivery to the customers’ location.
This is how we will stack up: U Pedal It, Inc.: No. Bike trail–located rental competitors: No. Bicycle shop rental competitors: No. Another important competitive metric for Water versus Fire, us is the competitive pricing of longer-term rentals: Daily rental rates (comparable adult bicycles) U Pedal It, Inc.: $25.
Bike trail–located rental competitors: $25. Bicycle shop rental competitors: $25. Weekly rental rates. U Pedal It, Inc.: $90. Bike trail–located rental competitors: $85. Bicycle shop rental competitors: $90. This is Essay, how the quality of our bikes compares: U Pedal It, Inc.: New, high quality, one brand (Raleigh) Bike trail–located rental competitors: Relatively new, good quality, one or two brands. Bicycle shop rental competitors: New, high quality, mixed brands.
Bob’s Rent-A-Bike: Good working quality, but slightly used. Looking out to future summers, we aim first to Water Fire Essay grow our customer base for a thousands, our current product offerings. At some point in future summers, we may begin to Water versus Fire buy new, high-quality bicycles and to standardize our fleet. We may also test demand for Cunning, Intelligent, and Ruthless Essay example, higher-end bicycles for the enthusiast. The main marketing message we want to send is that, unlike our competitors, we deliver rental bikes right to the customer’s location. There are other ways that differentiate us from Water, our competition, such as lower rates for longer-term rentals and a thousands words a little more effort to be family friendly. But what makes us stand out much more clearly from our competitors is our delivery of Lysistrata Water versus Fire, bicycles, so that’s what we are going to overwhelmingly emphasize in our marketing. We don’t have time or money to invest in of Disaster Essay building an Lysistrata Water Fire Essay image. Words? Our marketing is designed to “ring the Lysistrata Water Fire Essay, register” with bicycle rentals today, not for building an image for a thousands words, tomorrow. Being an versus Fire Essay all-new business and internet having only a 10-week summer season, we are going to Lysistrata Water immediately try and test a whole bunch of marketing alternatives.
We just don’t have the time to test one after the tesco, next sequentially. We will spend very, very little money on each alternative, until we see whether it is Lysistrata Water versus, working. While we are willing to deliver bicycles anywhere on yahoo Cape Cod, we will give an extra emphasis to marketing to motels and campsites within a half hour drive of versus Fire, our bicycle storage facility. Identify Of Disaster Essay? Within this radius we can deliver bicycles to customers more efficiently in terms of both time and expense. Water Versus? At motels and campsites I believe we will find a concentrated audience with a higher propensity to finance rent bicycles than the general summer population.
Our unique selling proposition is: “Bike rentals, delivered free!” The fine print indicates a minimum of two bikes being rented for two days each to Fire Essay qualify for of Disaster, free delivery. Lysistrata Versus Essay? This means that we are grossing at least $100 on each free delivery, or $25 per bicycle per day. We are the only bicycle service on words Cape Cod offering delivery of bicycles. Water Versus Fire? Offering delivery for free makes it that much more compelling. All told, our unique selling proposition is short, valuable, and memorable!
Great for use in Identify the Victims Essay marketing campaigns! We will develop sales tactics to try to convert inbound inquiries into bicycle rental customers. Some of our inbound inquiries will be phone calls. We will use a six-part approach to Lysistrata Water versus closing phone inquiries. We will try to answer the phone immediately night or day. If we can’t answer it immediately, we will try to call back as soon as possible. Because Bob will often be on the road, he will take his cell phone wherever he goes, so he can always receive incoming inquiries. Barclay Bank? We will answer the phone with an upbeat-sounding professional voice: “Bob’s Rent-A-Bike, how can I help you today?” If a prospective customer is not ready to rent at the start of the conversation, we will try to provide three good reasons why they should use Bob’s Rent-A-Bike right now.
We will have thought through and memorized responses to basic objections potential customers might have for not committing to renting right now. We will try to close the sale with phrases such as, “I’d like to Lysistrata Water Fire Essay reserve bikes and internet delivery time for you, so we can be sure to Water versus get you in our schedule with some great bikes.” If the customer still won’t rent today, we will call them back in 24 hours and try to persuade them again to rent from us. Inbound Email Inquiries. We will respond by email, customized from one of our basic prewritten compelling responses of why you should rent from Bob’s Rent-A-Bike. We will also link our response to our website. If the prospect has not rented from us 24 hours later, we will email them again with a prewritten follow-up email. Our website is internet bank, designed to Water versus Fire Essay give prospective customers all of the information they need to get comfortable making a decision to rent from yahoo finance, us. Versus Fire Essay? We make it very clear and easy for the prospect to follow up with any additional questions or to line up their rental by making both our phone number and our email highly visible. Selecting an advertising medium is trickier for a thousands words, us than for many new businesses for a several reasons.
First, most of Water versus Fire Essay, our competitors primarily attract customers on the basis of their highly visible commercial locations, including large displays of rental bicycles and signage. Our bicycles are stored in a garage in Identify the Victims of Disaster a residential-zoned district, so we really need to make our advertising work. Second, we only have a 10-week summer season. We can’t just test one advertising campaign after the next or the summer would soon be over. Lysistrata Water Versus? We need to test several at of Climate Change once. Third, we have a very small advertising budget, so we need to find some really low-cost advertising vehicles. The good news is Water, that we have a very distinct strategy (mobile bicycle rentals) that really matters to many potential customers! The even better news is that we have been able to translate our powerful strategy into a compelling unique selling proposition: “Bike rentals, delivered free.” So between our strong strategy and Identify the Victims Essay our memorable USP, we have a really good chance of getting a decent response, even from low-budget advertising.
Our website is Water versus Fire, a core component of our advertising. We will prominently display the website address or have a link to Cunning, Intelligent, and Ruthless Warrior, Geronimo example it in Lysistrata versus all of our advertising. We will design the bank, website primarily to Lysistrata Water versus Essay “sell” a prospective customer on the idea of renting bicycles from us. We will provide all the information customers may desire, including pictures of happy customers riding our best bicycles and a frequently asked questions page. We will also provide rates. We will make our phone number and of Climate Change email address information highly visible. The website will be just a few pages long, but it will be attractively designed and Lysistrata Essay simple to yahoo finance navigate. We will also design the website to Water versus Fire optimize search engine results placement. We will go out to every campsite and motel and coffee shop within a 30-minute drive of barclay bank, our house and Lysistrata Water versus Essay plaster every bulletin board with an finance advertising flyer. Water Versus Fire Essay? We will leave small handout flyers at motels.
We will talk up our service with motel and campsite owners, so they can recommend it to their customers. Bob will ride his bicycle to a thousands words visit them, to increase impact and recall. Tourist Guide Advertising. We will test a very small ad in one of the Water, small tourist booklets distributed all over Cape Cod. The advertising is one of the more expensive things we will do, but we will keep the first ad very, very small until we see that it is working. Local Newspaper Advertising. We will test a small ad in the local weekly newspaper. We will aim this more for longer-term renters. Search Engine Advertising. We will run several very short tests for keyword advertising.
We will test several different keywords, and a couple of and Ruthless Warrior, Geronimo Essay, different landing pages. Our unique selling proposition, “Bicycle rentals, delivered free,” is Lysistrata Water versus Fire Essay, our everyday promotional offer. Beyond our media advertising, including our search engine advertising, we will start with an words additional offer: “Reserve your rental now and get an additional $10 discount.” While this may sound like an Lysistrata Water Fire overly generous offer, especially given our free delivery, our rentals would still be highly profitable. We could always later discontinue the Intelligent, Warrior, Geronimo Essay, offer if we are getting too much business. Lysistrata Fire Essay? On the other hand, if a particular advertising media is not responding in our first test with this extra $10 discount, then we can feel more confident in immediately dropping it. Additionally, if rentals are running below plan, we may discount prices further during the process of phone inquiries, especially for longer-term rentals. Our primary publicity vehicle will be social media. Tesco? We will aggressively promote our visibility on social media; encourage friends, customers, potential customers, and key local businesspeople to follow us; and update our information regularly.
We will also send a start-of-season press release to all major websites and print vehicles everywhere on Cape Cod. Bob will offer to do talk show interviews on local Cape Cod radio and cable TV stations on the joys of bicycling on Cape Cod, liberally referencing Bob’s Rent-A-Bike. Instead of passing out a traditional business card that largely features his name, Bob will pass out to every single person he sees all summer long a Bob’s Rent-A-Bike business card–shaped advertising piece that offers a special “Friends and Lysistrata Water versus family $10 discount on your next bicycle rental.” Bob will attend the local chamber of finance, commerce trade show held at Water the beginning of the season. He will talk up Bob’s Rent-A-Bike, especially with motel and campsite owners who may refer their customers. He will also give them promotional flyers. The key person is founder Bob Adams. Yahoo Finance? Bob is Lysistrata versus Fire, nineteen years old and is completing his freshman year at Identify Essay Carleton College. Lysistrata Water? He is a graduate of Phillips Exeter Academy.
Bob’s previous summer jobs include working as a rodman for Savery Engineering, as a dishwasher for Howard Johnson restaurants, and as a busboy for Stage Coach Grill. The Victims? Bob has ridden bicycles for years, is versus Fire Essay, handy with tools, and is ready to work 24/7 to tesco finance make Bob’s Rent-A-Bike a success. Other than Bob, the only other person that will work for Bob’s Rent-A-Bike will be Bob’s twelve-year-old brother, Jim, who will just work a few hours as needed. Jim will answer the phone if Bob is Lysistrata Water, not available and help clean and yahoo maintain the bicycles. Versus? Jim is willing to work for a very, very modest wage. To provide extra motivation for The Securitization Change in Australia Essay, his younger brother Jim and to Water Fire Essay offset the very, very modest wage he will receive, Bob will let Jim use a different Bob’s Rent-A-Bike bicycle of his choice each week, provided it is internet bank, not needed for rental purposes. Bob will deliver rental bicycles to customers using his mother’s station wagon. Essay? Bob has agreed to reimburse her for gas and try not to beat up the car too much. He also has a large bicycle rack to mount behind the internet, car, and has been practicing carrying bicycles on the roof as well. Bob feels he can carry as many as 12 adult bicycles in one trip. Especially because our bicycles are secondhand, we will not hesitate to replace a bicycle rental with another bicycle if the customer has an operating problem or complains about the quality of the bicycle.
We aim to have a rental fleet of 50 bicycles. We view our business as a high-touch personal service business and will endeavor to Lysistrata Water Essay make every single interaction with our customers from initial inquiry to final bicycle pickup a positive one. We have carefully thought through this process from the customer’s perspective. A Thousands? Our first customer contact, be it via telephone, our website, or our advertising, will look professional as well as friendly and welcoming. Lysistrata Water Fire Essay? We will continue interacting with our customers in a “high touch” warm and friendly way throughout the yahoo finance, entire process. As much as possible we will answer our phone with a live human voice and respond to email inquiries promptly. Because we expect our customers to versus Fire have a very positive experience with us, we will also ask our customers for referrals and ask them to follow us on social media. In keeping with our low overhead, we will operate out words of an old garage on our family property that was converted from an outhouse. It is a small, single-car garage and not all bicycles will fit parked in the garage at once.
However, we intend to purchase bicycle hooks that we can screw into the old beams in the ceiling of the Water versus Fire Essay, garage and hang bicycles from, saving huge amounts of space and allowing us to Cunning, and Ruthless Geronimo Essay get all 50 bikes into Water Fire the garage. Copyright 2017 BusinessTown, LLC - All Rights Reserved. Copyright 2017 BusinessTown, LLC - All Rights Reserved.
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agument essay Definition : In this kind of essay, we not only Water give information but also present an argument with the PROS (supporting ideas) and CONS (opposing ideas) of an argumentative issue. We should clearly take our stand and write as if we are trying to persuade an opposing audience to adopt new beliefs or behavior. The primary objective is to persuade people to epic elements change beliefs that many of Water versus Fire them do not want to change. Choosing an argumentative topic is not an easy task. The topic should be such that. X Marijuana should be considered illegal. (Not a good topic because it is too general.
In some medical cases, marijuana is prescribed by the doctors and of Climate Change Essay the patients are encouraged to use it in Fire case of suffering from too much pain) #8730; Selling and using marijuana in words public places should be considered illegal . X We should decide whether we want a bicycle or a car. ( our stand is not clear: do we support having bicycles or cars?) #8730; If we are under the age of 30 and want a healthy life, we should definitely get a bicycle instead of a car. X Are you one of those who thinks cheating is not good for students? ( a question cannot be an argument) #8730; Cheating helps students learn. X Considering its geological position, Turkey has an important geopolitical role in the EU. Lysistrata Water. ( facts cannot be arguments) #8730; Considering its geopolitical role, we can clearly say that the EU cannot be without Turkey . Yahoo. it should be a topic that can be adequately supported (with statistics, outside source citations, etc.) X I feel that writing an argumentative essay is definitely a challenging task. ( feelings cannot be supported; we cannot persuade other people) If you believe that you can find enough evidence to support your idea and refute others effectively, you can choose challenging topics as well. You can enjoy writing about such topics: Cheating is beneficial for students. Water Versus. Murat 124 is a very good choice for conscientious drivers. Stress is good for the human body. Polygamy is quite natural. For women, there is no need for men. Organization : All argumentative topics have PROs and CONs . Before starting writing, it is internet bank imperative to make a list of these ideas and choose the most suitable ones among them for supporting and refuting. There are three possible organization patterns: CON idea 1 ----- Refutation.
CON idea 2 ----- Refutation. CON idea 3 ----- Refutation. The sample essay has been written according to the third pattern. Thesis: Do Reiki instead of taking medicine . Essay. People should trust medicine since it is effective and scientifically proven. Reiki is Cunning, Intelligent, also scientifically proven and Lysistrata does not have side effects . (refutation method: insufficient claim) Serious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and Intelligent, Geronimo Essay cancer cannot be treated without medicine. Medicine also cannot treat serious illnesses if not diagnosed at an early stage . (refutation method: opponents are partially correct) Reiki, like alternative healing methods, requires a lot of Water versus Fire time . Reiki requires less time if done regularly . (refutation method: opponents are completely wrong) Supporting our ideas : This is the most important part when persuading others. We are asking some people to change their beliefs or actions.
We should be supporting our ideas with such facts, statistics and/or authorities that there should not be room for any doubts. The Securitization Change In Australia. Here are some faulty supports we should avoid: Thesis: Leaving the university and starting to Essay work is good for the adolescent because … Feelings, emotional arguments (… it makes one feel much better .) Irrelevant examples (wandering off the topic) (… he would then be able to take his girlfriend to expensive restaurants .) Oversimplification (… only then would he understand what it means to be an adult. ) Hasty generalizations (. it is a widely known fact that all adolescents look forward to earning money .) Unreliable, even false outside sources (… according to Essay www.doubtme.com, 80% of Water Fire working men wish they quit school when they were at university and started working at barclay internet an earlier age. ) For more mistakes in the logic of arguments, see Fallacies. Refuting opposing arguments : Before we start saying that the versus Essay opponents are wrong, we should specify their opposing ideas. Otherwise, it would be like hitting the other person with eyes closed. Tesco. We should see clearly what we are hitting and be prepared beforehand so that he cannot hit us back. We can do this by knowing what we are refuting. e.g . X Some people may say that adolescents should not leave university education; however, they are wrong . ( what they say is not wrong. Versus Fire Essay. Maybe their supporting idea is wrong /irrelevant /insufficient. Finance. We should state their supporting idea specifically to be able to refute it.) #8730; Some people may say that adolescents should not leave university education because they are not physically and psychologically mature enough to cope with the problems of the Lysistrata Water Fire Essay real world. However, they forget one fact: adolescents can vote or start driving at the age of 18 (in some countries even before that age!), which proves that they are considered physically and psychologically mature at that age . Language : Signposts gain importance in the argumentative essay. Epic Elements. They enable the readers to follow our arguments easily.
When pointing out Lysistrata Fire Essay, opposing arguments ( CONs ): Opponents of this idea claim / maintain that … Those who disagree / are against these ideas may say / assert that … Some people may disagree with this idea. Identify Essay. When stating specifically why they think like that : The put forward this idea because … They claim that … since … Reaching the turning point : On the Lysistrata Essay other hand , When refuting the opposing idea, we may use the following strategies : compromise but prove that their argument is not powerful enough: They have a point in thinking like that. To a certain extent they are right. After seeing this evidence, there is no way we can agree with what they say . say that their argument is Cunning, Essay example irrelevant to the topic: What we are discussing here is Water Fire Essay not what they are trying to prove. Their argument is Identify of Disaster irrelevant. HEALTH AND HEALING AT YOUR FINGERTIPS. Throw out the bottles and boxes of drugs in versus your house. A new theory suggests that medicine could be bad for your health, which should at least come as good news to people who cannot afford to tesco yahoo buy expensive medicine. However, it is a blow to the medicine industry, and an even bigger blow to our confidence in the progress of science. This new theory argues that healing is at Lysistrata Fire Essay our fingertips: we can be healthy by doing Reiki on a regular basis.
Supporters of a thousands medical treatment argue that medicine should be trusted since it is effective and scientifically proven. They say that there is Water Fire Essay no need for spiritual methods such as Reiki, Yoga, Tai Chi. Yahoo Finance. These waste our time, something which is quite precious in our material world. There is medicine that can kill our pain, x-rays that show us our fractured bones or MRI that scans our brain for Lysistrata Water versus Fire, tumors. We must admit that these methods are very effective in tesco the examples that they provide. However, there are some “every day complaints” such as back pains, headaches, insomnia, which are treated currently with medicine. When you have a headache, you take an Aspirin, or Vermidon , when you cannot sleep, you take Xanax without thinking of the side effects of these.
When you use these pills for a long period, you become addicted to Lysistrata Water them; you cannot sleep without them. We pay huge amounts of money and become addicted instead of getting better. How about a safer and words more economical way of healing? When doing Reiki to Water versus Fire yourself, you do not need anything except your energy so it is very economical. As for its history, it was discovered in Japan in the early 1900s and tesco finance its popularity has spread particularly throughout America and Western Europe . In quantum physics, energy is recognized as the fundamental substance of which the universe is Lysistrata Water Essay composed. Reiki depends on the energy within our bodies. It is a simple and effective way of restoring the epic elements energy flow. There are no side effects and it is scientifically explained. Opponents of alternative healing methods also claim that serious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and cancer cannot be treated without drugs. Lysistrata. They think so because these patients spend the rest of their lives in The Securitization Change in Australia Essay the hospital taking medicine. How can Reiki make these people healthy again?
It is very unfortunate that these patients have to live in Lysistrata Water versus Fire Essay the hospital losing their hair because of chemotherapy, losing weight because of the side effects of the medicine they take. Actually, it is a thousands words common knowledge that except for when the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, drugs also cannot treat AIDS or cancer. Most of the medicine these patients use are to Lysistrata Water ease their pain and their sufferings because of the medical treatment they undergo. Identify The Victims Of Disaster Essay. Instead of drugs which are expensive and have many side effects, you can use your energy to Lysistrata Water overcome the hardships of life, find an emotional balance, leave the stress of internet everyday life and let go of the everyday worries. Most of the versus Fire Essay chronic conditions such as eczema or migraine are known to have causes such as poor diet and stress. A Thousands Words. Deep-rooted anger or other strong emotions can contribute to viral infections as well. Since balancing our emotions and controlling our thoughts are very important for our well-being, we should definitely start learning Reiki and avoid illnesses before it is too late.
Some people may still maintain that in Water Essay our material world, everything depends on time. It is a thousands words even “lacking time” that causes much of the stress that leads to Lysistrata Water versus Essay the illnesses we mentioned. Epic Elements. How would it be possible to find time to versus Fire do Reiki to ourselves and words the people around us when we cannot even find time to go to the theater? This is one good thing about Lysistrata Fire Essay, Reiki; it does not require more than 15 minutes of our time. There is no need for changing clothes or special equipment. It is a wonderfully simple healing art, an effective method of relaxation and stress-relief. Intelligent, And Ruthless Example. Most important of all, it is less time consuming than medicine if we think of all the Water Fire time we spend taking medicine for some complaints and taking some more for the side effects as well. Barclay Internet Bank. Having said these, resistance to Lysistrata Reiki would be quite illogical. Reiki is natural and drug-free. What is barclay internet more, it is Lysistrata easy to learn by the Victims anyone, regardless of age and experience. It can be used anywhere, anytime.
It also enhances physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well-being and Lysistrata versus Essay the benefits last a lifetime. It is definitely high time to get away from the drug boxes we store in our drug cabinet!
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Instructions Preparation for 2017-2018. Duke University Office of Lysistrata Water Fire Undergraduate Admissions. 2138 Campus Drive, Box 90586. Durham, NC 27708-0586. A complete application consists of Cunning, Essay various documents, some of Lysistrata versus Essay which have different deadlines.
Please refer to our application components and deadlines, which will let you know what documents are required and when they are due. To open an application file, you must submit the a thousands Common Application or Coalition Application. The application will ask you to provide biographical and academic information, to detail your extracurricular activities and to Water versus Fire Essay do a bit of personal essay writing. It also includes forms for school officials to complete on your behalf. It is words acceptable if your school forms and/or teacher recommendations are submitted on Water Fire Essay paper, even though your portion of the application will be submitted online. Please note that Duke will not accept activity resumes for the 2018 application process. If you have information that you need to share with us that will not be reflected elsewhere in your application, you may add it to The Securitization of Climate Essay the Additional Information section of the Lysistrata Water Fire application.
Once we receive the student-submitted portions of your application, we will send you an finance email with instructions for accessing a personalized Application Checklist where you can monitor the status of your application, check that we have received the required documents, make changes to your personal information and Lysistrata Fire Essay view your admission decision. Both the epic elements Common Application and the Coalition Application include a one-page personal essay. In addition, both include two short essay questions that are specific to Duke and that offer you the Lysistrata versus Essay opportunity to tesco finance share your unique interests and Lysistrata Fire perspective. One of the short essay questions is required, and the other is optional--and yes, it is truly optional! You can submit your short writing with or after the other student portions of the application, no later than the application deadline.
You must send your nonrefundable $85 application fee or fee waiver request along with the Common Application or Coalition Application. Both applications accept online payment via credit card or electronic check. The Securitization In Australia Essay? Please note that we do not accept credit card payment by telephone. If you pay by check, please make the check payable to Duke University. Versus Fire Essay? Checks must be for payment in U.S. dollars and must be drawn on a U.S. bank. We offer fee waivers for qualifying students, which means under many circumstances we will waive the $85 application fee for students with high financial need. Tesco Finance? Through your Common Application or Coalition Application you may request an application fee waiver online, and your guidance counselor will receive an email invitation to endorse your request. Defining an Academic Concentration. You must apply to Lysistrata Water either the Trinity College of Change in Australia Essay Arts Sciences or the Pratt School of Engineering. The application will also ask you to indicate your preliminary academic interests so we can get to know you intellectually.
Please refer to the overview of Trinity and Pratt as well as their majors and minors if you have questions about the best program for Lysistrata versus Essay, your interests. It is barclay internet not easier or harder to Lysistrata Water Fire Essay be admitted to epic elements one program or another; pick the school and academic fields that best match your interests. Applying Early or Regular Decision. You must also apply either for Early Decision or Regular Decision, and we will process your application according to the plan you check on the Common Application. To apply Early Decision, you, one of Water your parents and your secondary school counselor must sign the Early Decision Agreement confirming your commitment to internet enroll at Duke if you are admitted. You will receive your admission decision in mid-December. All candidates for admission must complete one of the following standardized testing options: the Lysistrata ACT, including writing, or the SAT, including the essay for students who choose to submit the new SAT. For students who submit the SAT, two SAT Subject Tests are strongly recommended.
Students who have taken multiple tests may choose which scores to epic elements send to Duke. Water Versus? For students who elect to send multiple test scores Duke will use whichever score is epic elements highest. Students from more than 85 countries have found a home at Duke. Innovative, restless and driven: these are qualities not confined by geography. There is no separate application for international students.
Standardized Testing Considerations for International Applicants. All applicants for the first-year class, whether educated in the United States or abroad, are required to Fire complete the full testing requirements. The SAT and ACT tests are given throughout the year at testing centers around the world, although students outside the United States will generally find that the SAT is available in more places than the Change in Australia Essay ACT. We understand that some students do not have access to a testing center in their home countries (e.g., mainland China). These students may be exempt, and if so, may not be disadvantaged in the evaluation process. In Duke's application process, SAT and Water versus Fire Essay ACT scores are not viewed as the sole measure of a student's academic ability. We also recognize that test scores from bilingual students, or students outside of Intelligent, and Ruthless Warrior, example a United States high school system, may reflect a student's lack of familiarity and experience with this type of standardized test. Water Versus Fire? This is words taken into account when applications are considered. Results of national examinations such as the GCSE or A-levels cannot be substituted for the SAT, SAT Subject Tests, or ACT. We recommend but do not require the IELTS (International English Language Testing System), the PTE Academic (Pearson Test of English), or the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) for non-native English speakers who feel their TOEFL or IELTS scores might represent their English ability better than their SAT or ACT scores do.
You can read more about how we consider the TOEFL here. Curriculum Considerations for International Applicants. Prior to the anticipated date of Lysistrata Water versus enrollment at The Securitization of Climate Essay, Duke, students should have completed an academic program that would enable them to enroll at a university in their home countries. For example, students from British or British-based education systems should have completed their A-levels before enrollment, and Lysistrata Water students from the words French or German education systems should complete the Baccalaureate or Abitur. For most students, this means that they will begin the application process during their final year of Water Essay study in a pre-university program.
To obtain an a thousands words F-1 visa for study in the United States, a foreign citizen must furnish his or her home country's U.S. consulate with proof of ability to Lysistrata Fire meet educational expenses, along with a certificate of Essay eligibility for a visa application (the I-20 form). I-20 forms for incoming foreign students are issued only after a student has accepted an offer of admission at Duke and returned a completed Certificate of Financial Responsibility. Visa services and advice on federal regulations concerning non-U.S. citizens are available through Duke Visa Services. Interviews for International Students. While not required for Water versus Fire, admission, interviews provide an Essay opportunity for the applicant to learn about Duke and for a representative of the university to learn about the applicant's strengths. We have alumni volunteers conducting interviews in forty-two countries worldwide. Because of the high volume of applicants we receive from China, Duke will accept admissions interviews from InitialView for students attending school in China. These interviews will serve in Lysistrata Water versus lieu of alumni interviews. Bank? We encourage interested students in China to arrange an interview with InitialView as soon as possible in order to secure an appointment.
All interviews must be submitted to Duke by December 1 for Early Decision and March 1 for Regular Decision. We welcome applications from undocumented and DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) students. Lysistrata Versus Essay? You apply in the same way U.S. citizens and permanent residents do, and your application will be considered the same way U.S citizens and permanent residents are, by the regional admissions officer responsible for where you attend high school. When you apply, you should be honest about your current citizenship status. You do not need a social security number to use the Common Application or Coalition Application; that field can be left blank. Beginning with students who are applying for admission for Fall of 2017, Duke will review undocumented and DACA students using the example same “need-blind” process as applicants who are U.S. citizens or permanent residents. This means that your application will be evaluated for admission without regard to your family's ability to pay. Our need-blind model allows us to create a class characterized by Water Fire Essay both exceptional talent and meaningful diversity, regardless of the financial circumstances of our applicants’ families. Duke University views its financial aid program as an investment in and Ruthless Geronimo Essay example students and their futures.
That’s why we are committed to Essay meeting 100 percent of the demonstrated need for each admitted student. Undocumented or DACA students who wish to yahoo finance apply for financial aid should fill out the CSS Profile by the appropriate Early Decision or Regular Decision deadline. Information about the financial aid process for undocumented students can be found here, and answers to frequently asked questions can be found here. For general instructions on how to apply for financial aid, please visit the Office of Undergraduate Financial Aid website. Duke’s Support for Undocumented and DACA Students. Duke University’s goal is to provide access, inclusion, and support to Water all of our students and a thousands their diverse backgrounds and needs.
We encourage you to read more about how this support applies to Lysistrata Water versus Fire Essay undocumented and DACA students in this message from the epic elements Duke University President. If you have questions or concerns regarding applying to Lysistrata Water versus Fire Essay Duke as an Change undocumented or DACA student, please contact our office. Homeschooled or Cyber-Schooled Students. Duke University welcomes applications from Lysistrata Essay students who are educated in nonconventional ways such as homeschooling and cyber-schooling. Yahoo? As with all Duke students, their distinct life experiences, unique motivations and intellectual vitality enhance our community. Regardless of educational background, all applicants are evaluated in six areas: standardized testing, curriculum choice, achievement, recommendations, essays, and extracurricular activity. While we do not have any additional application requirements for these students, there is some benefit for these students and Lysistrata versus their families in providing supplementary information to help us better understand the context, the rigor and the students’ achievements in their chosen educational path. Below are some suggestions for Cunning, Intelligent, and Ruthless Geronimo Essay, homeschooled or cyber-schooled students to better elucidate their academics and Lysistrata Water versus Fire involvement in our application process: In general, students should take the best and most challenging courses available. We recommend but do not require four years of English and at least three years of mathematics, natural science, foreign language, and social studies.
For students applying to the Pratt School of Engineering, we require coursework in calculus and Identify the Victims of Disaster Essay strongly recommend physics. Most homeschooled students have followed varied curricula. Water Versus? We do not support or prefer any particular program. Some homeschooled applicants follow packaged curricula with outside evaluators, some enroll exclusively in local college classes, some teach themselves independently, some rely on and Ruthless Warrior, Geronimo Essay their parents’ instructionbut most choose a combination of different approaches. We understand that the choice of curriculum is best decided by each individual family. Whatever path a student chooses, we would like information about the student’s homeschool experience and environment that would be helpful for Water Fire, our committee. In addition to the courses and grades, we are interested in a thousands words knowing how and why the student and family chose homeschooling, the setting for homeschooling, and the philosophy behind the education provided.
We are also interested in Lysistrata Essay the philosophy behind and The Securitization of Climate Essay the setting of the education provided. Lysistrata Water Fire Essay? For courses that are taught at tesco, home, we would like an explanation of the grading scale or other methods of evaluation. When a student indicates that he/she is homeschooled, the Common Application generates supplemental questions on the School Report that should be completed and submitted to provide this information. Versus Fire? Students are also welcome to barclay internet share their insights into their educational choice, especially their thoughts about the benefits they have gained and how the Lysistrata Water Fire Essay experience will allow them to contribute to the community at Duke. If the student has taken courses from a distance learning program, traditional secondary school, or any institution of higher education, we require official transcripts from these institutions. The Securitization In Australia Essay? Applicants are not required to present a GED or proof of accreditation. The standardized testing requirements are the versus Fire same for The Securitization Change Essay, all Duke applicants: students must submit scores from either the ACT with writing or the Water SAT Reasoning Test with essay, with SAT subject tests strongly recommended for students who have taken only the SAT. However, in the absence of traditional grades, we encourage homeschooled students to submit AP test and/or additional SAT subject results to barclay internet validate their mastery of a subject. Although your parent may complete your school report to provide context for your academic choices, we encourage students to provide two additional letters of recommendation from versus Essay non-relatives and words preferably from versus Essay individuals who have worked with the student in an in-person academic setting.
Employers, religious leaders, sports coaches or other adults can write these recommendations if all academic instruction takes place in the home. Letters from an on-line instructor are less helpful if he/she has not had direct contact with the homeschool student. We encourage all applicants to become involved in yahoo finance their local community. Many times the Lysistrata Water line between curricular and tesco finance extracurricular activities may be less distinct for Lysistrata Water versus, homeschooled students so it is especially important to describe and document your involvements. We encourage homeschooled students to submit their applications in time for us to arrange an alumni interview in the student's local area. An interview report provides the admissions committee an additional source of information and perspective about tesco yahoo a student’s potential fit for the Duke community. We welcome your interest in Lysistrata Water Fire Essay transferring to Duke. Every fall, approximately 30 students transfer into either the Trinity College of Arts Sciences or the Pratt School of Engineering. Most will enroll as sophomores, although the selection committee will also admit a small number of juniors. While transfer students are new to the Duke community, they bring with them the same characteristics of Cunning, and Ruthless talent and engagement as the rest of their undergraduate peers. Transfer students add a tremendous amount to campus life all while pursuing their unique, intellectual interests at one of Lysistrata Water versus Fire America’s leading universities.
Please consult the following guidelines to determine your eligibility to transfer to barclay Duke: • If you have attended any college or university in Lysistrata the past four years and will have successfully completed at least one full year of transferrable college work by the August in which you hope to epic elements enroll, you qualify to apply to Duke as a transfer applicant. • All transferrable college work should be completed at an accredited degree-granting institution. College work completed at Fire, a vocational, technical, performance, or professional program will not be considered. • If you are a high school student in a thousands words an “early college” or dual-enrollment program who will earn an associate degree while finishing high school, you should apply as a first-year applicant. • If you have already completed an undergraduate (bachelor’s) degree at a four-year college, you cannot be considered for transfer admission. • Unfortunately, you may not apply for transfer to Duke as a part-time student. Instead, we encourage you to contact Duke Continuing Studies for information on taking courses on a non-degree basis. • The admissions committee seeks applicants who can provide evidence of Water versus academic preparation within the epic elements past four years. Fire Essay? If you have not recently attended high school or college, we strongly encourage you to Identify the Victims of Disaster Essay do so prior to versus Fire Essay applying for transfer, either through Duke Continuing Studies or an accredited degree-granting institution in your local area.
Duke offers military veterans a high level of support as they transition to our campus community. For more information about the resources available to veterans, please visit the following resources: Duke offers a multitude of opportunities to its undergraduates. We’re looking for students ready to respond to those opportunities intelligently, creatively and enthusiastically. We like ambition and curiosity, talent and persistence, energy and humanity. When we read an the Victims application and then discuss an application in our Admissions Committee, we consider both the academic and the personal qualities of each student. We think about what a student has accomplished within the context of the Lysistrata Essay opportunities and challenges he or she has faced.
And we seek those students who will bring a variety of experiences, backgrounds, interests and opinions to internet the campus. We especially appreciate students who love thinking hard about things and who like to versus Fire make a difference in the world. Our admissions process is Identify Essay guided by our assessment of six primary factors: • The rigor of a candidate’s academic program. • Academic performance as measured by grades in academic courses. • Letters of recommendation. • The quality of Lysistrata Water Fire Essay thought and expression in the application essay. • Standardized test scores (Transfer applicants must submit scores from either the of Climate in Australia Essay SAT or ACT, without exception.) Transfer admission to Duke is Lysistrata Water Essay highly selective, with the admission rate ranging from 3% to 7% over the past five years. Transfer applicants are expected to tesco finance have demonstrated a high level of academic talent, both at their current higher education institution and in high school. The most successful applicants will have a minimum college GPA of 3.7 in a challenging academic program.
Of those admitted in 2015, the mid-50% had SAT I critical reading scores between 670-740, math scores between 720-800 and writing scores between 670-770. Interviews are not part of the transfer evaluation process and not available to transfer applicants. Your application must be submitted electronically through either the Lysistrata versus Fire Common Application or Coalition Application. Please consult the Checklist Deadlines webpage for a list of of Disaster required application components and Lysistrata Essay due dates. If you intend to apply through the Common Application, please visit their website for instructions on where to find the bank College Report/Mid Year Report/Final Report in your transfer account. If your current college/university does not allow the Lysistrata Water versus Fire Essay submission of recommendation forms through the Common Application portal, you can find Duke-specific PDF versions of the recommendation forms below. These forms should be either mailed or faxed to barclay internet our office.
If you have exceptional talent in dance, theater, art, music, photography or film/video/digital media, you may submit supplementary material to be evaluated by an appropriate faculty member. You may begin to Water versus Essay submit artistic materials on February 15. All submissions are due by March 20. Please click here for more detailed instructions. • Duke will grant credit for no more than two years of coursework completed elsewhere, regardless of the number of credits a student has previously earned.
In order to earn a Duke degree, a transfer student must spend at least two years at Identify, Duke. • We do not offer a preliminary credit evaluation to applicants prior to the release of admissions decisions. Instead, credit evaluations are completed upon matriculation by Water Fire an academic dean. Please see the Duke University Undergraduate Bulletin for more information on how transfer credits are evaluated. • All transferrable college work should be completed at an accredited degree-granting institution. Identify Essay? College work completed at a vocational, technical, performance, or professional program will not be considered. • We do not accept credits for Lysistrata Water versus Fire Essay, courses that have been taken online. Duke University views its financial aid program as an epic elements investment in students and their futures. We seek a diverse student body and are committed to ensuring aided students can take full advantage of the Duke experience.
To that end, Duke admits transfer applicants who are U.S. Water Versus? citizens and permanent residents without regard to financial circumstance or aid eligibility and meets 100 percent of each admitted student's demonstrated need throughout their undergraduate enrollment. Unfortunately, need-based financial aid is not available for epic elements, international transfer students. In addition, Duke does not offer merit-based scholarships to transfer students. The number of semesters of aid eligibility for students transferring to Duke is based on Lysistrata Water the policy of internet bank up to nine academic semesters less the number of semesters studied elsewhere. This also includes financial assistance for one summer term, if needed. For detailed instructions on how to apply for financial aid, please visit the Water Office of Undergraduate Financial Aid website. Duke believes that the residential experience is an important factor in the education process. The Board of Trustees mandates that all undergraduates live on campus for three years. As an The Securitization Change extension of this practice, transfer students are required to live on campus for two years. Exceptions to Water versus Fire Essay the housing requirement include: • Transfer students who enter as juniors may request to live on campus for only one year.
• Non-traditional transfer students (married students, military veterans, and those students older than most undergraduates) may request the Cunning, Geronimo example housing requirement be waived entirely. The housing application will be available in Lysistrata Fire mid-May and a thousands words is due on Lysistrata Fire Essay July 1. Visit the Housing, Dining, and Residence Life website for more information on student housing options. To assist with your transfer application process, we have compiled a list of Frequently Asked Questions. Please contact the Office of The Securitization Essay Undergraduate Admissions with any additional questions. Duke University is committed to the equality of educational opportunities for all qualified students. Students with disabilities (including learning disabilities, hearing or visual impairments, mobility impairments, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders, psychiatric impairments or chronic health disabilities) who apply to Duke can choose whether or not to disclose their disability to us. Our office is prohibited by Lysistrata Fire law from making inquiries about The Securitization Change in Australia a student's disability in the admissions process. We will not require you at any point in the admissions process to disclose if you have a disability. Some students choose to include information about their disability in their admissions application because they feel it is an Water important element of their experiences as a student up to words that point, or because they want to share with us how they have overcome an Lysistrata Water versus Fire obstacle that not everyone has had to face. We always appreciate any significant information a student wishes to epic elements share with us and consider that information in understanding a student's achievements. We evaluate a student's accomplishments within the context of any opportunities or challenges presented to Water that student.
We do not use information about a disability to deny admission to a student. There is no separate admissions process at Duke for students with disabilities. All students who apply to Duke, including those who have a diagnosed impairment/disability, are evaluated using the same criteria. If you have questions or require additional information, please contact the Admissions Office at (919) 684-3214 and ask for the admissions officer responsible for students with disabilities. All students have the right to request reasonable accommodations at Duke.
Students requesting consideration for reasonable accommodations must have an epic elements impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities and should contact the Student Disability Access Office. We recognize that students with disabilities sometimes find the Water Fire transition from finance secondary education to Lysistrata Water post-secondary education difficult due to the differences in the level of services and accommodations provided at post-secondary institutions. Not all students who received accommodations in high school will be eligible to and Ruthless Warrior, Geronimo Essay receive accommodations at Lysistrata Water versus Essay, Duke. In primary and secondary education, a student's parents and school staff often bear the responsibility of evaluating, supporting and providing accommodations to the student. At the post-secondary level, it is the student's responsibility to epic elements identify that he/she has a diagnosed impairment/disability and to versus Fire follow the appropriate procedures to request consideration for reasonable accommodations. Please be aware that Duke is not required to tesco yahoo approve any accommodation that would change the fundamental nature of a course or a curriculum. Course substitutions and/or waivers will not be granted for Essay, requirements for a major or college curriculum; this includes the tesco foreign language requirement of Trinity College of Arts Sciences. For additional information about accommodations and resources at Duke, we encourage you to contact the Water versus Essay Student Disability Access Office at this email address. We require submission of official transcripts for all academic work completed in high school, and Cunning, Warrior, Geronimo Essay example all academic materials must be submitted by Water versus Essay your guidance counselor or another school official. The Securitization Of Climate In Australia Essay? Self-submitted transcripts are not acceptable for our review. To provide us with academic and Water Fire personal context, your counselor will also submit a Secondary School Report Form, including a counselor recommendation and school profile.
We require first quarter or first marking period grades for all Early Decision applicants by November 12 or as soon as they are available. Your counselor should submit these grades using the Common Application Optional Grade Report or Coalition Application First Marking Period Report. If your school will be unable to provide us with official midterm grades by mid-November, you should request an unofficial progress report to be sent by words a school official. A student's senior year academic work is often a critical component of our review. If the transcript submitted with your Secondary School Report includes your first term grades, or if you are not currently enrolled in an academic program, no additional form is Lysistrata Fire required. We require midyear grades for all Regular Decision applicants and all Early Decision accepted and Cunning, Intelligent, and Ruthless Essay example deferred applicants by February 15 or as soon as first semester or trimester grades are available. Your counselor should submit these grades using the Lysistrata Water Essay Common Application Midyear Grade Report or Coalition Application Midyear Report. If the barclay transcript submitted with your Secondary School Report includes your midyear grades, or if you are not currently enrolled in Lysistrata versus Essay an academic program, no additional form is required. College/University and Identify Summer School Transcripts. We wish to see a full representation of Water versus your high school work, including that which you may have taken beyond your regular high school offerings.
If you have taken postsecondary or summer coursework that does not appear on epic elements your high school transcript, please request an Lysistrata Water versus Fire Essay official transcript from the institution that provided instruction. We understand that most colleges and Cunning, Intelligent, and Ruthless Warrior, Essay universities do not provide midterm grades and we do not expect to see first-quarter grades or midyear progress reports from colleges. However, you should request any transcripts or progress reports that are available. All offers of versus Fire Essay admission are contingent on a student’s continued strength of academic and personal standing. Upon completion of epic elements their final terms, all admitted students must request a final official transcript to be submitted along with the Common Application or Coalition Application Final Report form. Although all student application forms must be submitted online through the Common Application or Coalition Application website, schools may send hard copy materials to Water versus us via fax at 919-668-1661 or postal mail at 2138 Campus Drive, Box 90586, Durham, NC 27708. They may also submit materials via email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
If you have already completed secondary school and of Climate Change Essay your application includes a final, complete secondary school transcript as part of the School Report, you do not need to submit first quarter grades using the Optional Report, nor do you need to submit the Midyear Report. Your online checklist may show these items as missing, butsince the information we need is already included in the materials your school submittedthat will not affect your candidacy. All candidates for admission must complete one of the following standardized testing options and arrange to have official test score reports sent to Duke: The College Board SAT, with two Subject Tests strongly recommended. Students who submit the new SAT will also be required to submit the essay component. We strongly recommend that you submit your scores by the application deadline, even if you plan to take additional tests later. If it is financially burdensome for you to release your scores to Duke, then your counselor may submit your scores to email@example.com with a subject line of versus Essay School-Reported Test Scores.
For students who choose to submit the of Climate in Australia ACT with writing, Duke will consider the highest composite score and Lysistrata Water Essay highest scores on each section, regardless of barclay test date, but will not recalculate the Fire composite score. Identify The Victims? Students who take the ACT are not required to submit SAT or SAT Subject Test scores. Lysistrata Water Fire Essay? Our school code for the ACT is and Ruthless example 3088 . For students who submit the SAT, two SAT Subject Tests are strongly recommended. Students who have taken the test multiple times may choose which scores to send to Duke. Duke will use the highest available scores in each section, plus the versus Fire two highest Subject Test scores, regardless of the date those tests were taken. Internet? Our school code for the SAT is 5156 . The redesigned SAT: Students intending to enroll in the fall of 2017 may submit either the new or old SAT. Duke does not have a preference for either test, but if you choose to Lysistrata Water versus Essay submit both, Duke will consider the The Securitization in Australia Essay stronger score as determined by concordance tables. Students intending to enter in the fall of 2018 and beyond will be required to submit the Fire Essay new SAT. Applicants to the Pratt School of Engineering who take the SAT are strongly recommended to take one SAT Subject Test in Mathematics (level 1 or level 2).
Applicants to the Trinity College of Arts Sciences who take the SAT may take any two SAT Subject Tests. For complete information about the use of SAT Subject Test scores in tesco yahoo finance foreign language placement at Duke, please visit Languages at Duke. If I take both the SAT and ACT, do I need to Lysistrata versus Fire Essay send both scores to Duke? How does Duke consider multiple scores? We will always consider your highest score regardless of epic elements test type or test date, and you are welcome to Lysistrata Water versus Fire Essay send us SAT scores, ACT scores or both. Applicants may choose the Score Choice option for the SAT and choose to submit scores from specific ACT test dates. We do NOT require applicants to submit all of barclay internet bank their test scores--just the ones necessary to fulfill the testing requirement. If I take the ACT, can I also submit SAT Subject Tests? Although we do not require or expect SAT Subject Test scores from candidates who take the Lysistrata Water versus ACT with Writing to fulfill our testing requirement, we do accept them and will consider them as an additional demonstration of subject proficiency.
If I submit the epic elements new SAT with essay and/or the ACT with writing, will Duke consider a higher SAT score or ACT composite score from a test date without writing? As long as students report a new SAT with essay and/or an ACT with writing, we will also consider a higher SAT score or ACT composite score from a test administration without writing. Will it hurt my candidacy to take standardized tests multiple times? No. However, standardized testing should not become one of your extracurricular activities! We'd rather see you spend your time pursuing your curiosities and interests, and most students don't see significant score improvements beyond their second or third sitting for Lysistrata Water, a given test. If I took the Identify the Victims SAT or ACT before high school, can I use these scores in my application? No.
Only testing that is taken in high school will be considered in Lysistrata Water Essay the admissions process. If I have taken Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate examinations, what role do those scores play in the admissions process? Should I report those scores officially? We value those scores when available as demonstrations of subject mastery to complement your academic transcripts. You should self-report these scores in your application. We will require an official score report from students who matriculate at Cunning, Intelligent, Warrior, example, Duke who wish to use those scores for credit or placement. I had my test scores sent to Duke before I applied. Why don't I see them in my Duke Application Checklist? If your test scores were released to Duke prior to submitting an application, and you only recently applied, please allow several business days for us to connect your scores to your application materials.
If after that point your scores are not displayed on your checklist, and you have verification from the testing agency that they've been received, you may call our office or send us an versus Fire Essay email. We will investigate and a thousands words then respond to your inquiry. We strongly recommend that candidates take all required SAT or ACT exams no later than the month prior to their application deadline, and applicants should submit all test scores necessary to Lysistrata Water versus Essay fulfill the Identify the Victims of Disaster Essay testing requirement by the application deadline (November 1 for Early Decision; January 2 for Regular Decision). Early Decision candidates may submit new or additional scores from the November 4 SAT and the October 28 ACT, and Essay Regular Decision candidates may submit new or additional scores from the December 2 SAT and the February 10 ACT. Tip: you don't need to rush report scores to Duke, but if you are taking any tests after the application deadline, you should request a score report to Duke at the time you sit for your exam. Applicants who do not use English as their primary language must demonstrate the ability to undertake a rigorous, fast-paced academic program in English. As Duke students must have the ability to Intelligent, and Ruthless Warrior, read quickly and to express themselves clearly both orally and in writing, applicants must be fluent in written and Water Fire Essay spoken English at the time the Cunning, Geronimo application is submitted.
If you are a non-native English speaker or if you are not currently studying in an English-medium curriculum, we recommend but do not require that you take one of the following English proficiency tests. Lysistrata Fire Essay? Any applicants who feel their English proficiency test scores might represent their English ability better than their SAT or ACT scores do also may choose to take the The Securitization of Climate in Australia IELTS, PTE Academic, or TOEFL test. If you take the tests more than once, we will use your highest scores. Lysistrata Water Versus Essay? We do not have any preference among the epic elements three tests. We will consider all of your test scores along with the essays, recommendations, and Lysistrata Water versus other parts of the admissions application to evaluate your proficiency in English. IELTS (International English Language Testing System) TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) Duke’s school code for the TOEFL is 5156 Minimum scores expected: 100 on and Ruthless example the internet-based TOEFL 75 on the revised TOEFL Paper-delivered Test. Both the Common Application and the Coalition Application include a one-page personal essay. In addition, both include short essay questions that are specific to Duke and that offer you the opportunity to tell us about versus your personal and intellectual interests.
You can submit short writing with or after the Essay other student portions of the application, no later than the application deadline. 2017-2018 Common Application Prompts. All applicants who complete the Common Application will choose to respond to one of seven essay prompts. Lysistrata Fire Essay? The personal essay length is capped at 650 words. 2016-2017 Coalition Application Prompt. All applicants who complete the Coalition Application will choose to respond to one five essay prompts. The personal essay length is capped at 550 words. Tip: These open-ended prompts are intended to foster your creative energy, not restrict it. Intelligent, And Ruthless Warrior, Geronimo Essay? If you're stuck, try thinking first about the characteristics you want to convey to the admissions committee. Brainstorm stories that display those qualities or values; then pick the prompt that best fits your story. The following question is Lysistrata Water versus Fire required for The Securitization of Climate, Engineering applicants . • If you are applying to versus Essay the Pratt School of Engineering as either a first-year or transfer applicant, please discuss why you want to Identify the Victims of Disaster Essay study engineering and why you would like to study at Duke. (150 words maximum)
The following question is required for Arts Sciences applicants . • If you are applying to the Trinity College of Arts Sciences as either a first-year or transfer applicant, please discuss why you consider Duke a good match for you. Is there something particular about Water Fire Essay Duke that attracts you? (150 words maximum) The following question is optional for all applicants to Duke University. • Duke University seeks a talented, engaged student body that embodies the wide range of human experience; we believe that the diversity of our students makes our community stronger. Identify The Victims? If you'd like to share a perspective you bring or experiences you've had to help us understand you betterperhaps related to a community you belong to, your sexual orientation or gender identity, or your family or cultural backgroundwe encourage you to versus do so. Real people are reading your application, and we want to do our best to understand and appreciate the real people applying to Duke. (250 words maximum) The Common Application will only show you the a thousands words essay prompts that apply to Water versus Fire Essay you; there's no need to spend time sifting through extra questions! Note that this means you must select your desired undergraduate school--either the Trinity College of Arts and Sciences or the Pratt School of Engineering--before you will see the corresponding version of the and Ruthless Essay Why Duke? prompt to which you will respond. Tip: Be sure to craft your short writing as carefully as the longer personal essay.
Every piece of your application matters! Recommendations give us another way to learn who you are. We require three letters of recommendation for each applicant: one recommendation from Lysistrata Water Fire your guidance counselor and two recommendations from teachers who have taught you in major academic courses (English, mathematics, social studies, sciences, foreign languages), preferably within the last two years of secondary school. If you are applying to the Pratt School of epic elements Engineering, at least one recommendation should be from a math or science teacher. If your school requires printed or downloadable recommendation forms, you may find Common Application forms available below. If your recommenders choose not to submit their letters online, they can send documents by Lysistrata Essay fax, email or postal mail.
Fax: (919) 668-1661. Office of Undergraduate Admissions. 2138 Campus Drive. Durham, North Carolina 27708. Additionally, applicants may submit one Personal Recommendation.
This recommendation is optional, and can come from The Securitization Change Essay a peer, a coach, a director, a teacher from an elective course, a family member, or anyone else who knows you well and will give us a better idea of who you are. This optional information will be considered in our understanding of you as a person, but will not be formally evaluated as part of your application. If you do not submit the information, your chance of admission will not be affected. There is no required form for Lysistrata versus Fire Essay, this recommendation. Cunning, Warrior, Geronimo Essay Example? Just ask the individual to submit a one-page letter to our office through the Common Application recommendation process. We will also accept letters by fax, email or postal mail. Fax: (919) 668-1661. Office of Lysistrata versus Essay Undergraduate Admissions.
2138 Campus Drive. Durham, North Carolina 27708. Tip: Make sure that the recommendation letter includes the applicant's full name, date of birth and current high school so we can add it to Identify of Disaster Essay the correct file! At Duke, alumni interviews are an optional component of the application process. Water Fire Essay? When present, an interview report provides the admissions committee an additional source of information and perspective about your potential fit for Duke. Just as importantly, the interview offers you the opportunity to learn more about the university from someone who has lived and studied here. Interviews are typically conducted in a central location (e.g. a coffee shop or your high school guidance office) and last 30-60 minutes. Epic Elements? We recommend that you dress in Lysistrata versus Fire Essay business casual attire and epic elements that you come prepared to talk about your interests and activities and to ask informed questions about Duke.
Students are matched with alumni volunteers on a first-come, first-served basis. We encourage students who wish to Lysistrata versus interview to submit their application by the Early Decision deadline (November 1) or the Regular Decision priority interview deadline (December 20). If you submit your application, including the Cunning, Warrior, example Duke Writing Supplement, by the appropriate deadline and there is an Fire Essay alumni interviewing committee in your local area, a committee member will contact you via phone or email to finance arrange an interview . Unfortunately, we don’t have alumni volunteers everywhere. Lysistrata Water Essay? Candidates who do not hear from an the Victims interviewer by the second week of November (Early Decision) or the second week of Lysistrata versus Essay February (Regular Decision) are welcome to words submit an additional recommendation in Lysistrata Water versus Fire place of the epic elements interview. This additional letter isn't required, but we want to be sure that those students whose applications won't include interview reports have an opportunity for an additional voice of support in their files. Your chances of Lysistrata versus Fire Essay admission won't be affected adversely if we are unable to offer you an interview, nor will they be affected if you choose not to send an extra recommendation. Due to the high volume of applicants we receive from China, Duke will accept admissions interviews from a thousands words InitialView for students attending school in China.
These interviews will serve in lieu of alumni interviews. Lysistrata Versus Fire? We encourage interested students in China to arrange an a thousands interview with InitialView as soon as possible in order to secure an appointment. All interviews must be submitted to Lysistrata Water Fire Duke by and Ruthless Geronimo Essay example December 1 for Water Fire Essay, Early Decision or March 1 for Regular Decision. All interviews are conducted in person by bank alumni volunteers in students' home areas. We do not conduct on-campus interviews. If you have exceptional artistic talent, you may submit supplementary material to be evaluated by Lysistrata Essay Duke faculty. Words? Our faculty review submissions in dance; film, video, and Water versus Essay digital media; music; photography; theater; and visual art. You do not need to plan on a major or minor in of Climate in Australia Essay your artistic discipline(s) to submit a supplement, but you should have interest in remaining engaged with the arts in college.
All supplementary artistic materials must be submitted by November 1 for Early Decision or January 7 for Water Essay, Regular Decision. Transfer applicants may submit artistic materials between February 15 and March 20. We accept artistic supplements submitted through the online SlideRoom portal. Students applying through the Common Application may use the direct link provided through the application. Students using the Warrior, Essay example Coalition Application should go to Lysistrata Water versus duke.slideroom.com and select the Coalition Application program for the specific art form(s) they intend to submit. Do not mail artistic submissions to our office; those materials will not be formally reviewed. If you decide to Cunning, Intelligent, and Ruthless example submit an artistic supplement after having submitted your application, please go to duke.slideroom.com and follow the instructions. We do not accept creative writing samples for Lysistrata Water versus Essay, faculty review. A brief creative writing sample of no more than two pages, labeled with your full name and date of birth, may be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org.
This will be reviewed by the admissions committee along with your application. We are interested in tesco seeing your technical, performance and choreographic abilities. As you prepare to submit a video that displays those abilities, please observe these guidelines: Dance setting: Solo or small group work is Essay ideal. If you must include a large group dance, make sure you can be easily identified. We would like to see you in a performance situation, however, excerpts from a technique class are acceptable. Video quality: It is The Securitization of Climate Change in Australia not necessary that the video be professionally produced, however, it should be of the highest possible visual quality. Length: 10 minutes is ideal. You may excerpt sections of works in performance and/or rehearsal.
It is very helpful if the work you want viewed is edited together in succession in the same 10 minute section. Style: If you are proficient in more than one style of dance, submit a supplement for Lysistrata versus Fire, each style separately. You may submit up to epic elements 10 minutes per style. Style options are: African Dance, Asian/Indian Dance, Ballet, Contemporary Dance, Jazz Dance, Modern, Other styles/mixed styles and Tap Dance. Water Fire? Choreography in Intelligent, Warrior, Geronimo Essay each of these areas is welcome. Include a written description of the website link providing the following information about the Fire Essay recording : Title of works, choreographer, and music/sound accompaniment Date of the recording Length of the pieces/excerpt If it is an The Securitization Change in Australia ensemble, a description of yourself Any other information you feel is Lysistrata Fire Essay pertinent. Please also submit an abbreviated resume in barclay the Additional Information section of SlideRoom with any pertinent dance or dance-related experience. Fire Essay? You may also include a short narrative statement about the role that dance has played in words your life and Water Fire the role you see it playing in your college career, your experience in a thousands words different or multiple dance styles, your choreographic interest and experience, community involvement, and Fire Essay anything else you consider important about your dancing. For any other questions please feel free to call the Dance Program at 919-660-3354 or email email@example.com.
You may upload work showing significant levels of achievement in a film, video, or digital medium, including documentary, narrative, experimental or animation. Yahoo Finance? Submissions should be no longer than 10 minutes in Lysistrata Fire length. Please label your website clearly with your legal name, an indication of your role in the production (e.g., director, screenwriter, editor), project title and year completed. In cases of collaborative projects, please include a one-page description of the role you played in the production as part of your application. While musicians of every level are welcome at Duke, only those who demonstrate outstanding ability in performance or composition should submit supplemental material. Cunning, Warrior, Geronimo Example? Recordings uploaded to Lysistrata Fire a website should be up to barclay 10 minutes long and include at least two movements or pieces representing contrasting styles or periods. Each selection must be an unedited solo performance. If possible, include piano accompaniment where appropriate. Composers should submit a score of their work as part of their application in addition to an uploaded recording. Water Fire Essay? Please label the website clearly with your legal name, address, high school and works performed.
You should have at epic elements, least three years’ high school/extracurricular experience in photography. Upload no more than 5 groupings of images (8 to 20 images total) and label all material. Water? We encourage you to epic elements upload work that shows your depth as a photographer, that depicts work you’ve shown in exhibitions, and that has received awards. Please include a one-page resume detailing your high school experience in theater. Lysistrata? In addition, you may upload to Slideroom one of the following examples of recent work:
A video recording with a brief introduction and two contrasting monologues (solo performance only) OR one monologue and one song, not to Essay exceed two minutes in length each. Lysistrata Versus Essay? Excerpts from productions will not be considered. A theater-related critical essay or a one-act play that you have written A portfolio with photographs or illustrations of your set/costume design or your technical work; A one- to two-page statement about a play you have directed, discussing approach, process and result. If you have questions regarding format or content, please e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. Upload a group of ten images that show your serious commitment to making art during your high school experience.
You may combine multiple images into collages to create the ten images requested. Barclay Bank? Do not include work done prior to Lysistrata Fire high school. Your portfolio should include work that has been developed thematically, showing a visual and intellectual concentration in tesco yahoo finance specific areas. We encourage you to include work that displays your depth as an artist, that depicts work you have shown in exhibitions and shows and that has earned you awards and recognition. Please remember that your work is being evaluated for its artistic design and intellectual merit, so your portfolio should include only Lysistrata Water versus Fire Essay work that shows your serious commitment to art. Also, please note that you should not include Manga or cartooning in your fine art portfolio.
What does Duke look for of Climate Change Essay, in an applicant? Every year, thousands of the world's best students apply to Duke. They come from public, private and parochial schools, and from all points on the economic, political, and geographic spectrum. Most have graduated in the top 10 percent of their secondary school class. Versus Fire Essay? These top students are attracted to The Securitization of Climate Change in Australia Essay Duke for its academic challenge, stimulating campus environment, and reputation for Water versus, educating men and women of influence and achievement. From those students, Duke's Admissions Committee selects a first-year class of about 1,700 women and men. First, please understand that we do not have a minimum required score for either the Change in Australia Essay SAT or ACT, nor do we have a minimum required GPA or class rank. We do not report average SAT or ACT scores, but you can view the middle 50 percent range for standardized test scores of last year's admitted students here.
Likewise, we do not quote an average GPA. We ask for a student’s GPA and class rank, when available, but we also realize that many schools consider GPA on Lysistrata different scales and some schools do not consider GPA or class rank at bank, all. Lysistrata Fire? We consider this information in the context of what guidance counselors tell us about their schools. Your secondary school record should include the most challenging courses your school offers. We recommend four years of English and at least three years of mathematics, natural science, foreign language and social studies. We also encourage you to enroll in advanced-level work in as many of these areas as possible. We generally expect students to enroll in five academic courses per epic elements year, and if a student does not take four years in a particular subject area, it should be replaced with an versus academic course of the Victims of Disaster Essay equal rigor.
If you are applying to the Pratt School of Engineering, calculus is required before you enroll. We also strongly recommend, but do not require, that you have taken physics. Successful Duke applicants typically have significant extracurricular commitments, all of Lysistrata Essay which we value. Most students admitted to Duke have demonstrated, in a word, impact. In some venue they have made a difference.
It might be in Identify the Victims Essay the classroom, in the community, or on the athletic field. It could be doing one thing brilliantly, or several things exceedingly well. Will visiting campus or contacting the Admissions Office influence my odds of admission? We do not track the number of contacts or visits to versus campus an applicant has made. Although we are always glad when students visit campus, demonstrated interest is not an advantage in the admissions process. We prefer to focus on a student's strengths and accomplishments. Does Duke accept Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate credits? Duke recognizes the tesco yahoo finance Advanced Placement Program of the College Board and grants a limited amount of elective credit and placement into advanced courses for scores of 4 or 5 on most AP exams. AP exams may not be taken once students have enrolled at Duke.
Entering students who have completed internationally recognized college-level examinations with high scores will receive international placement credit in essentially the same way that credit is Water versus awarded for AP exams. Does Duke accept resumes, research abstracts, or media files as part of a student's application materials? We hope to epic elements get to Lysistrata Water Fire know you through the documents we require as part of our application process. Therefore, Duke will not be accepting activity resumes, research abstracts, and media files for the 2017-2018 application process. We are happy to accept artistic supplements. We will accept additional letters of recommendation should you choose to barclay submit them. If you have information that you need to share with us that will not be reflected elsewhere in Lysistrata Water Fire your application, you may add it to the Additional Information section of the application. When and how should I schedule a visit to a thousands words Duke? Visit our Plan Your Trip section of the Water Fire Essay site to learn more. Does Duke offer preprofessional majors? Because of Duke’s core commitment to a liberal arts education, Duke does not offer premedicine, prebusiness or prelaw majors, minors or certificates.
Instead, we offer a number of robust preprofessional advising programs through the Office of Health Professions Advising, Prebusiness Advising and Prelaw Advising. The Duke University Career Center also provides students with counseling and networking opportunities to the Victims of Disaster help them develop their personal, educational and professional goals. Through our advising programs, students have tremendous flexibility to study what they want while still receiving strong preparation for professional school. Our medical school and law school acceptance rates are 85% and 98%, respectively, and many of Lysistrata Water Fire our alumni go on tesco yahoo finance to be leaders in medicine, business and law. Where can I find information about campus safety? Our goal is to provide a safe and secure campus that allows for Lysistrata Water versus Fire Essay, as much individual freedom as possible. Some of the many safety and the Victims Essay security programs and initiatives at Duke include: an on-campus police force with round-the-clock patrol, a system for locking residence halls 24 hours a day and using Duke cards for Lysistrata Water versus, entry, emergency notification systems and hundreds of tesco yahoo help phones located around campus. The Duke University Police Department operates a 24/7 emergency dispatch center. If you have an emergency, dial 911 or (919) 684-2444 to request assistance from our emergency dispatch center. The Annual Security and Lysistrata Water versus Fire Fire Safety Reports include institutional policies concerning campus safety and security, and statistics for the previous three years concerning reported crimes that occurred on Duke University and adjacent public property and fires that occurred in residence halls. The Securitization Essay? A copy is available online or upon Water versus, request to the Duke Police Department at 919-684-4602.
View your application status Confirm receipt of required documents and test scores Change your decision plan Change your college of interest Update your name, address, email and more Update your financial aid status View your admissions decision. If you have earned new honors or awards since you submitted your application, you may send any updates you would like us to review to the address noted below or to email@example.com. (Please note that we are not accepting activity resumes for the 2016-2017 application cycle.) All written updates must include full name, date of of Climate in Australia birth, and high school name. The deadline for submission of application updates for Early Decision is November 15, 2016 and for Regular Decision is February 25, 2017.