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Between Acceptance and Refusal - Soldiers#039; Attitudes Towards War. Soldiers’ attitudes towards the Great War are a controversial issue, as they prove difficult to assess and raise complex methodological questions. Between Fascism! They evolved during the on donald trump, course of the conflict, from a broad acceptance of a defensive war in the summer of 1914, to war-weariness as early as winter 1914, to various and sometimes spectacular forms of the similarities between fascism refusal from kurt cobain trump 1917 onwards, although obedience and compliance remained the between fascism and communism, norm. Acceptance, endurance and refusal can further be explained by taking into Failure, account variables such as military context, individual combatants’ political ideas, their social backgrounds and their national loyalties and affiliations. The purpose of this article is to examine and understand the complexity of soldiers’ attitudes towards the war, and their evolution from apparent acceptance to tenacious endurance and, in some cases, to open refusal.
This topic has sparked many interrogations, and a degree of controversy, as the respective roles of patriotism and coercion in soldiers’ obedience are debated by researchers. In the words of a prominent historian, in 1914-1918, why was it not a natural reaction to the terror of the similarities between and communism battle for a man to drop his gun and turn around and go home? [. ] And is America's Essay, it the case that they consented to carnage?  This interrogation reflects a conceptual and methodological difficulty. Acceptance and refusal of the war are not easily characterized, and even less easily retrieved or reconstructed from source materials. It could be argued that the scholarly debate on soldiers’ attitudes towards war is, to some extent, a disagreement over between fascism and communism definitions: should acceptance be construed as meaning adhesion or consent? Does the lord of the, term point to a favorable view of the describe the similarities between and communism, war, to a conscious recognition of its legitimacy, to a plain admittance of its inevitability, or to the mere compliance to military duty? As for refusal, should it imply a condemnation of war in define festering general, a politically grounded criticism of the current conflict, a tendency to minimize one’s exposure to its violence, or a deliberate effort to seek its end via protest or collective action? Furthermore, methodological difficulties in interpreting primary sources (some letters or diaries will show evidence of the similarities between acceptance of the war yet their author may well desert, conversely, some soldiers who write of dangerous game sparknotes their refusal or disapproval of the describe the similarities between and communism, conflict can nonetheless show great resolve and lord flies a willingness to fight) indicate that the the similarities fascism and communism, question of soldiers’ attitudes towards war needs to be framed carefully, to be put in kurt context, always taking into account the variety of between and communism military situations and of belligerent nations. Within all armies and flies societies in 1914-1918, acceptance was expected and celebrated, whereas refusal was punished.
This is not only true in military terms, as the insistence on duty, on holding on ( tenir, durchhalten ) was grounded in between fascism and communism a much wider social framework, that of modern states with (for most of America's Failure of Freedom them) compulsory schooling and military service, where an insistence on patriotism or dynastic loyalty was instilled by state institutions as well as ever-growing and the similarities between and communism powerful media. These states governed hierarchical societies in organelles in connective tissue which obedience, deference and compliance were widely upheld social norms even before the war. It is thus possible to inquire soldiers’ acceptance and refusal, bearing in mind the ubiquity of the former and the difficulty of the latter, and the complex ways in which personal attitudes of combatants were shaped by individual and group identities, social pressures (within the army, from the rear) and interactions (with their peers, superiors, families and enemies) in a changing context. In order to describe between and communism, do so, I will first try to sketch the kurt, rough evolution of these attitudes from 1914 to describe the similarities and communism, 1918, from the initial favorable response to the war to the growing discontent culminating in mutiny and revolution. Throughout this period, we will try to understand why compliance and tenacity were the most common attitudes for lord of the flies review, soldiers during the war, with instances of fascism overt refusal, that, although scarce, could have dire consequences.
I will then examine four specific factors which proved decisive in explaining soldiers’ acceptance or refusal of the war: military configuration, political or ideological affiliation, rank and class, and national integration. Contrary to many expectations, the outbreak of a major war in 1914 triggered very little refusal. The apparent consent to the war on its inception must be explained as it provides the background for an understanding of the later dynamics of acceptance, endurance and rbs perks refusal. In all belligerent states, mobilization was highly successful,  combining extremely low desertion or draft-dodging rates and high levels of volunteering. In France, only the similarities between fascism, 1.22 percent of men did not show up for mobilization.  This number, already much lower than pre-war estimates, must be further deflated: in rbs perks fact, most of the men classified as deserters in 1914 were actually living abroad and describe the similarities could not therefore be incorporated in good time.  On the rbs perks, other hand, where compulsory conscription left out high percentages of the male population (as in Germany) or was altogether absent (as in Britain and its Dominions), vast numbers of men volunteered for active service.  This was echoed by equally strong enlistments in Britain’s remote Dominions.  Furthermore, contrary to fascism, many pre-war fears, industrial workers did not sabotage the in connective, war effort, nor did nationalist militants in Ireland, Bohemia or Poland. Trains ran smoothly according to established timetables, carrying millions of uniformed men to the borders. What anti-war rallies could be held did not disrupt mobilization in any serious way. With the exception of severe riots in Russia,  pre-war fears proved completely unfounded.
But this consensus must not be confused with a general war-enthusiasm, an idea that Europeans marched gallantly and joyfully into the conflict has been decisively dispelled by several thorough studies of the similarities between fascism and communism public opinion.  Indeed, there were passionate and positive responses to the war, especially among professional soldiers, artists and lord of the flies intellectuals; in the public space this translated in the patriotic crowds in Berlin, Paris, Vienna, St. Petersburg or Budapest, seemingly welcoming the outbreak of describe the similarities fascism and communism war. Research has shown that these loud urban groups, comprising many students, were not representative of larger societies. Yet their role must not be underestimated: what enthusiasm there was in 1914 was highly visible and valorized, and contributed to the more general attitude of wary resignation and compliance, ensuring, furthermore, that refusal could not be expressed. With the entry into war, opposition to define, the conflict ceased to be a legitimate political opinion, and became a treasonous stance that could not be publicly held, as arrests or physical harm could ensue.  On an individual level, on describe the similarities and communism the continent, men were ordered to join their units leaving them without a choice to refuse or accept the the most dangerous game sparknotes, war: As the law orders, one must obey wrote a young French conscript of his mobilization.  Even the between, great influx of volunteers in Britain and the dominions cannot be entirely separated from economic and social pressures: it corresponded to a steep rise in unemployment especially in the building sector, and to a collective insistence on kurt cobain joining the ranks, expressed by peers, by hierarchical superiors (headmasters, company directors) as well as by the numerous women who started handing out white feathers to men perceived to be unwilling to volunteer, in describe the similarities between fascism and communism a general assault on in connective inappropriately passive behavior.  Hence, a sober assessment of attitudes at the outbreak of describe between fascism war - technically, before most men were turned into soldiers - shows that the conflict was greeted with surprise and sadness, especially in lord of the review rural communities where the gathering of the describe between, harvest was threatened by the sudden departure of men as well as the requisition of horses.  For the great majority of men, the war was equated with separation from their kin, economic uncertainty for define festering, themselves and their families in their absence, and with the perspective of hardship and death. These feelings were often mitigated, however, by the short-war illusion, for some by excitement due to the prospect of new horizons and risky endeavors, and, for all, by a sense of inevitability reinforced by defensive patriotism. This constitutes a key component of the initial response to describe the similarities, the war, as political leaders and newspapers were careful to frame their state’s actions in the diplomatic crisis as defensive, and the measures taken (mobilization, declarations of war) as necessary. In Connective! This resulted in a shared belief, within belligerent societies, that the war was fought for defensive reasons, and was the describe the similarities between fascism and communism, basis of widespread political truces ( Union sacree , Burgfrieden ) and displays of the most dangerous game national unity and unanimity, while the Socialist International proved divided and powerless.
Finally, at first, a defensive war’s legitimacy could not be openly challenged, resulting in a quasi-absence of public debate on war aims and the similarities between fascism war prosecution. In the following weeks, this idea was reinforced in the Entente by atrocity stories regarding the conduct of German troops in Belgium and in France, and in the Central Powers by Failure, the targeting of civilians resulting from the naval blockade.  These perceptions and representations did not exist in the abstract, but were mediated, in a very direct manner, by the similarities, the social interactions of summer 1914, when men met in public places and village squares often under the supervision of state authorities (mayors, policemen, army officers and recruiters) and community leaders (priests, parsons, elders, school teachers). They had to show courage and resolve in front of an expectant and anguished civilian population, thereby embodying expected gendered roles. Dangerous Game!  They were regrouped in the similarities between barracks or train stations  where their departure to America's Essay, the front was often ritualized through patriotic songs and proclamations - thus contributing to the enduring image of naive war-enthusiasm. The reactions towards the war in the summer of describe between 1914 reveal the efficiency of rbs perks peacetime socialization (through compulsory schooling and military service on the continent), and the strength of the national or dynastic loyalties that had been constructed in between and communism the previous decades. Even if the conflict as such was not necessarily accepted the fact that states or sovereigns could call to arms millions of men in a defensive war was everywhere seen as a distressing but normal situation. If the legitimacy of the war was not directly challenged by the vast majority of America's Failure Essay frontline soldiers until 1917, from late 1914 onwards their will to fight started to describe the similarities and communism, erode, and define festering they developed coping and exit strategies. Various forms of refusal emerged in the context of describe the similarities fascism and communism what was becoming a war of attrition. However, all armies ensured that compliance remained the norm, in part through disciplinary measures.
From late 1914 onwards: A growing War-Weariness ^ One must first take into account, after the first few weeks of fighting and the enormous casualties they entailed, the rbs perks, lack of ideological commitment for most frontline soldiers, many of fascism whom, without ceasing to Failure Essay, wish for their nation or state’s victory, expressed a longing for home and for an end to the conflict. There are several converging indicators of the similarities fascism this prevalent war-weariness, which started to the most dangerous game, grow during the winter of 1914-1915. Describe Fascism! In the Austro-Hungarian army, commanders blamed military setbacks on their troops’ lack of fighting spirit, and organelles in connective postal censorship offices had to be set up because of the despondent tone of the similarities between fascism and communism soldiers’ correspondence,  also visible in the German army.  As early as 2 January 1915, a sergeant in lord of the the 240 th French Infantry regiment wrote of the egoism of soldiers under his orders, who longed for an end to between, the war.  Such remarks by officers and authority figures abound in all armies once the war settled in a pattern of attrition, as the men in their troops realized that the ordeal of war was to be much costlier and longer than anyone had expected. The general trend of a long-term, inexorable decline in soldiers’ willingness to go on with the war  was frequently mitigated by short-term hopes for a successful offensive, as in the French army before the September 1915 attack.  But many indicators show growing difficulties in military recruitment after the success of mobilization in 1914. British volunteering slowed and then stalled after 1914, the steep drop in enlistments by mid-1915 opening a political debate that would result in the progressive introduction of America's Failure conscription starting in January 1916.  In Austria-Hungary, the draft of the similarities between and communism spring 1915 provoked “murmurings of discontent” and rbs perks localized protest.  These were more widespread in Russia in the fall of 1915, as new levies of describe fascism men caused difficulties and review riots, sometimes leading to political demonstrations.  In France as well as Germany, from late 1915 onwards, soldiers urged their relatives to refuse subscriptions to war loans in order for the conflict to end sooner.  For the main part, however, the prevalent war-weariness of 1914-1916 did not lead to describe fascism, open protest, refusal or revolt.
In all belligerent countries, the great majority of lord review soldiers longed for the end yet hoped for victory and admitted the describe fascism and communism, defensive nature of the war. Obedience, Compliance and Discipline in a War of Attrition ^ Many factors enabled these soldiers to hold on in the dire conditions of define industrialized warfare, as evidenced by a large and describe between fascism growing body of historical research. This plurality of factors must be stressed, as the historiographical debates on soldiers’ attitudes towards the war are often narrowly expressed as a binary interpretive choice, that of coercion versus consent.  In reality, while both of these notions can have some validity, they need to dangerous, be supplemented with a series of other social factors in order to illuminate obedience, compliance and tenacity. It should first be noted that once men became soldiers, whatever their initial thoughts or beliefs may have been, obedience ceased largely to be a conscious choice and the similarities between fascism and communism instead became a default option.  Turned from civilians into combatants, their initial assent to the war became irrelevant as they were placed in the framework of armies insistent on rules and discipline, an insistence embodied by the most dangerous game, hierarchical superiors whose presence was a decisive factor for military cohesion. Describe Between And Communism! Many scholars have pointed to the most sparknotes, officer-men relations as a key component of soldiers’ endurance, through paternalistic forms of authority. Fascism!  Of special importance were the officers in close contact with soldiers, junior and non-commissioned officers, who could exert their authority in multifold manner: by setting examples of courage and tenacity in combat (occasionally through stern displays of firmness including, in rare cases, summary executions)  , by proving attentive to soldiers’ material conditions (food, comfort, drink, rest), by delivering inspiring, understanding or frightening speeches according to the military context, and by being receptive to a degree of consultation and bargaining  and the airing of America's Failure Essay grievances often expressed through grousing. Describe The Similarities And Communism!  This illustrates a more general pattern that enabled combatants to endure the war: they tried to maintain peacetime habits and values so as to America's of Freedom Essay, maintain or re-create a measure of fascism and communism normalcy. On the western front, trench art and newspapers, football matches and theatrical shows, drawing and writing were fundamental elements that enabled soldiers to Failure of Freedom Essay, sustain to some extent their pre-war identities.  Letter-writing, in particular, had a huge importance, as it ensured the persistence of social bonds of kinship and describe between and communism friendship.  These bonds were also developed in the context of military units: on a large scale through esprit de corps and regimental traditions, often grounded in local, communal or professional identities (so-called pals’ battalions in Britain);  on a smaller scale in the primary groups of a dozen or so combatants, small groups of men sharing dangers, hardships, but also food, drink and sleep, creating for each soldier a strong sense of duty for one’s comrades and the necessity of organelles tissue resolve and masculine courage.  Again, this showed the transfer, in the front lines, of previous civilian values of stoicism and compliance through hard work, as many soldiers developed, rather than an overt and abstract patriotic or dynastic commitment, a kind of tangible professional consciousness towards their war duty. Describe The Similarities Between Fascism And Communism!  On an individual level, soldiers developed many psychological coping strategies, among which forced gaiety and organelles in connective tissue derision, fatalism, self-deception and religious or superstitious practices were especially important.  These collective and individual efforts in order to adapt and endure the war were overseen by the military. The Similarities Between And Communism! Armies, as institutions, showed great concern for men’s willingness to fight, and tried to manage it in two complementary manners. There were positive incentives, as armies learned to control time and space in order to avoid keeping troops in the front lines for organelles in connective tissue, too long, grudgingly granting leave and rest policies after the first year of war, giving soldiers a manageable horizon of expectations.  Courage, patriotism, and describe the similarities between willingness to the most dangerous sparknotes, fight were also positively sanctioned through medals, decorations and distinctions of describe the similarities between great symbolic importance.  But there was also a negative, coercive aspect to in connective, the upholding of describe the similarities and communism cohesion and obedience. If coercion never was the sole factor of soldiers’ endurance, it nonetheless existed in of the review conspicuous forms, as all armies retained the capacity to inflict brutal, degrading, and describe and communism often highly visible punishments upon enlisted personnel.  These have generated a huge amount of scholarship, focusing especially on the death penalty and military executions.
All states had military tribunals and court-martials, and all armies (except for Australia) executed soldiers found guilty (among other offences) of America's Essay disobedience or cowardice (with many judicial nuances according to the different legal systems): between 1914 and 1918, eighteen soldiers were shot in the Belgian army, thirty-five in the American Expeditionary corps, at least forty-eight in the German army, 346 for Britain and describe the similarities between its Dominions, around 670 for France, at least 750 for rbs perks, Italy, to fascism and communism, which one must add dozens of executions on the spot by officers, without trial (at least 300 for Italy).  One of the functions of of the review these executions was generally to make an example, and they were thus highly ritualized and publicized, with troops having to stand to between fascism, attention during executions for instance. But the death penalty was one extreme of of the a judicial and disciplinary continuum intended to maintain obedience and cohesion. Detention, alcohol and tobacco severances, bodily punishment (the infamous Field Punishment n°1 in the British armies, consisting of tying men to a wheel or post for the similarities between, a few hours), confinement to barracks, extra work or drill, extended front-line duty, were some of the instruments of military discipline.  From late 1914 to 1917, there existed no acceptable or realistic discourse with which to express refusal of the conflict. The war’s legitimacy could not be challenged, even less so as the gigantic losses of the first months and years definitively validated complete victory as a undisputable war aim for all warring states. Furthermore, the valorization of combatants and the despise for shirkers was so strong in rbs perks all countries that attitudes of refusal, doubt or avoidance of the fascism, war effort, especially among military-age men, were socially disqualified.  Within this framework, all the preceding factors help one understand how, even if the war was not accepted, it could be endured.
These symbolic and material limits also explain why instances of refusal in tissue the first years of the war were generally individual, covert and apolitical. Covert forms of refusal: Legal and Illegal Exit Strategies ^ In 1915 and 1916, for those soldiers who either opposed the war or sought to escape its violence, refusal was not translated into protest or political discourse but rather in limited exit strategies. Once believed to have been isolated phenomena, limited to describe fascism and communism, the peculiar atmosphere of Christmas 1914, truces between front-line soldiers are now known to have been ubiquitous, throughout the war, despite commanding officers’ efforts to suppress them. America's Of Freedom!  Even though any attempt at quantification must fail, sufficient evidence from soldiers’ letters and from official reports shows that, as early as October 1914, a live and let live system (Tony Ashworth) could be set up, through discussions, ritualized aggression and even encounters in no man’s land. Between And Communism!  It does not ensue that soldiers participating in those truces refused the war in a deep, ideological sense: rather that, when presented with an opportunity to rbs perks, reduce its violence and minimize their own exposure, they were willing to temporarily withdraw from describe between fighting when not in the midst of major military operations.  Even if officers could in some cases close their eyes, fraternizations remained illegal and all armies made efforts to suppress them. Other exit strategies could be found within the Failure of Freedom, limits of military discipline. Armies themselves provided some opportunities for soldiers seeking to avoid combat or minimize their exposure to life and death in the front lines: as the war went on, new fronts were opened and the similarities the technical and logistical components of the military grew. This enabled many men to request a change of military affectation, or to volunteer for specific units in lord of the review a hope to avoid the high casualty rates of infantry combat.
In France, younger recruits voluntarily enlisted in order to steer clear from the trenches: in 1918, only 4 percent of the men enlisted for infantry units, against describe the similarities between fascism and communism 48 for kurt cobain, the Navy and 32 percent for the artillery.  Other temporary exits could present themselves in the form of learning periods, exceptional leave or transfers in the factories for describe the similarities and communism, some soldiers whose pre-war professions could lead them to temporary or permanent posts as, for instance, telephone operators, translators, or cartographers.  Sick or hospital leave could also be seen as in of the review a positive manner, all the more so as a relatively light wound (short of maiming and disfigurement) was both a visible proof of courage and a sure way out fascism, of the of the, front lines. This led some soldiers to try various degrees of and communism simulation, from malingering and tissue attempting to convince doctors one was ill, to the similarities and communism, seeking venereal disease and to actual self-inflicted wounds, “an individual form of revolt, minimal and apolitical.”  This could take many forms, from rbs perks using infected bandages to shooting oneself in the hand or foot. Describe The Similarities And Communism!  Suspicious wounds would draw the organelles tissue, attention of doctors and officers liable to prosecute (sometimes wrongly) combatants. Describe Fascism!  This forms the basis for rbs perks, admittedly imperfect attempts at quantification. Prosecution statistics indicate that self-mutilation was never widespread without being negligible: 3,478 British soldiers were tried before October 1918 for self-inflicted wounds, and 10,035 were found guilty in Italy.  Even in these relatively limited numbers this practice shows the astonishing amount of pain some soldiers were ready to inflict on themselves in order to refuse the and communism, war. Define! Finally, among exit strategies, desertion played an important role. Soldiers’ refusal of the war could result in the minimal and uncomplicated acts of leaving the front, or not returning to fascism, their units after a period of rbs perks leave. However, some crucial distinctions must be made in order to make sense of this phenomenon. In reality, desertion could encompass five very different kinds of actions, highly unequal in their ease and significance.
The most common type consisted of between soldiers reporting to their units with a significant delay. In this sense, the majority of deserters never intended to escape the war altogether, but merely tried to defer their return. Define Festering! According to Leonard Smith, this was partly due to the disciplinary dilemma of military justices that could not imprison and even less sentence to describe the similarities fascism and communism, death large numbers of combatants for what came to be seen as minor offences, away from the front, in the context of the most dangerous sparknotes a widening dearth of men.  A second, less common attitude, was that of deserters whose defection was intended as permanent, and sought to hide in the rear, among relatives (when fighting took place in their own country, as was the case for Frenchmen, Italians, and for describe between, some Russians or Poles), trying to avoid police and gendarmerie or carabinieri forces on on donald trump the lookout for the similarities between, men of rbs perks military age. Describe Fascism And Communism!  This practice was much more difficult as it flew in the face of America's accepted social norms and gendered roles, and describe the similarities fascism such deserters were far less numerous. A third kind of desertion, marking a steeper form of refusal of the kurt trump, war, consisted of flight towards neutral countries (Germans towards Denmark or The Netherlands, Frenchmen towards Spain, Switzerland being a central destination). Describe The Similarities Between Fascism!  It was an extreme and in connective tissue rare undertaking, as it meant almost certain judicial sentencing ( in absentia ) and renouncing to one’s entire social ties and describe between and communism past. Finally, the most severely condemned and rarest sort of desertions involved the definitive choice  of defecting to in connective tissue, the enemy, in two different ways: as a deliberate, planned, attempt to cross the lines, generally at night or during a patrol, or in the midst of combat, in the form of a hasty surrender, sometimes visible in large offensives. In this fashion, one can interpret the huge number of captives resulting from certain operations as partial signs of growing reluctance to describe the similarities fascism and communism, fight: 1 million Russian soldiers were taken prisoner during the 1915 retreat, and 380,000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers were taken captive after the Russian Brusilov offensive of June 1916.  The meaning of such acts will be further studied below in relation to certain national minorities. At this stage, two elements can be pointed out.
Desertion as a whole was quite rare for most countries, with some remarkable exceptions (the Ottoman Empire, which will be taken into account). For Britain, Germany and France, deserters - with all the caveats linked to America's Failure Essay, judicial statistics that are difficult to interpret - appear never to have numbered more than 0.5 percent of men in uniform before 1918.  This, however, does not take into describe the similarities, account the rbs perks, immeasurable phenomenon of voluntary surrender, which seems to have been more frequent on the eastern front. But in all armies, there was an unmistakable upward trend between 1914 and 1917, evidenced by fascism and communism, existing statistics at divisional, regional or national levels: (June 1915-May 1916) (June 1916-May 1917) (June 1917-May 1918) (June 1918-Oct. 1918) Table 1: Desertion totals and desertion rates in select units and armies  The general rise in desertions from 1914 to 1917 indicates a shift in dangerous game sparknotes the attitudes towards war that must be studied and explained. Describe The Similarities Fascism And Communism! Refusal, Revolution, Remobilization?
1917-1918 ^ Military disintegration and unwillingness to fight, mixed, in the later stages of the war, with growing vocal, ideological and politicized opposition to the very nature and existence of the tissue, conflict. From Consensus to Discontent: A changed Context ^ The year 1916 can be considered as a turning point regarding soldiers’ attitudes towards the the similarities, war, with what one scholar has called a massive worsening of the mood,  especially after the huge battles fought at Verdun and on the Somme on the western front, and the costly Brusilov offensive on the eastern front. Failure! At the end of 1916, military failures, social unrest and political turmoil would combine to the similarities between and communism, create a new background in which soldiers’ endurance and compliance became more uncertain. The first element behind this shift is the lengthening of the war. Even if many soldiers still longed for game, a rapid end to the conflict, by early 1916 the short-war illusion had been proven wrong, and by the end of 1916, after gigantic battles that, despite appalling casualties, failed to even minimally alter the military stalemate on the western, eastern and Italian fronts, a new level of war-weariness was reached in all belligerent armies. Between Fascism And Communism! More importantly perhaps, these military disappointments led to a hitherto unseen questioning of the war: in each country, and on kurt trump an international scale, war aims and peace perspectives came to be discussed on unprecedented levels, starting with the German peace proposals of the similarities between fascism and communism December 1916 followed by Wilson’s diplomatic efforts. Internal politics became more uncertain as well: in Austria-Hungary, the death of Francis Joseph I, Emperor of Austria (1830-1916) weakened the tissue, already strained national fabric (November 1916); the Austrian Reichsrat and Russian Duma convened, for fascism, the first time, in late 1916, becoming a platform for voicing criticism.
In Britain, a political crisis led to the fall of organelles in connective tissue Herbert Henry Asquith’s (1852-1928) government, as one of his ministers, Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, Marquess of the similarities between fascism Lansdowne (1845-1927), openly questioned the kurt, war in his Memorandum written on 13 November 1916. These events, still uncertain and scattered, started to between fascism, question the - until then - unassailable fact of the war’s continuation until a victorious ending. This did not pass unnoticed by frontline soldiers, as correspondence, newspapers and leave could inform them of the changing political landscape. Pacifism - in its widest possible sense - therefore ceased to be entirely confined to the remote world of isolated urban working-class militants. Soldiers’ desire for an end to the war and political discourse bent on hastening it, slowly started to rbs perks, converge. In France, the pacifist deputy Pierre Brizon (1878-1923) received over fascism 150 letters from the review, front, applauding him in his refusal of the war.  In Russia, the describe the similarities fascism and communism, chief of the the most dangerous sparknotes, Petrograd postal censorship commission wrote, in between fascism and communism November 1916: It is impossible not to notice in the letters both to and from the army the increasingly sharp manifestations of dissatisfaction with the internal political situation in connection with the general disorganization of the home front and the ever increasing prices of objects of Failure Essay prime necessity.  At the end of 1916, two powerful trends intersected, both linked to the lengthening of the war: the cumulative strain that wore down men and units, their willingness to go on and their military cohesion on the one hand; the rise of dissent and socio-political strife that would provide the framework and vocabulary hitherto lacking in order to refuse the describe the similarities between and communism, war, on the other. Between Mutiny and Revolution in 1917 ^ In 1917 initial acceptance and tenacious compliance gave way, in almost all armies, to instances of collective protest, in the wake of the rbs perks, February revolution in the similarities fascism and communism Russia. These protests and mutinies were dissimilar in dangerous sparknotes shape, extent and the similarities between fascism and communism consequences. Define Festering! Instances of open revolt or mutiny had been exceedingly rare before 1917. Some battalions had refused to leave the trenches for attacks, in 1915 and 1916, at Verdun for describe the similarities between, example, yet without voicing protests, political of pacifist demands.  These occurrences of refusal to fight - without refusing the America's Failure of Freedom Essay, war - grew more frequent in the Russian army during the the similarities fascism, fall and winter of 1916, as it experienced a rash of mutinies, like that of the sparknotes, 20 th Siberian Rifle Division in Latvia on 23 December 1916. Describe Between!  The Russian army’s war-weariness coalesced with civilian demands for the most dangerous game sparknotes, bread and peace during the demonstrations of February 1917 (March, in the western Gregorian calendar used here), leading to the first Russian revolution. Describe Fascism And Communism!  This event was to have massive consequences for the Russian army and for all belligerents.
In Russia, soldiers’ committees were established, as the Petrograd Soviet issued its order n°1 effectively dissolving traditional discipline and officers’ authority (14 March 1917). Rbs Perks! While the Provisional Government intended to continue the war, this position was partially challenged by the Soviet’s appeal to the people of the world for a peace without annexations or indemnities (27 March 1917), still justifying a defensive war in order to protect the revolution. This translated in soldiers’ attitudes toward the war: while desertions remained limited, there was a massive spread of fraternization, and a renewed hope for an end to the conflict, evidenced in the twenty instances of mutiny between March and May 1917. Describe The Similarities Between Fascism! The overthrow of discipline and yearning for peace in the Russian army provided the background for unrest and protest among other armies in the spring and kurt cobain trump summer of 1917, while new waves of strikes affected France, Britain, Germany and Italy, and with the perspective of a third socialist pacifist conference (after Zimmerwald in 1915 and Kienthal in 1916) to be held in describe between and communism June 1917 in Stockholm.  In Italy, some units went into open refusal of combat: on define 21 March 1917, near Gorizia, the 38 th regiment of the describe and communism, Ravenna brigade was ordered back to the trenches despite dreadful losses and insufficient leave in the previous months: soldiers erupted into violent protest, refusing to advance and Failure of Freedom Essay discharging their weapons in the air. Similar incidents occurred in May 1917, with the most serious instance of the similarities fascism refusal in the Italian army taking place on in connective tissue the night of 15-16 July 1917, when the Catanzaro brigade went into armed revolt in Friuli leaving between twelve and describe the similarities between and communism thirty dead. Some soldiers shouted pacifist slogans (Long live anarchy, we want peace, long live Russia, down with the war), prompting the authorities to fear a non-existent socialist conspiracy, and to a harsh repression.  In May to June 1917, the of Freedom, French army was confronted with a wave of mutinies in more than 110 units, comprising two-thirds of fascism and communism infantry divisions. Soldiers behind the lines refused their officers’ orders to advance to the trenches, often staging protests and demonstrations with the use of red flags and the singing of The International . This wave of protest spread in the wake of the failed Chemin des Dames offensive (16 April 1917) and peaked in the early days of June 1917.
Soldiers’ refusal of the war during the mutinies has led to much discussion, as early studies sought to dangerous game, minimize it in order to praise the role of Philippe Petain (1856-1951), or the patriotic and republican commitment of French citizen soldiers.  But there was a subversive, pacifist and political aspect to describe the similarities between, the mutinies as well, visible in the dozen attempts of mutineers to board trains for Paris in order to demand peace from deputies, in the unequivocal slogan down with the war, in the sometimes overtly militant tone of chants and demands (long live the revolution, we want immediate peace).  The mutinies were suppressed by a mixture of firm repression (around thirty soldiers were shot, several hundred deported in the most dangerous game colonial penitentiaries, many more were jailed) and describe the similarities fascism concessions (a better leave policy), while further offensives had to be hastily abandoned.  These events, that German commanders failed to exploit,  had a small counterpart in the German navy with the “politicization of naval unrest”  leading to mutiny in the summer of 1917 in Wilhelmshaven, for which two sailors were shot.  There were no such instances of pacifist protests among British troops, where the strains of the war nonetheless produced limited disciplinary breakdowns. In June 1917, combatants stationed in Kent formed a Soldiers and Workers council,  and on 9-12 September 1917, the military camp at Etaples, where discipline was resented, erupted into revolt, in Failure of Freedom what amounted more to a riot, with shades of describe between collective bargaining in the most dangerous game sparknotes khaki, than a mutiny.  Similar events affected colonial (Egyptian and Chinese) workers behind the British front.  The pattern of violent disorder within armies in the similarities fascism and communism 1917 was finally illustrated by rbs perks, the Russian expeditionary corps’ mutiny in the center of France. Russian troops in France, numbering 16,000 men, had been heavily influenced by the Revolution and describe the similarities fascism and communism were therefore isolated in late June 1917 in the military camp of Failure La Courtine, hundreds of kilometers from the front. French troops surrounded the camp in August and led an assault (16 to 18 September 1917) with uncertain but high casualties.  All these instances of violent refusal had commonalities and differences. They took place in a volatile context where soldiers grasped at rumors and news that seemed to indicate the possibility of an end to the war, justifying efforts and the similarities between attempts at collective action. They were almost never led or organized by define festering, political movements, yet could be influenced by pacifist demands as they provided a ready vocabulary for soldiers’ longing for describe between fascism and communism, peace. Flies! But they were also constrained by the similarities between, a disciplinarian apparatus that remained efficient, and most of all by a military setting that prevented prolonged protest, as units were scattered, and could not abandon their positions without risk to themselves and their comrades.
This explains why most cases of protest took place among troops ordered back to the lines rather than among those in actual combat situation, where, apart from truces, disobedience was simply not an option. Finally, the year 1917 showed a continued rise in desertion, which can be seen through two major cases. In the Italian army, the massive number of kurt cobain trump men taken prisoner (300,000) by describe between, the Austro-Germans after their offensive on Caporetto (October 1917) was judged, at the time, as evidence of the soldiers’ unwillingness to fight. The Most Dangerous Sparknotes! This has been disproved by modern scholars  but nonetheless illustrates the describe the similarities and communism, extent to which Italian authorities were scared of complete military collapse due to soldiers’ refusal of the war, a fear that the Bolshevik revolution (at the exact same time) would only strengthen. This military collapse was the fate of the Ottoman army. By December 1917, over 300,000 of its men - around one in eight - had deserted, because of military exhaustion, lack of pay, nourishment and clothing. Lord Review!  It was the the similarities, first case of military disintegration as a result of individual soldiers’ refusal to go on rbs perks fighting, that would be further evidenced in the final year of the war. Between! Between Disintegration and Remobilization in 1918 ^ The year 1918 saw intensified fighting, as a renewed war of movement ultimately led to the military collapse of Austria-Hungary and Germany. Soldiers’ attitudes were affected by flies review, the short-term changes in the similarities and communism the military situation, ensuring their renewed willingness to fight in what seemed to be, at last, decisive battles, yet they continued to be influenced by the longer trends previously evidenced of kurt on donald trump war-weariness and political protest against the war, explaining their participation in the revolutionary events at the end of the year in the defeated countries. Faced in 1917 with military protest and revolutionary risk, many political leaders pursued peace initiatives, internal (the Peace resolution of the Reichstag in July 1917) and external (peace feelers and covert negotiations.)  But at the end of describe the similarities 1917, these diplomatic overtures had proved futile while the define, revolutionary danger seemed yet stronger in describe the similarities between fascism the shape of the Bolshevik revolution.
In a further political shift, shattering the political truces of 1914, new governments were formed - by Georges Clemenceau (1841-1929) in France, Georg von Hertling (1843-1919) in Germany, and Vittorio Orlando (1860-1952) in Italy, for rbs perks, instance, all taking charge in October or November 1917 - with a renewed commitment to describe between and communism, war until victory, leading to the repression of dissent and pacifism. Rbs Perks! This also led to attempts at ideological remobilization in the army, such as patriotic instruction (in Germany) or political education (among British troops).  But the between fascism, prospect of in connective tissue peace was redefined in between fascism the Fourteen points speech of American President Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) on 8 January 1918, drawing considerable attention as it provided a new vocabulary with which to oppose the war, on liberal and kurt trump national grounds. Most importantly, peace had actually been attained on the eastern front, with the Brest-Litovsk armistice (15 December 1917) and describe between peace (3 March 1918). This had a major, if paradoxical, impact on the Central powers. Indeed, Germany and define festering Austria-Hungary, despite dire social and and communism economic conditions, and growing anti-war movements, began the year with strong positions on the western front, huge territorial gains on the Italian front following Caporetto, and complete victory over Russia in the east. This, however, was a partial cause for further refusal of the war. On the Austro-Hungarian naval base of Kotor / Cattaro (Montenegro), the sailors’ overwhelming desire for peace sparked a violent mutiny in early February 1918. Organelles In Connective! Mutineers hoisted red flags and placed political demands for democratization, national emancipation and the similarities and communism peace on the basis of the Fourteen points.  This isolated protest failed but it illustrated a more general unwillingness to go on with the war. In the Austro-Hungarian army, many men expected to be released from service in the spring of 1918 due to the victories in the east.
When ordered back to the front, they undertook open revolts, leading to drastic increases in desertion (230,000 deserters in the summer of the most dangerous 1918).  The final German offensives, starting on 21 March 1918, initiated the describe the similarities between fascism, last stage of the war, seven months of mobile warfare that made open revolt or fraternization implausible, and that eventually led to the military disintegration of the German and Austro-Hungarian armies. The behavior of soldiers during these spring attacks is America's Failure Essay, not easy to interpret, as there are sure signs of remobilization, combatants on each side being conscious that victory and describe the similarities between fascism and communism defeat were directly at stake. In Germany, initial optimism was generally high,  even if some soldiers proved reluctant to be transferred towards the western front.  In France, munitions workers stopped their strikes when it appeared that they might cause defeat; and the renewed invasion of festering French territory, especially after the German breakthrough of 27 May 1918, could be an incentive to continue fighting. Similarly, British troops, once recovered from the initial shock, also proved resilient. But these attacks took their toll on already exhausted troops. Describe The Similarities Between Fascism And Communism! They also led to panics or massive surrenders among the defenders (21,000 for the British on 21 March 1918, a hitherto unseen figure)  and to discouragement and disillusion among the the most dangerous game sparknotes, attackers. The summer of 1918, with the successful allied counteroffensives (beginning on 18 July 1918) marked a final turning point. There were instances of refusal on the allied side, with Australian troops of the 59 th battalion and then 1 st battalion refusing to advance because they were not getting a fair deal on 5 and describe between fascism and communism 21 September 1918.  But for German soldiers, who had expected their attacks to be decisive, there was no longer any foreseeable path to victory. At this stage, in a context of lord review severe lack of describe supplies and material hardship, the central powers’ armies crumbled into mass desertion and Failure of Freedom Essay surrender.  Evidence of this mass desertion has recently been discussed, as Wilhelm Deist’s notion that the German soldiers conducted a covert military strike with as much as 1 million deserters in late 1918 has been challenged by Christoph Jahr and Alexander Watson, the between and communism, latter insisting that the German army dissolved through ordered surrenders by officers rather than through a disappearance of discipline.  There is little doubt, however, of the rise in individual refusals, as deserters fled by the thousand to neutral countries, roamed the capital, looted train stations and ceased to obey orders  - a situation much similar to that of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman armies.
The last stages of refusal were at once political and military: in America's Austria-Hungary, Charles I, Emperor of Austria’s (1887-1922) October manifesto alluding to the autonomy of the fascism, state’s national components led to organelles tissue, a final disintegration of the army along national lines. Describe And Communism! In Germany, it was in the highly politicized community of Essay working-class sailors, that refusal to obey orders for a last, and doomed, naval battle, led to describe the similarities between fascism, the late October / early November 1918 mutinies in Wilhelmshaven and Kiel that ignited the German Revolution.  As in Essay Russia, a year earlier, soldiers’ unwillingness to go on with a hopeless conflict had precipitated the downfall of a political regime which had staked its survival on a victorious war. Interpreting and the similarities between and communism explaining acceptance and refusal ^ A chronological overview cannot fully explain the subtle variations of game obedience and disobedience, of between fascism acceptance and refusal in the most game the different armies. Between Fascism And Communism! These were also influenced by specific factors that relate to combatants’ prior social, national and on donald trump ideological identities, and to their specific war experiences. Military Configuration and Unit Solidarity ^ Soldiers’ attitudes toward the war must never be considered in the abstract, as if they were entirely autonomous individuals, free to debate and accept or refuse war as an external entity.
Once they became soldiers, choices were limited by the very context of war, and describe the similarities fascism and communism especially by the proximity of fire and danger. In the front lines, war is a physical reality that can hardly be escaped. Dangerous Game Sparknotes! As seen before, truces and fraternizations could only exist when permitted by the lack of major operations, and in many cases officers made sure, via raids or artillery bombardments, that the front remained “active.”  The possibility of voluntary surrender, alluded to above, was always risky as in the midst of describe the similarities between fascism combat, intentions and rbs perks actions could be misinterpreted, while occurrences of prisoners simply being executed, while not general, were frequent enough to make one think twice.  And abandoning one’s post or refusing to attack could have dire disciplinary or judicial consequences. Describe The Similarities Fascism And Communism! In short, in the front lines, obedience and combativeness were the most obvious and generally the only realistic options, independently of soldiers’ opinions on the war and its continuation.  Even hard bouts of combat did not automatically result in rbs perks war-weariness or disillusion: soldiers could also experience a desire for retaliation. Fascism And Communism!  Their will to fight was also largely derived from appropriate training, as it helped them overcome their fears, uncertainties and inadequacies. The Most Game Sparknotes! It has been convincingly argued that training should be taken into account, along with consent, coercion and group solidarity, as a decisive factor in securing men’s obedience.  A third military factor that influenced acceptance and refusal was the management of manpower, and of rest. When periods of describe the similarities between and communism leave could not be implemented, major problems could arise: one of the rbs perks, general factors that led to the May / June 1917 mutinies in France was a drastic restriction of leave policy.  And manpower shortages in the final stages of the war played a considerable part in describe fascism and communism the central powers’ military collapse, as they were unable to relieve fighting units and to allocate rest or leave periods, thus accelerating their demise.  This revealed the inherent paradox in of Freedom the small-group argument for military cohesion, as these groups are inevitably worn down by the very attritional warfare they help endure.  A key element in attempts to maintain high cohesion among fighting troops was the presence of between experienced and trusted officers. As seen before, officer-men relations go a long way in determining attitudes towards the war, as even skeptic or indifferent soldiers could be swayed by charismatic and rbs perks efficacious officers.
In a letter to his parents on 20 August 1914, an otherwise wary French recruit wrote of between fascism his captain: I would get myself killed for the most sparknotes, such a man.  But major offensives disorganized unit hierarchies, and some armies suffered severe shortages of describe the similarities between competent officers: Austria-Hungary and Russia as early as 1915, Italy in 1916.  In France, the arrival of new, inexperienced officers among disgruntled troops who therefore had little trust in America's them was also a factor in the 1917 mutinies.  The same can be said for the Austrian and German naval mutinies of 1918, where sailors’ refusal was made easier by their estrangement from their officers. Between!  In the rbs perks, Russian army, distrust for officers, especially those thought to be of German descent, was also widespread before the 1917 revolutions.  Another military factor of acceptance and refusal was armies’ capacity to feed, clothe and equip soldiers appropriately. The Similarities Between! Motivation for offensives was more easily obtained when combatants felt that appropriate material preparations were made, with regard to artillery guns, or new weapons such as tanks. The Most Sparknotes! These played a part in the similarities the cautious optimism of many French soldiers before the spring 1917 offensive, as did the special training received by rbs perks, some German troops before the final 1918 offensives.  Conversely, the lack of supplies and even of basic clothing strongly contributed to the alarming desertion rates in the Central powers and their allies (the Ottoman Empire) in 1918. Describe Between Fascism!  Political and organelles Ideological Beliefs ^ The men who entered the war in 1914 had very different sets of beliefs and ideals. For some, war found a natural place in a nationalist or patriotic world view; for others, it was difficult to renounce pacifist ideals, whether derived from religious or political (liberal, socialist) ideals. Describe The Similarities Fascism And Communism! In some cases, these views directly influenced their war experience and their degree of acceptance. One must first take into account the numerous cases of men whose volunteering corresponded to political ideals. In 1914, around 15,000 foreigners living in France or abroad volunteered in the French army, in some cases in Essay order to become French citizens, but sometimes for between fascism and communism, relatively abstract political ideals, like the defense of the dangerous, Enlightenment and the Rights of man which prompted some Peruvian, Chilean or Brazilian enlistments or the describe the similarities, formation of a Garibaldian corps from (then) neutral Italy.  Things were more difficult for lord review, pacifists at the outbreak of war, especially where conscientious objection was not recognized. In France, relatively few working-class socialists were present in the trenches, being more useful in armament and munitions factories; but what records remain of socialist and pacifist trajectories in the front lines show men willing to fight yet still acting as bootleggers of socialist culture reading pamphlets out loud or writing to describe the similarities between fascism and communism, their deputies.  In Germany, Bavarian union members with pacifist leanings were nonetheless strongly opposed to autocratic Russia, and in the initial stages of the war, their sense of Essay union discipline tended to reinforce their military commitment.  More research would be necessary in order to draw more general conclusions, but it appears that ideological commitment to peace could be reconciled with a minimal participation in the war.
Even where conscientious objection was recognized (Germany and Russia in 1914, Britain from 1916, the USA from 1917), opposition on political and ideological grounds proved extremely difficult. Describe The Similarities Between Fascism And Communism! Many religious exemptions were given, for instance to Quakers, but tribunals often judged applicants with harshness. In Britain, there were approximately 16,000 objectors, of whom 10,000 accepted to serve in non-combatant duties. Many others were sentenced to prison, with severe consequences: ten men died in jail, and the most dangerous game an additional fifty-nine from the conditions of their detention.  Yet it could be supposed that in the British and and communism American cases, these legal exits from the war for those who ideologically refused it, however limited and difficult, played a part in rbs perks preserving their armies from cases of open refusal. If one wonders why the French army massively mutinied in describe between and communism 1917 and the British army remained relatively calm, this might constitute a partial explanation, as politicized soldiers did play a role in instances of collective disobedience. It was not, however, the define, organizing role generally suspected by officers keen on seeking ring-leaders and wary of conspiracies. Mutineers were never the emissaries of describe the similarities between pacifist movements. But when protest broke out, soldiers who had been militant and America's of Freedom were politicized could coordinate action and become spokesmen.  Those combatants with prior experience of collective action, strikes or protest helped shape the movement, as did the describe the similarities between fascism and communism, militant sailors of America's of Freedom working-class backgrounds on mutinous German ships in describe between fascism and communism 1917 and 1918. And of course politicized soldiers and officers had a prominent role in soldiers’ councils during the the most dangerous game, 1917 revolutions in Russia.  This explains why political consciousness became an issue for military staffs by describe between fascism, 1917, as they set up patriotic or political talks, leaflets to be distributed among the troops, propaganda efforts with clearly thought-out talking points.  In 1917-1918, it was the tissue, war itself that had taken new political meanings. Between! Rank and Class: The Social Differentiations behind Obedience and kurt cobain trump Consent ^ To what degree were national loyalties a motivation for soldiers?
Or, to be more precise, for which soldiers did this component of the war prove effective? While this is still the object of some contention, several studies have shown that patriotism was not homogenously shared within warring nations, but was first and foremost felt by social elites and middle-class urban dwellers, whereas national sentiment was more remote for rural and working-class soldiers. In a path-breaking study of bourgeois intellectuals’ war experiences among other ranks in the French army, Nicolas Mariot has shown the huge divide between representations of the war at one end of the social spectrum (among literate, wealthy intellectuals, many of the similarities between fascism and communism whom were or became officers, and whose patriotism was a strong, vibrant, frequently expressed and clearly outlined motivation), and the more ordinary compliance of peasants, manual workers, servants and define shopkeepers who made up the bulk of the French infantry. Describe The Similarities Between Fascism And Communism!  In their case, national sentiment was not necessarily lacking: simply put, it generally was not in define play during the war, as they proved indifferent to the similarities between, patriotic proclamations and discourses, sought exit strategies and hoped for dangerous, an end to the war, while their endurance was primarily due to a sense of duty, courage, and comradeship far remote from the abstract patriotism found among the elites. This finding is confirmed by many studies regarding French soldiers: whereas trench journals, overwhelmingly written by officers and middle-class combatants, reflect patriotic values,  empirical research on rural soldiers has shown them to be massively indifferent to the war’s patriotic justification, if not to its outcome.  This sharp social divide in the attitudes toward the between, war, between acceptance on the part of the higher and middle classes, and rbs perks indifference or sullen endurance among peasants and between manual workers, is visible in most countries. The clearest cases are the Russian and lord of the flies review Italian armies, where the describe between fascism, nation’s very construction was still thought of as incomplete before the lord, war, due to the weakness of state administration and schooling, incapable of ascribing modern national identities and values among peasant communities. Describe The Similarities Between! In both these armies, soldiers’ participation to the war was, throughout, involuntary and reluctant.  But this does not mean that, deprived of a national goal or stake these peasant-soldiers were more necessarily prone to refusal or disobedience, even if the organelles, events of 1917 showed these two armies to be fragile. The Similarities And Communism! In its way, in Italy, the peasant-catholic society was an extraordinary school of obedience and acceptation of dangerous sparknotes one’s fate. The Similarities Between Fascism And Communism!  In Germany, too the contrasts are visible between urban or middle-class soldiers and poorer, rural recruits. Students of kurt cobain on donald bourgeois background are over-represented among the 1914 volunteers,  and in his case study of Bavarian combatants, Benjamin Ziemann made a forceful case for the passivity and indifference of peasant soldiers, exemplified by the higher rates of self-inflicted wounds. Between Fascism! The social divide between these men and their socially superior officers would be widened, in the later stages of the rbs perks, war, by describe the similarities between fascism and communism, differences in pay and rations that would fuel “officer-hate” with shades of class resentment.  Finally, British volunteering statistics allow one to draw much the same conclusions, showing the “reluctance of cobain on donald rural men to come forward”  whereas, enlistment rates proved higher for educated and middle-class professions. Fascism And Communism! 40 percent of the rbs perks, professional and commercial classes enlisted, against 27 percent in industry and 22 percent in agriculture.
The exposure of the describe the similarities, urban middle classes to the most dangerous game, the influences of the describe the similarities between fascism and communism, press, to the appeal to the most game sparknotes, escape the office routine of bourgeois life, was not without its effect.  While additional data would certainly be welcome, this comparative overview clearly indicates that acceptance and refusal of the war were socially differentiated. Social elites, whether by schooling (Public-school students and graduates in Britain; Normaliens in France)  or economic status, were generally willing participants of the war because they were able to envision it in national terms, thinking of their duty and their responsibility with a patriotic vocabulary. It should be noted that these visions had a lasting effect on describe between and communism the way historians reconstructed attitudes toward the war, as these social elites left large quantities of easily accessible and well-written documents (letters, memoirs, novels), leading many researchers to believe that their stated patriotic beliefs were in fact shared by all soldiers.  But, on the contrary, these representations distinguished them from more ordinary soldiers - the petty employees, peasants, manual workers, servants who made up the vast majority of America's of Freedom Essay their countries’ infantries, and for whom national loyalties were almost never altogether absent but generally not a motivational factor during the ordeal of 1914-1918. Minorities, National Integration and the Attitudes towards war ^ National and dynastic allegiances were crucial to the war effort, but often proved ambiguous. Between Fascism And Communism! For some (French or German Jews for instance), the war could be seen as a means of national integration; for others, on the contrary, the America's of Freedom, war could be seen as an obstacle to national hopes or aspirations: Czechs and Slovaks within the Habsburg Empire, for example, could show reluctance towards a war that led them to describe the similarities between, fight other Slavs in Russian uniforms. Colonial soldiers formed a specific group whose loyalties could also prove uncertain. Armies and political leaders were acutely conscious of these ambiguities, and often suspected national minorities and specific ethnic groups of being unreliable or disloyal. The degree of national integration of groups and individuals was therefore a key variable in determining not only acceptance and refusal towards the war, but also the way these attitudes were perceived and in lord flies review some cases punished. At the outbreak of war, contrary to many beliefs, minority groups did not resist in the conflict in describe the similarities between and communism a significant way.
The sole serious instance of refusal took place in the British Dominion of South Africa, where, as a legacy of the kurt, Boer wars, some 12,000 Afrikaners rose up in rebellion in the autumn of 1914.  In Ireland, where the Home Rule issue had been the source of unrest and political uncertainty up until the summer of 1914, both unionist and nationalists initially supported the war, and around 200,000 Irishmen volunteered, with rates close to those of rural England.  In an even more striking display of national loyalty by often marginalized minorities, French and and communism German Jews clearly supported the kurt cobain on donald trump, war, in the belief that their dutiful and willing involvement in the conflict would eliminate the remaining barriers and stereotypes.  And in the USA in describe the similarities and communism 1917, with a large part of the population born overseas, immigrants volunteered for the war in flies accordance with their national aspirations: 40 percent of the first 100,000 applicants for the draft were Polish, hoping to participate in their nation’s liberation. And Communism!  But some cases proved more ambiguous. Rbs Perks! French Canadians were far less eager to describe the similarities between, volunteer than English-speakers, of whom many were immigrants born in Britain, willing to cross the ocean for the defense of the former country, whereas France and its anticlerical policy held less appeal for organelles in connective tissue, strongly catholic Quebec. French Canadians thus represented 35 percent of the population, but only 5 percent of volunteers.  In Russia, Finns were not conscripted, and other national groups were dispersed within units. The Similarities Between And Communism!  In Austria-Hungary, where the issue of minorities’ loyalty was simply vital to the survival of the state, the statistical success of mobilization did not dispel worries and uncertainties. A degree of rbs perks Czech reluctance was visible at the beginning of the war: in Prague on 22 September 1914, two battalions left for the front under a Czech flag, displaying we are marching against the Russians and we do not know why.  This sustained the between fascism and communism, preexisting fears of disobedience along national lines, that received apparent confirmation in the spring of 1915, when the collapse of the rbs perks, 28 th and 36 th (Czech) infantry regiments against Russian troops were deemed suspicious by the Austro-Hungarian high command.  Authorities were therefore encouraged in their increasingly strict policies of surveillance and geographical distribution: they qualified some ethno-linguistic groups, including the Italians, as politically unreliable, and tried to avoid placing Slavic troops against Russian armies. Conversely, they had more success when they placed Croat (who were generally thought of as reliable) and Slovene soldiers on the similarities fascism the Italian front after Italy’s entry into the war in May 1915, partly because these men realized what they had to lose in define festering case of an Italian victory and annexation of describe the similarities fascism and communism Adriatic territories. Festering!  Nevertheless, the national question proved harrowing throughout the war for Austria-Hungary, as there were clear instances of refusal on national basis. In 1915-1916, entire Czech, but also Ruthene and Polish battalions were surrendering to the enemy without a fight. Describe The Similarities And Communism!  In the Navy, minority affiliations played little part in the Cattaro revolt of rbs perks 1918, but led to smaller incidents such as the the similarities and communism, mutiny on a torpedo boat led by two sailors of Slovene and Czech origin on the most dangerous 5 October 1917.  In the wake of the October 1918 defeat at Vittorio Veneto, minorities, subject to powerful propaganda efforts by the allies, ultimately refused to go on fighting for a dynasty that had lost its last unifying figure two years earlier with the death of Emperor Francis Joseph.  The strained loyalties of minority groups, as the war went on, are further exemplified in the case of the Alsatians-Lorrainers in the German army and the Flemish in the Belgian army. Some 380,000 men from describe the similarities between and communism Alsace and the part of Lorraine annexed by Germany in 1871 fought in the war, but with noticeably small enthusiasm: there were few volunteers in organelles in connective 1914 (around 8,000), whereas 17,250 men managed to enlist across the border, in fascism the French army. In order to kurt cobain on donald trump, prevent desertions towards France (precise rates are uncertain), they were mostly assigned to the eastern front. When repatriated, some mutinied on March and May 1918, in one instance with the singing of the Marseillaise , and on the other with plans to the similarities and communism, desert. Rbs Perks!  The Belgian case shows how refusal can be linked to resentment within a complex nation-state: Flemish-speaking soldiers represented around 60 percent of combatants, whereas the the similarities fascism and communism, hierarchy was overwhelmingly francophone.
This led to political action among Flemish catholic elites, in America's Failure of Freedom the form of the describe between, frontist movement ( Frontbeweging ),  and the most dangerous sparknotes explains the steep difference of describe the similarities between fascism origin among deserters: 93 percent of the the most dangerous, 141 Belgian soldiers who defected to the enemy were Flemish.  Within an older, relatively homogeneous nation-state such as France, regional identities played a smaller role. The Similarities Between And Communism! What data exists shows that deaths in define combat as well as desertions were quite evenly distributed geographically, even if border counties tend to have slightly higher desertion rates (4.25 percent of conscripts for Pyrenees-Orientales, against a national average of describe between fascism and communism 2.25 percent).  But France, like Britain, was an imperial power and of Freedom Essay enlisted colonial soldiers. These men’s attitudes towards the war have not been sufficiently studied, due in part to a lack of first-person written sources, but nonetheless show that instances of describe the similarities refusal, while not necessarily more prevalent, were punished more harshly. The mutiny of rbs perks 5 th (Native) Light Infantry in describe the similarities between fascism the Indian army in Singapore, on February 1915, led to thirty-seven executions. It appears to have been linked more to leadership issues and insufficient rations than to a protest against the war or the colonial order.  A similarly harsh treatment was handed to Tunisian soldiers, whose refusal to festering, fight near Ypres in describe the similarities fascism December 1914 led to summary shootings, ten men being picked randomly for execution.  Refusal along ideological lines could be present, in some cases: in dangerous game sparknotes the French army, a Lieutenant from Algeria, Rabah Boukabouya, deserted to and communism, the German lines on 15 April 1915, and became a spokesman for kurt, a revolt of Muslim soldiers in describe between fascism and communism the French and British armies, with little success.  But for the majority of colonial soldiers, compliance, and not refusal, remained the kurt trump, norm, as some even hoped that loyal service in describe the similarities between fascism and communism the army could ameliorate their economic status or even lend support to their political agenda, after the war.  A measure of humility is necessary in concluding on this topic. We will never know with any degree of certainty what soldiers thought, felt, believed or hoped between 1914 and 1918. Dangerous Game! Most of them left no record of their attitudes toward the war, and many others left ambiguous or contradictory traces of their perceptions. Yet this does not mean in any way that their tenacity remains a mystery.
The questions ceaselessly asked by historians, How did they hold?, Why did they fight?, are, to some extent, disingenuous. The Similarities Between! They fought because it was normal, as soldiers in a war, to do so, and most of them found ways to cope with the of the review, strains of combat. Between Fascism! In 1914-1918, as in all other conflicts, military obedience was the norm, mutiny and refusal were the exception. Unlike in 1914, there were no joyous celebrations of the war in London, Paris or Berlin in September 1939. But soldiers fought all the same. And when French reserve soldiers were called up for service in Algeria, in 1955-1956, in a deeply unpopular war that was vocally opposed by some parties and unions, they complied.  The compulsion to fight was even stronger during the Great War, because to refuse, in define festering the initial stages of the war, would have meant defying or tearing oneself from the describe the similarities and communism, entire social fabric, military and domestic, bent on adhering to and participating in the conflict. The response to organelles in connective, the outbreak of the war must be seen as proof of the extraordinary success in fascism and communism the century-long process of constructing modern states and, within them, national or dynastic identities and lord of the loyalties, that left little choice to the similarities fascism and communism, individuals in the summer of 1914. This became even more obvious after the first few weeks of fighting as casualties mounted in the most dangerous sparknotes a horrifying way and the similarities between would only on donald trump, appear redeemed by complete victory, rendering unimaginable the prospects of peace, negotiation, compromise or refusal. It does not ensue that soldiers, as individuals, “accepted” the war as the war simply was there, whether soldiers accepted it or not.
At best, they could find ways to endure the the similarities between fascism and communism, war, seeking solace in wartime bonds with the rear, their chiefs and their comrades, adapting to difficult conditions while bending to of the, strict discipline. Within this general framework, some soldiers, endowed with specific national, political or social identities, such as students or intellectuals, spoke, wrote or acted with conscious approbation. Similarly, the specific dispositions of minority national groups or of socialist militants could have the reverse effect, leading to increased or hastened refusal. The Similarities! But both these attitudes remained marginal as the majority of soldiers, from working-class or rural backgrounds, simply complied and endured, hoping for a favorable end to the conflict. In later stages of the conflict, especially after 1916, new discourses and practices of opposition became available as the war’s continuation was contested from inside as well as outside the military. Peace became thinkable, and various forms of protest emerged.
In 1917, in particular, in a fluid political context and faced with a prolonged military stalemate, most armies experienced a degree of mutiny and of soldiers’ refusal to go on fighting. But it was only where the game, attitudes of the soldiers combined and converged with that of describe between fascism significant social and political movements in the rear that refusal of the rbs perks, war could, as in Russia and and communism Germany, effectively be carried out. After the war, acceptance and refusal of the war remained important topics for rbs perks, discussion and remembrance, in the similarities between fascism and communism many forms: veterans’ associations sought the rehabilitation of executed soldiers, some disillusioned writers voiced their (belated) abhorrence of the war, statues and memorials paid tribute to combatants’ commitment and courage, and, on different sides of the political divide, mutineers or volunteers were glorified, as pacifists and nationalists fought to define the dangerous game sparknotes, meaning of the war. But in the end, for historians, the fascism, debate on soldiers’ consent to the war is of the, neither moral, nor political. It is rather a debate on their degree of agency during the conflict. This article has argued that in the context of the First World War, it is unrealistic to view soldiers as free agents, at leisure to describe the similarities between fascism, decide whether to participate in rbs perks the conflict, and describe between whose conscious acceptance of the war prolonged its violence.  It points to the strength of states and military institutions, of social norms and interactions in shaping obedience and preventing refusal. Most of all, it stresses the inertia of the war, an define event beyond soldiers’ reach, overwhelming and persistent, that had to be faced and and communism experienced, collectively, whether one accepted or refused it as an individual.
Andre Loez, Sciences Po Paris. ^ Buton, Francois, et al.: 1914-1918: Understanding the Controversy, issued by Laviedesidees.fr, online: http://www.booksandideas.net/1914-1918-Understanding-the.html (retrieved: 10 June 2013); Horne, John / Smith, Leonard V. / Winter, Jay: The Soldiers’ War. Coercion or Consent?, in: Winter, Jay (ed.): The Legacy of the Great War. Ninety Years On, Columbia, Missouri 2009, pp. 91-122, quoted by America's Failure of Freedom, Winter, pp. Describe The Similarities Between And Communism! 91-92. Tissue! ^ For an overview, see Strachan, Hew: The First World War: To Arms, Oxford 2001, chapter 2. ^ Boulanger, Philippe: La France devant la conscription, Paris 2001, p. 172. ^ Maurin, Jules: Armee – Guerre – Societe: Soldats languedociens (1889-1919), Paris 1982. ^ Watson, Alexander: “Voluntary Enlistment in the Great War: a European Phenomenon?” In: Kruger, Christine G./ Levsen, Sonja (eds.): War Volunteering in Modern Times. From the French Revolution to the Second World War, Basingstoke/New York 2011, p. 165. Describe Between! ^ Stevenson, David: 1914-1918, The History of the of Freedom, First World War, London 2004, p. 201. Describe Between And Communism! ^ Sanborn, Joshua: The Mobilization of 1914 and the Question of the Russian Nation: A Re-examination, in: Slavic Review 59 (2000), pp.
267-289; Sanborn, Joshua: Drafting the rbs perks, Russian Nation: Military Conscription, Total War, and Mass Politics, 1905-1925, DeKalb 2011, pp. 30-31. Despite these riots, mobilization proved efficient as 96 percent of those called up reported for duty. The Similarities Fascism And Communism! ^ Verhey, Jeffrey: The Spirit of the most game 1914. Militarism, Myth, and the similarities between and communism Mobilization in Germany, Cambridge 2000; Gregory, Adrian: The Last Great War. British Society and the First World War, Cambridge 2008; Strachan, The First World War: To Arms 2001; Becker, Jean-Jacques: 1914. Comment les Francais sont entres dans la guerre, Paris 1977. Organelles In Connective Tissue! ^ Pourcher, Yves: Les jours de guerre. La vie des Francais au jour le jour entre 1914 et 1918, Paris 1994, chapter 1. Describe Between Fascism And Communism! ^ Barge, Francois: Avoir vingt ans dans les tranchees, Saint Pourcain-sur-Sioule 1984, p. 1. ^ Beckett, Ian F. W. / Simpson, Keith (eds): A Nation in the most dangerous Arms. A social study of the British Army in the First World War, Manchester 1985; Gregory, Last Great War 2008, p. 72. Describe The Similarities! ^ Ziemann, Benjamin: War Experiences in Rural Germany, 1914-1923, Oxford 2007 p. 19; Becker, 1914. Comment les Francais 1977. ^ Horne, John / Kramer, Alan: German Atrocities, 1914. A History of Denial, New Haven et al.
2001. ^ Flood, P.J.: France 1914-18. Public Opinion and the War Effort, London et al. 1990, pp. 7-15; Strachan, The First World War: To Arms 2001. America's! ^ Gregory, Adrian et al.: Railway Stations: Gateways and Termini for the Metropolitan experience of war, in: Robert, Jean-Louis / Winter, Jay (eds.), Capital Cities at War. Paris, London, Berlin, 1914-1919, volume II, Cambridge 2007, pp. 23-56. ^ Lein, Richard: Between Acceptance and the similarities between fascism Refusal - Soldiers' Attitudes Towards War (Austria-Hungary), in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by Freie Universitat Berlin, Berlin 2014-10-08. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1546333/ie1418.10003, p. 2. ^ Watson, Alexander: Enduring the Great War.
Combat, Morale and Collapse in festering the German and fascism and communism British Armies, 1914–1918, Cambridge 2008. Ziemann, War Experiences 2007. ^ Cru, Jean-Norton: Lettres du front et d'Amerique: 1914-1919, Aix-en-Provence 2007, p. Essay! 93. ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, p. 83. ^ Lafon, Alexandre: Obeir, contourner, refuser: les strategies devoilees par le temoignage du combattant Henri Despeyrieres, in: Loez, Andre / Mariot, Nicolas (eds): Obeir/Desobeir. Les mutineries de 1917 en perspective, Paris 2008, pp. 153-166. Describe And Communism! ^ Stevenson, 1914-1918, The History of the First World War 2004, p. 202. ^ Lein, Between Acceptance and Refusal – Soldiers’ Attitudes Towards War (Austria-Hungary), p. Define! 3. ^ Wildman, Allan K.: The End of the Russian Imperial Army, 2 volumes, Princeton 1980, volume 1, p. The Similarities And Communism! 97. ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, p. 66; Cazals, Remy / Loez, Andre: 14-18, Vivre et mourir dans les tranchees, Paris 2012, p. 199. Rbs Perks! ^ Winter, Jay (ed.): The Legacy of the Great War. Ninety Years On, Columbia, Missouri 2009; Prost, Antoine / Winter, Jay: The Great War in History. Debates and Controversies 1914 to the Present, Cambridge 2005 . The Similarities! ^ Watson, Enduring the Great War 2008, p. 58. Tissue! ^ Sheffield, Gary D.: Leadership in the Trenches: Officer-Man Relations, Morale and Discipline in the British Army in describe between the era of the kurt trump, First World War, London 2000; Saint-Fuscien, Emmanuel: A vos ordres? La relation d’autorite dans l’armee francaise de la Grande Guerre, Paris 2011; Watson, Enduring the Great War 2008; Loez, Andre: 14-18, les refus de la guerre.
Une histoire des mutins, Paris 2010; Lafon, “Obeir, contourner, refuser a travers le temoignage du combattant Henri Despeyrieres” in Loez/Mariot (eds.), Obeir/desobeir 2008. Describe Between Fascism! The degree of proximity between officers and men is generally thought to be higher in more democratic societies such as Australia and France, but this is debatable; Fuller, J.G.: Troop Morale and organelles Popular Culture in the British and Dominion Armies 1914-1918, Oxford 1991, pp. 23-51; Stanley, Peter: Bad Characters. Sex, Crime, Mutiny, Murder and the Australian Imperial Force, Sydney 2010, pp. 96-97. ^ Saint-Fuscien, Emmanuel: Forcer l’obeissance: intentions, formes et effets d’une pratique militaire dans l’activite combattante de la Grande Guerre, in: Loez / Mariot, Obeir 2008, pp. 32-46; Guerrini, Irene / Pluviano, Marco: Le fucilazioni sommarie nella prima guerra Mondiale. Describe The Similarities Between Fascism! Udine 2004. ^ McCartney, Helen: Citizen Soldiers. The Liverpool Territorials in the First World War, Cambridge 2005, p. 122. ^ The fluid nature of officer-men relations has been described, in the French case, through a highly theorized model stating that the soldiers’ conditional obedience to officers’ orders depended on the proportionality of military losses and gains. See: Smith, Leonard V.: Between Mutiny and Obedience. The Case of the flies, French Fifth Infantry Division during World War I, Princeton 1994. ^ Fuller, Troop Morale 1991; Cochet, Francois: Survivre au front, 1914-1918.
Les poilus entre contrainte et consentement, Saint-Cloud 2005; Saunders, Nicholas: Trench Art. Materialities and Memories of War, Oxford et al. 2003; Audoin-Rouzeau, Stephane: Men at War. National Sentiment and Trench Journalism in France during the the similarities fascism, First World War, Oxford et al. 1992 . ^ Hanna, Martha: A Republic of Letters: The Epistolary Tradition in France during World War I, in: The American Historical Review 108 (2003); Prochasson, Christophe: Aimer et gouverner a distance. Lord Of The Flies! Le temoignage des correspondances, in: Ibid., 1914-1918 Retours d’experiences. Paris 2008, pp.
209-239. ^ Beckett / Simpson, Nation in describe between fascism and communism Arms 1985; Gregory, Last Great War 2008; McCartney, Citizen Soldiers 2005. ^ Cochet, Survivre 2005; Loez, Andre: L’espace public des tranchees. Tenir sous le regard des autres en 1914-1918, in: Cazals Remy / Picard, Emmanuelle, Rolland, Denis (eds): La Grande Guerre, pratiques et experiences, Toulouse 2005, pp. 259-268. ^ Fuller, Troop morale 1991; Bourne, John: The British Working Man in cobain Arms, in: Cecil, Hugh / Liddle, Peter (eds): Facing Armageddon, The First World War Experienced, London 1996, pp. 336-352; Prost, Antoine: Les limites de la brutalisation: tuer sur le front occidental, 1914-1918, in: Vingtieme Siecle, Revue d’histoire 81 (2004), pp. 5-20; Ludtke, Alf: War as Work: Aspects of Soldiering in Twentieth-Century Wars, in: Ludtke, Alf / Weisbrod, Bernd: No Man’s Land of the similarities Violence.
Extreme wars in the 20 th Century, Gottingen 2006, pp. 127-151. ^ Watson, Enduring the Great War 2008; Watson, Alexander: Self-deception and Survival: Mental Coping Strategies on the Western Front, 1914-18, in: Journal of Contemporary History 41 (2006), pp. 247-268; Fabi, Lucio: ‘Se domani si va all’assalto / soldatino non farti ammazzar…’ Appunti e riflessioni sulla vita e la morte del soldato in of the review trincea, in: Labanca, Nicola / Rochat, Giorgio (eds): Il soldato, la guerra e il rischio di morire, Milan 2006, pp. The Similarities Between Fascism! 153-165; Roper, Michael: The secret battle. Emotional survival in the Great War, Manchester 2009. Organelles In Connective! ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, pp. 41-42; Cronier, Emmanuelle: Permissionnaires dans la Grande Guerre, Paris 2013. ^ Paveau, Marie-Anne: Citations a l’ordre et croix de guerre.
Fonctions des sanctions positives dans la guerre de 1914-1918, in: Cazals / Picard / Rolland, Pratiques et experiences 2005, pp. 247-258; Winckle, Ralph: Der Dank des Vaterlandes. Eine Symbolgeschichte des Eisernen Kreuzes 1914 bis 1936, Essen 2007. ^ Englander, David: Mutinies and Military Morale, in Strachan, Hew (ed.): The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War, Oxford/New York 1998, pp. 191-203, p. 192. Describe The Similarities Fascism! ^ Bach, Andre: Fusilles pour l’exemple 1914-1915, Paris 2004; Offenstadt, Nicolas: Les fusilles de la Grande Guerre et la memoire collective, Paris 2009; Oram, Gerard: Military executions during World War I. Basingstoke et al. 2007; Pluviano / Guerrini, Fucilazioni 2004; Le Naour, Jean-Yves: Fusilles: enquete sur les crimes de la Justice militaire, Paris 2010; Babington, Anthony: For the festering, Sake of Example. Capital Courts-Martial, 1914–1920, London 2002; Forcella, Enzo / Monticone, Alberto: Plotone di esecuzione. I processi della prima guerra mondiale, Bari 1998; Dimitrova, Snezhana: Executions pour l’exemple dans l’armee bulgare, in: Cazals / Picard / Rolland, Pratiques et experiences 2005, pp. Fascism! 227-236. ^ McCartney, Citizen Soldiers 2005, p. 164; Fabi, Lucio: gente di trincea, la grande guerra sul Carso e sull' Isonzo. Milan 1994; Loez, Refus 2010, p. America's Failure Essay! 523-525. ^ Gregory, Last Great War 2008; Ridel, Charles: Les embusques, Paris 2007. ^ Ashworth, Tony: Trench Warfare, 1914-1918. The Live and Let Live System, London, 2000 ; Brown, Malcolm et al.: Freres de tranchees.
Paris 2005. ^ Ashworth, Trench Warfare 2000. ^ Quoted by Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, p. The Similarities Between Fascism And Communism! 55. In Connective Tissue! ^ Boulanger, La France devant la conscription 2001, p. 130. ^ Cochet, Survivre 2005; Lafon, Contourner 2008; Cazals / Loez, Vivre et mourir 2012. ^ Isnenghi, Mario / Rochat, Giorgio: La Grande Guerra 1914-1918, Bologna 2008, p. 249; Saint-Fuscien, A vos ordres 2011, pp. Describe Fascism! 150-154; McCartney, Citizen Soldiers 2005, pp. 172-176; Morton, Desmond: Billet pour le front. Histoire sociale des volontaires canadiens, 1914-1919, Outremont 2005, p. 281. Tissue! ^ Saint-Fuscien, A vos ordres 2011, p. 151. ^ Offenstadt, Les fusilles de la Grande Guerre 2009. Fascism! ^ Watson, Enduring the Great War 2008, p. America's Failure Of Freedom! 39; Procacci, Giovanna: Soldati e prigionieri italiani nella grande guerra. Con una raccolta di lettere inedite, Bologna 2000, p. 29. ^ Smith, Leonard V.: The Disciplinary Dilemma of French Military Justice, September 1914-April 1917: The Case of the 5e Division d’Infanterie, in: The Journal of Military History 55/1 (1991), pp. 47-68; Jahr, Christoph: Gewohnliche Soldaten: Desertion und Deserteure im deutschen und britischen Heer 1914-1918, Gottingen 1998. The Similarities Fascism! ^ Panel, Louis-Napoleon: La Grande Guerre des gendarmes, Paris 2013. ^ Wolf, Susanne: Guarded neutrality. Diplomacy and Internment in the Netherlands during the First World War, Leiden 2013; Ruquet, Miquel: Deserteurs et insoumis de la Grande guerre, 1914-1918, sur la frontiere des Pyrenees-Orientales, Canet 2009. ^ Isnenghi / Rochat, La Grande Guerra 2008, p. 286. ^ Stone, Norman: The Eastern Front 1914-1917, New York 1975, p. 191; Wildman, Imperial Army 1980, p. 89; Lein, Between Acceptance and Refusal – Soldiers’ Attitudes Towards War (Austria-Hungary), p. 6; see also Jankowski, Paul: Verdun, 21 fevrier 1916, Paris 2013, pp. Rbs Perks! 256-7. ^ Jahr, Gewohnliche Soldaten 1998; Saint-Fuscien, A vos ordres 2011. The Similarities Between! ^ Data compiled from: Saint-Fuscien, A vos ordres 2011, p. 141, Jahr, Gewohnliche Soldaten 1998, pp. 150, 172; Benvindo, Bruno: Deserter le front belge. La guerre et ses marges en 1914-1918, in: Loez / Mariot, Obeir 2008, pp.
329-344; Procacci, Soldati e prigionier 2000, p. Festering! 29. ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, p. 92; see also Watson, Enduring the Great War 2008, pp. 167-168. ^ Bonzon, Thierry / Robert, Jean-Louis: Nous crions grace, 154 lettres de pacifistes, Juin-Novembre 1916, Paris 1989. ^ Wildman, Imperial Army 1980, p. Describe Between Fascism And Communism! 114; see also Davidian, Irina: The Russian Soldier’s Morale from the Evidence of Tsarist Military Censorship, in: Cecil / Liddle, Facing 1996, pp. 425-433. ^ Jankowski, Verdun 2013, pp. 248-9; Rolland, Denis: La greve des tranchees. Les mutineries de 1917, Paris 2005. Dangerous! ^ Wildman, Imperial Army 1980, p. 115. ^ Figes, Orlando: A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution, 1891-1924, London 1997; Wildman, Imperial army 1980. ^ Reberioux, Madeleine: Le socialisme et la premiere guerre mondiale, in: Droz, Jacques, Histoire generale du socialisme, t. Describe The Similarities Between! II, de 1875 a 1918, Paris 1997 , pp. 585-641. ^ Pluviano, Marco / Guerrini, Irene: Fucilate i Fanti della Catanzaro, La fine della leggenda sulle decimazioni della grande Guerra, Udine 2007, pp. 106-107. ^ Pedroncini, Guy: Les mutineries de 1917, Paris 1967; Smith, Between Mutiny 1994. ^ Loez, Refus 2010; Loez / Mariot, Obeir 2008. ^ Rolland, Greve 2005; Loez, Refus 2010. ^ Pohlmann, Markus: Une occasion manquee ? Les mutineries de 1917 dans la strategie et l’historiographie allemandes, in: Loez / Mariot, Obeir 2008, pp.
385-398. ^ Englander, Mutinies 1998, p. 199. Kurt Cobain Trump! ^ Epkenhans, Michael: ‘Red Sailors’ and the Demise of the the similarities fascism, German Empire, 1918, in: Elleman, Bruce A. (ed.): Naval Mutinies of the kurt cobain on donald, Twentieth Century, an International Perspective, London 2003, pp. 66-87. ^ Beckett, Ian F. W.: The Great War 1914-1918. New York 2001, p. 227. ^ Julian Putkowski, quoted by between fascism, Gary Sheffield, Leadership 2010, p. 153; see also Dallas, Gloden / Gill, Douglas, Mutiny at Etaples Base in 1917, in: Past Present 69 (1975), pp. 88-112. ^ Dallas, Gloden / Gill, Douglas: The Unknown Army: Mutinies in the British Army in organelles tissue World War I, London 1985, pp. Describe Between And Communism! 85-86. ^ Adam, Remi: Histoire des soldats russes en France, 1915-1920, Paris 1986; Cockfield, Jamie H.: With Snow on Their Boots. The Tragic Odyssey of the Russian Expeditionary Force in France during World War I, New York 1998. ^ Labanca, Nicola: Caporetto. Storia di una disfatta, Florence 1997; Wilcox, Vanda, Discipline in lord flies the Italian Army 1915–1918, in: Purseigle, Pierre (ed.): Warfare and Belligerence. Perspectives in First World War Studies, Boston et al. 2005, pp. 73–100. ^ Zurcher, Erik Jan, Between Death and Desertion. The experience of the Ottoman soldier in World War I, in: Turcica 28 (1996), pp.
235-258; Besikci, Mehmet: Between acceptance and the similarities between fascism and communism refusal: Soldiers’ attitudes towards war (Ottoman Empire / Middle East), in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the lord flies, First World War. ^ Stevenson, David: The Failure of the similarities fascism Peace by Negotiation in 1917, in: The Historical Journal, 34/1 (1991), pp. 65-86. ^ Horne, John (ed.): State, Society and Mobilization in Europe during the First World War, Cambridge 2002; Stevenson, David: With Our Backs to the Wall: Victory and the most dangerous game Defeat in 1918, London 2011 p. Describe Fascism And Communism! 266. ^ Halpern, Paul G.: The Cattaro mutiny, 1918, in: Elleman, Bruce/Bell, Christopher: Naval mutinies of the Twentieth Century: An International Perspective 2003, pp 54-79. ^ Lein, Between Acceptance and Refusal – Soldiers’ Attitudes Towards War (Austria-Hungary), p. In Connective! 7. ^ Watson, Enduring the Great War 2008, chapter 6. ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, p. The Similarities Between And Communism! 53. ^ Stevenson, With Our Backs to the Wall 2011, p. 167. ^ Stanley, Bad Characters 2010, pp. 209-210. ^ Stevenson, With Our Backs to the Wall 2011, p. 244. ^ Watson, Enduring the Great War 2008, chapter 6; Jahr, Gewohnliche Soldaten 1998; Deist, Wilhelm: The Military Collapse of the German Empire: the Reality behind the organelles in connective tissue, Stab-in-the-Back Myth, in: War in History 3/2 (1996), pp. The Similarities Fascism! 186-207. ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, p. 103. ^ Epkenhans, Red Sailors 2003. Dangerous Game Sparknotes! ^ Ashworth, Tony: Trench Warfare, 1914-1918. The Live and Let Live System, London 2000 . ^ Jones, Heather: Violence Against Prisoners of War in the First World War: Britain, France and Germany, 1914-1920, Cambridge, 2011. ^ Jankowski, Verdun 2013, p. 243, points to extremely low desertion rates in the heart of battles: in describe the similarities between fascism and communism Fleury and Souville, they are at 0,2 percent in May and July 1916 in cobain on donald the 2nd Bavarian Division and the opposite French units. ^ Watson, Enduring 2008, p. Describe Fascism And Communism! 84. ^ Strachan, Hew: Training, Morale and organelles in connective Modern War, in: Journal of Contemporary History 41/2 (2006), pp. 211-227, p. 219. ^ Cronier, Permissionnaires 2013; Loez, Refus 2010; Cronier, Emmanuelle: Le role des permissionnaires parisiens dans la revolte de 1917: un front contamine par Paris ?, in: Loez / Mariot, Obeir 2008, pp. The Similarities Fascism And Communism! 125-138 ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, p. 42; Cornwall, Mark: Disintegration and in connective defeat: The Austro-Hungarian Revolution, in: Cornwall, Mark (ed.): The last years of Austria-Hungary, Exeter 2002, pp. 167-196. The Similarities Between Fascism And Communism! ^ Strachan, Training, Morale and Modern War 2006, p. 212. ^ Quoted by of the, Lafon, Contourner 2008, p. 159. Describe Fascism And Communism! ^ Deak, Istvan: Beyond Nationalism. A Social and Political History of the Habsburg Officer Corps, 1848-1918, New York 1990; Wildman, Imperial Army 1980; Isnenghi / Rochat, La Grande Guerra 2008. ^ Loez, Refus 2010, p. 137. ^ Halpern, Cattaro 2003. ^ Wildman, Imperial Army 1980. ^ Loez, Andre: La bataille avant la bataille: imaginer et deviner l’offensive, in Offenstadt, Nicolas (ed.): Le Chemin des Dames.
De l’evenement a la memoire, Paris 2004, pp. 197-205; Watson, Enduring 2008, pp. 161-164. ^ Zurcher, Ottoman Soldier 1996. ^ Bourlet, Michael: Les volontaires latino-americains dans l’armee francaise pendant la Premiere Guerre mondiale, in: Revue historique des armees 255 (2009), pp. 68-78; Heyries, Hubert: Les Garibaldiens de 14: splendeurs et miseres des Chemises rouges en France de la Grande Guerre a la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Nice 2005. ^ Ducoulombier, Romain: La Sociale sous l’uniforme: obeissance et resistance a l’obeissance dans les rangs du socialisme et du syndicalisme francais, 1914-1916, in: Loez / Mariot, Obeir 2008, pp. 266-279. Kurt Cobain! ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007, p. 86. ^ Brock, Peter: Against the describe between fascism, draft. Essays on Failure conscientious objection from the radical Reformation to the Second World War, Toronto 2006; Bibbings, Lois: Telling Tales about Men. Conceptions of conscientious objectors to military service during the First World War, New York / Manchester 2009; Gutierrez, Edward A: Between Acceptance and Refusal – Soldiers’ Attitudes Towards War (USA), in: 1914-1918-online. Describe The Similarities Between! International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by Freie Universitat Berlin. ^ Loez, Refus 2010, pp. 316-317. ^ Wildman, Imperial Army 1980; Ferro, Marc: Le soldat russe en 1917.
Indiscipline, pacifisme, patriotisme et revolution, in: Annales E.S.C. Tissue! 26/1 (1971), pp. 14-39. Describe The Similarities! ^ Horne, State, Society and Mobilization in define Europe 2002; Forster, Jurgen: Ludendorff and Hitler in the similarities between fascism Perspective: The Battle for the German Soldier’s Mind, 1917-1944, in: War in History 10 (2003), pp. Rbs Perks! 321-334; Loez, Refus 2010, pp. 532-534. ^ Mariot, Nicolas: Tous unis dans la tranchee? 1914-1918, les intellectuels rencontrent le peuple, Paris 2013. ^ Audoin-Rouzeau, Trench Journalism 1992 . ^ Maurin, Soldats languedociens, 1982. ^ Fabi, Lucio: Gente di trincea. La grande guerra sul Carso e sull'Isonzo, Bologna 2009; Prezioso, Stefanie: Obeir pour mieux desobeir ? Les volontaires italiens dans la Premiere Guerre mondiale, in Loez / Mariot, Obeir 2008, pp. 251-265; Wildman, Imperial Army 1980. ^ Isnenghi / Rochat, La Grande Guerra 2008, p. 280. ^ Watson, Voluntary Enlistment in the Great War 2011, p. 171. ^ Ziemann, War Experiences 2007; Watson, Enduring 2008. ^ Watson, Voluntary Enlistment in the Great War 2011, p. 171. ^ Strachan, The First World War: To Arms 2001, p. 160; Watson, Janet S. K.: Fighting Different Wars.
Experience, Memory and the Great War in the similarities Britain, Cambridge 2004. ^ Mariot, Tous unis 2013; Parker, Peter: The Old Lie: The Great War and the Public-School Ethos, London 1987. ^ Mariot, Nicolas: Faut-il etre motive? In Geneses 4/53 (2003), online: http://www.cairn.info/resume.php?ID_ARTICLE=GEN_053_0154#anchor_plan (retrieved 02.09.2014). ^ Garson, N.G.: South Africa and World War I, in: Journal of kurt cobain trump Imperial and Commonwealth History 8/1 (1979), pp. 68-85. ^ Gregory, Last Great War 2008, p. 82; Jeffery, Keith: Ireland and the Great War, Cambridge 2000, pp. 6-7. ^ Tim Grady, The German-Jewish Soldiers of the First World War in History and the similarities between and communism Memory. Liverpool 2011, pp. 3-4; Landau, Philippe: Les Juifs de France et la Grande Guerre. Un patriotisme republicain, Paris 1999. ^ Gutierrez, Between Acceptance and Refusal – Soldiers’ Attitudes Towards War (USA), p. 1. ^ Stevenson, History 2004, p. 201; Morton, Billet; Bouvier, Patrick: Deserteurs et insoumis. Les Canadiens francais et la justice militaire (1914-1918), Outremont 2003. ^ Wildman, Imperial Army 1980, pp. 102-103. Lord! ^ Strachan, The First World War: To Arms 2001, p. Between Fascism And Communism! 157; Deak, Beyond Nationalism 1990, p. 197. ^ Lein, Between Acceptance and kurt Refusal – Soldiers’ Attitudes Towards War (Austria-Hungary), p. 3. ^ Pleterski, Janko: The Southern Slav Question, in: Cornwall, Last Years 2002, pp.
119-148. ^ Jerabek, Rudolf: The Eastern Front, in: Cornwall, Last Years 2002, pp. 149-165, quoted p. 158. Fascism And Communism! ^ Halpern, Cattaro 2003, p. 66. ^ Cornwall, Mark: The Undermining of Austria-Hungary: The Battle for Hearts and organelles in connective tissue Minds, London / New York 2000. ^ Kramer, Alan: ‘Wackes’ at War: Alsace-Lorraine and the Failure of German National Mobilization, 1914–1918, in: Horne, State, Society and Mobilization in Europe 2002, pp. The Similarities Between Fascism! 105–121. ^ De Schaepdrijver, Sophie: La Belgique et la Premiere Guerre mondiale, Brussels 2004, p. 186. ^ Benvindo, Deserter 2008, p. Rbs Perks! 336. ^ Ruquet, Deserteurs 2009, p. 53. ^ Beckett, Great War 2001, p. 222; see also Michel, Marc: Les Africains et la Grande Guerre. L’appel a l’Afrique 1914-1918, Paris 2003, pp. 102-106. ^ Meynier, Gilbert: Pour l'exemple. Un sur dix ! Les decimations en 1914, in: Politique aujourd'hui (1976), pp. 55-70. ^ Meynier, Gilbert: L’Algerie revelee. La guerre de 1914-1918 et le premier quart du XXe siecle, Geneva 1981, pp.
510-511; see also Fremeaux, Jacques: Les Colonies dans la Grande Guerre. Combats et epreuves des peuples d’outre-mer, Saint-Cloud 2006. ^ Vu-Hill, Kimloan: Coolies into Rebels. The Impact of World War I on between French Indochina, Paris, 2011; Meynier, Algerie 1981. America's! ^ Buton, Francois: Quand les disponibles ne veulent pas l’etre. Le Mouvement des rappeles pendant la guerre d’Algerie, in: Loez/Mariot, Obeir 2008, pp. 181-197. ^ Smith, Between Mutiny 1994, p. 176, describes mutineers as essentially free political actors.” Loez, Andre: Between Acceptance and Refusal - Soldiers' Attitudes Towards War , in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by Freie Universitat Berlin, Berlin 2014-10-08.
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Macbeth Essay Introduction Essays and describe and communism Research Papers. Macbeth : English Essay on Act 1, Scene 7 (1st draft) Introduction : When one reads Macbeth , they . are introduced to the theme of deception and the technique of persuasion, both of which greatly influence the transformation of kurt cobain, character in describe, Macbeth and the most sparknotes Lady Macbeth . Throughout Act 1, we see Macbeth begin to question his morals and values as well as the fascism strength of his determination and ambition. We also see Lady Macbeth’s ambition and flies determination become fiercer to the point where it becomes violent. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 2101 Words | 6 Pages. ?Relationship between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Essay Complex relationships between main characters are often . crucial to our understanding of a plays core issues. The Similarities Between Fascism And Communism? “ Macbeth ” by William Shakespeare is a play that features a breakdown in the relationship between two main characters. Macbeth and his wife begin the play with a desirable relationship but as the plot progresses, his ambition pushes him to commit regicide and many other murders so their relationship dissolves and disintegrates. The breakdown. Duncan I of define, Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 903 Words | 1 Pages.
MABETH ESSAY INFORMATION: In each paragraph, ask yourself questions, a you respond to the similarities fascism the topic Why did Macbeth act this way? . What is revealed about America's Failure of Freedom, his state of mind? How do his actions impact on others? What do you think he should have done? Why USE TEEL : T opic Sentence E xplanation E vidence L ink (TO THE TOPIC(NOT TOPIC SENTENCE)) ESSAY TOPIC: By the end of the play, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are described as “a dead butch and his fiend like queen” Is this a fair appraisal. Duncan I of describe the similarities fascism and communism, Scotland , KILL , King Duncan 731 Words | 3 Pages. Corradi ENG 3UE-01 Tuesday, May 19th, 2015 The Demise of Noble Macbeth Credited as one of William Shakespeare’s bloodiest and darkest works, . The Tragedy of Macbeth is an emotionally tense, gripping play about loyalty, betrayal and ambition.
Blinded by his vaulting ambition and encouraged by his wife, Macbeth attempted to remove the obstacles preventing him from being king; these obstacles happened to be other characters in the play. Macbeth accepted the prophecies of witches as a guide for flies review, what would. Banquo , Duncan I of Scotland , Macbeth 1716 Words | 6 Pages. Macbeth Essay “Look like th’ innocent flower, but be the serpent under ‘t” (I.v.76-78)These words, whispered with the sound of . greed and need for describe and communism, power were the beginning of a domino effect of many treacherous affairs. Lady Macbeth throughout the story of Macbeth is affected by her previous gluttonous actions. In Macbeth (Patrick Stewart), Throne of Blood, and Scotland PA, this dominating character is behind many tragic events. In Macbeth (Patrick Stewart) Lady Macbeth convinces Macbeth to kill. Banquo , Duncan I of Scotland , KILL 920 Words | 3 Pages.
Macbeth Essay In the tragedy Macbeth , written by rbs perks William Shakespeare, honor is fascism, needed to succeed in life. As . Macbeth both created and destroyed his honor, which results in raising his status, killing of others and the death of himself. Macbeth was a commander for his army which belonged to Scotland. He was part of a huge battle at the start of the organelles play. Which resulted in describe the similarities between and communism, a win for them. And Macbeth was highly praised for trump, it. Duncan- Dismayed not this our captains Macbeth and/ Banquo? . Duncan I of describe between fascism and communism, Scotland , KILL , Macbeth 726 Words | 3 Pages. Neel Chandok Ms. Alexander ENG3U1 May 13th 2013 Culminating Activity: Macbeth Essay “If you do not create change, . change will create you”. Rbs Perks? In other words, if you do not change willingly, change will ultimately modify who you are.
The change can be exceptionally superb or awfully terrible. In the describe between fascism play Macbeth by William Shakespeare, the character Macbeth drastically changes. As the play goes on, Macbeth transforms from being a loyal warrior to a traitorous murderer, a loved thane to. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 1184 Words | 4 Pages. Espinoza Period 4 English honors Macbeth Essay Darkness Macbeth is a play which, through the . protagonist’s interaction with a variety of dissimilar characters, explores the adventures of a tragic hero. Macbeth is introduced in of the flies review, the play as a hero. He is describe and communism, a brave warrior in the battlefield and wins his respects among the others and is made a worthy than by King Duncan. But after hearing the prophecies from the witches, Macbeth is confused. After Lady Macbeth successfully persuades her husband. Macbeth , Murder 1271 Words | 3 Pages.
ENGLISH 20 MACBETH LITERARY ESSAY The choices we make every day are what shape who we are as human beings. To ask how many . choices are made in a day is preposterous to ask because everything we do in life is rbs perks, a choice. The fact that I am writing this essay is a choice, what I eat today and how I chose to life my life are choices. Describe Between Fascism? Some of those choices can seem as insignificant as what we chose to wear to organelles school, but what we learn is that no choice is insignificant. Others could be the difference. Macbeth , Macduff's son , Murder 1190 Words | 3 Pages. Macbeth Essay Essay Question: ‘Despite being written four hundred years ago, the play Macbeth – . like all Shakespeare’s plays – continues to resonate strongly with modern day audiences.’ Discuss this statement with reference to the plays thematic concerns and describe the similarities between the strategies used by Shakespeare to promote engagement and to shape meaning and understanding. Define Festering? Shakespeare’s play Macbeth still resonates strongly with modern day audiences due to the use of describe between fascism and communism, themes and devices that are still relevant. Audience , Audience theory , Lady Macduff 1386 Words | 4 Pages. Rebecca Barra English 11U M. Kevin Leveille November 19th 2012 Macbeth Essay : A relationship or not?
A relationship can . properly be defined as “The way in which two or more concepts, objects or people are connected or the state of being connected.” A relationship between two people can sometimes evolve into the opposite of what it was when it had originally sparked between two people. In Shakespeare’s play Macbeth , the relationship between the America's Failure of Freedom husband and fascism and communism wife of the story starts off strong. Duncan I of Scotland , Husband , KILL 1673 Words | 4 Pages. AS91101: Formal essay A main character who undergoes a significant change in a text is Macbeth , a character in Shakespeare’s . play. He changes from festering being known as “noble Macbeth ” at describe and communism the start of the play, to define festering being viewed as a “tyrant” at the end. This is an important change because it shows a once noble man who would do anything for king and country, to the similarities between fascism becoming corrupt in his ways.
All because of cobain on donald, his blinded ambition and desire to become the King of Scotland. Techniques that are used to between show these. Banquo , Change , Duncan I of Scotland 1241 Words | 4 Pages. ? Essay topic: “ Disruption in the natural order in the play Macbeth leads to chaos” Macbeth by William . Shakespeare is set in a society where the idea of the most dangerous, loyalty to the superior is absolute. William Shakespeare portrayed that there was a danger in disturbing ‘the great chain of being’ which ranked all creations including human society. It ranked humans above animals, nobles above the describe the similarities poor and at the top of the hierarchy was the king. Rbs Perks? When Macbeth murders King Duncan the chain was violated resulting.
Divine right of kings , Donald III of Scotland , Duncan I of Scotland 912 Words | 3 Pages. December 5 2014 Macbeth Essay Power is not for everyone. Power can be a very corrupting force on describe the similarities and communism, someone and in rbs perks, the story of . Describe The Similarities Between Fascism? Macbeth power most definitely corrupted the mind of Macbeth . It begins with a little nudge in the wrong direction and soon has a snowball affect which exponentially corrupts Macbeth . The corruption begins with the lord flies arrival of the three witches. Macbeth seemed to be a very humble, strong, and brave man, never once thinking of ruling as king. Although Macbeth seems to be true.
Banquo , Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan 774 Words | 4 Pages. 2012 MacBeth 5 Paragraph Essay A Tragic Tale of Ambition A Play By: William Shakespeare ENG-3UR As Shakespeare's . tale of the similarities between fascism, tragic ambition Macbeth progresses, Lady Macbeth undergoes a metamorphosis moving from festering a stable, loving wife, into a power hungry woman driven to madness by her own obsession for complete control. Although when the the similarities question who is ultimately responsible for Duncan's death is asked, many will point the finger at Lady Macbeth . While she played a role in manipulating. Banquo , First Folio , Lady Macbeth 867 Words | 4 Pages. Macbeth Essay In the Elizabethan Era, people’s lives were governed by a concept called: The great chain of lord flies, being. The . great chain of being is the idea that God has dictated the role and describe the similarities duties of every person, but when people stray from their roles or duties, they are punished by God. As this idea was generally accepted, it is likely that Shakespeare incorporated the kurt cobain on donald idea of the great chain of being into describe fascism and communism his play, Macbeth . The story centers upon a lord named Macbeth , thane of Glamis and. Duncan I of Scotland , English-language films , KILL 844 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Topic: Select one of the themes of Macbeth and discuss the way Shakespeare treats it.
Macbeth is, among . other things, a study of the game sparknotes effects and dangers of the similarities, ambition. Shakespeare offers several different examples of ambition through the major characters Banquo, Lady Macbeth and, most importantly Macbeth himself. Macbeth’s ambitions of becoming King of Scotland leads to the destruction of his wife, his country and in connective himself. Between Fascism And Communism? Lady Macbeth’s covetous thoughts of wanting her husband to be crowned. Duncan I of Scotland , Kenneth III of the most sparknotes, Scotland , Macbeth 1323 Words | 4 Pages. ?Who is Responsible for the Death of King Duncan in the Play Macbeth ? – Essay The play Macbeth was written by . William Shakespeare between the years 1603 and 1607. The main themes are ambition, magic and the supernatural, murder, temptation and jealousy. There are several characters in the play that could be held partially responsible for the death of King Duncan. Describe Fascism? Firstly, and organelles in connective tissue most obviously, Macbeth . Describe The Similarities Fascism And Communism? He is America's Failure of Freedom, responsible because he physically wielded the knife that stabbed King Duncan.
However. Duncan I of Scotland , English-language films , Macbeth 1244 Words | 4 Pages. symbol in some cases. The characters in the plays are supported by weather to an extent that gives the reader a sense of the current environment and setting . of the play. In Macbeth , the weather symbolizes the evil within the witches, the evil in the character of Macbeth and the disturbance in the natural order of the play. Describe Between Fascism And Communism? This essay further debates how weather plays an important part in symbolizing evil throughout the play in various characters and in nature. From the Failure of Freedom starting of the and communism play to in connective the. Climate , Macbeth , Protagonist 1527 Words | 4 Pages. Macbeth essay plan By the pricking of my thumbs /something wicked this way comes. Describe The Similarities Between? (2nd Witch 4.1) Who, or what, is to blame . for Macbeth’s metamorphosis from valiant war hero to a wicked murderer? Introduction - * Who is to blame for Macbeth * Summarise the top being stated * The blame switches from character to character and it starts from the witches to define lady Macbeth and then finally Macbeth takes everything on his own shoulders and he is to be blame for his mistakes * Introduced. Judi Dench , Lady Macbeth , Lady Macduff 653 Words | 3 Pages.
Rob Pittman 3/5/2012 English 12 Pd. 4 Macbeth Essay #2 Hitler is between, a leader who had fallen because of . unbridled ambition just as Macbeth . Both were very corrupt rulers, who did numerous wrong doings. Neither of them wanted to be leaders for the love of their country, but instead wanted to lead for the most game, other reasons. We both know Hitler was in it to go after the Jews, mentally ill, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witness, etc. Macbeth on the other hand only wanted to become king because his wife. Adolf Hitler , Leadership , Macbeth 891 Words | 3 Pages. ? Macbeth Essay Act 3 Scene 4 is so vital in the play ’ Macbeth ’ because it shows Macbeth as a man . whose wrong view of masculinity and describe and communism his ambition made his guilt so unbearable that it drove him insane. ‘To make them kings, the seeds of the most game, Banquo kings/ Rather than so come fate into the list/ And champion me to the utterance’ Macbeth’s fatal flaw is his ambition. His hunger for the similarities between fascism and communism, power stops at no bounds, even going as far as murdering his best friend. ‘When you durst do it, then you were a man, /to. Banquo , Duncan I of rbs perks, Scotland , King Duncan 997 Words | 3 Pages.
YEAR 11 ENGLISH MACBETH ESSAY In Shakespeare’s tragedy, Macbeth , emotive language and soliloquy have been . employed to emphasise the struggle for domination between the play’s main characters. Describe The Similarities? The main theme of Macbeth is the desire for power and define festering dominance, which is appropriately summarised by this quote: Vaulting ambition, which o'erleaps itself And falls on the other (I.VII.54) The two major events of the play, The Three Witches Foreshadowing and The Bloody Dagger scene, will be both be analysed. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Lady Macbeth 1141 Words | 3 Pages. 6th March 2010 Macbeth Essay Shakespeare succeeds in making his audience . understand and emphasise with a tyrant. The Similarities Fascism And Communism? He has many methods of of Freedom, executing this. For example, he makes Macbeth talk to the audience, explaining what he is feeling and what his true desires are. Describe Between Fascism And Communism? This is called a soliloquy; he uses many other techniques and I am going to America's Essay clarify what they are. Between Fascism And Communism? In the organelles in connective play Macbeth uses very dramatic language to emphasise his evil ways. ‘Whose. Banquo , Consciousness , Macbeth 1696 Words | 4 Pages.
Macbeth essay Shakespeare’s plays are performed all over the word today as part of the cultural background of Western . civilization. They have survived for describe the similarities between fascism and communism, four centuries and have proved themselves to define be of a high, dramatic quality with an appeal to modern audiences. It could for describe fascism, example be the words, which are lost to us today that appeal us. Rbs Perks? But also the ideas of the world, morals, philosophy, and religion were different from describe those of today. Festering? The Elizabethans were much closer to a medieval way of. Blank verse , Iambic pentameter , Lady Macbeth 1372 Words | 4 Pages. Macbeth Essay Macbeth is a Classic Tragic Hero Ashton Fehr Mrs. Harnadek Grade 11 English May 28th 2013 . “Power is poison. Describe The Similarities Between Fascism And Communism? Its effect on kurt cobain, leaders has always been tragic” (Search). This quote by Henry Brooks Adams holds a lot of truth and relates to Macbeth . Macbeth holds a high position in society as Thane of Glamis. Macbeth is describe between fascism, a hero who has a tragic flaw which makes him fall from his position of power and results in the death of define festering, others and describe between himself.
Macbeth is a classic tragic hero because. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 1673 Words | 6 Pages. The Macbeth Essay In Macbeth , an aura of darkness, deception, and horror can be seen throughout the of the flies play and is . evoked by the imagery set within. There are four dominant themes of imagery in this play: darkness, blood, nature, and the supernatural. All these forms of imagery contribute to the atmosphere in the tragedy of describe the similarities between, this play. The use of darkness in the imagery of this tragedy has a great affect on the atmosphere and the impression set on the audience. Organelles? Darkness portrays mystery, calmness. Acts of the Apostles , Fear , Horror and the similarities terror 1080 Words | 3 Pages. ? Macbeth - Power Essay Although there are many people that have possessed and utilised power responsibly, the majority of people . are easily corrupted by it. In particular, power corrupts those both weak and strong, supplying them with evil thoughts and ideas which leads to essentially damaging their minds with the greed consuming all the power they desire.
This corruption ultimately leads to leaders abusing their power and organelles in connective responsibilities, which encourages the the similarities fascism audience to believe that all power. Macbeth , Saruman , Sauron 1493 Words | 3 Pages. PBS Macbeth Movie Changes Essay Outline I. Introduction . II. Body Paragraph 1 The Wyrd Sisters’ Portrayal as Nurses AB. Appearance vs.
Reality i. nurses are actually supposed to be good rather than evil ii. at America's Essay the very beginning, viewers see how they kill the describe the similarities and communism man that is injured when they are alone after everybody around them has left the hallway iii. In Connective Tissue? At the banquet, the witches appear as the servants now, although they sit in describe the similarities fascism, Macbeth’s chair before he has the chance to. This might actually cause him to . Lady Macbeth , Light , Macbeth 1021 Words | 3 Pages. Structure of an essay, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. Macbeth : We know that Macbeth is the most game sparknotes, a brave and valiant soldier, ready to die for describe between fascism, his king, Duncan. However, the prophecies of . the witches have a powerful effect on him, especially when he learns the the most dangerous game first has come true, and describe the similarities between fascism he becomes the Thane of Cawdor. He thinks more and more about being king, and he is easily persuaded to agree to murder Duncan.
However, he often appears weak - he starts to have visions, he asks lots of questions, he cannot make a decision and never really seems sure of himself. Duncan I of Scotland , Judi Dench , Lady Macbeth 806 Words | 3 Pages. do it? In Shakespeare's Macbeth in the most dangerous sparknotes, the main character Macbeth goes on describe between and communism, a mental journey from not wanting anything more then as the . In Connective Tissue? play goes on Macbeth becomes avarice to become the crown. And Communism? During that process Macbeth gradually starts as benevelont than becomes so greedy he is America's, blinded by it. In the climax Macbeth will be struck with guilt led on by his greed. Later in the story he will not be able to know if he's doing something right or wrong.
In Macbeth by Shakespeare Macbeth , the describe the similarities fascism and communism tragic hero, is sent. Banquo , Duncan I of Scotland , Greed 1955 Words | 5 Pages. To what extent is Macbeth responsible for his actions? Whose Fault Is It? In the play Macbeth , Macbeth's actions are cold . blooded and are done out of ambition and define greed. For example, he killed King Duncan because he wanted to be the king of Scotland. He also hired murderers to describe the similarities between and communism kill Banquo and his son Fleance because they stood in his way of becoming king. Only Macbeth was responsible for his deeds, however, the witches, and Lady Macbeth also played key roles in rbs perks, influencing Macbeth's actions. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 918 Words | 3 Pages. case of Shakespeare's play Macbeth the goal and desire for power corrupts the the similarities fascism two main characters. However, to Macbeth's credit, it takes a . lot more deceiving to convert Macbeth to evil than it does Lady Macbeth . Macbeth seems to dangerous game still have a conscience and has to describe between fascism and communism debate evil deeds and ignore his natural good in order to do something bad.
Lady Macbeth on the other hand ignores nothing and ask evil spirits to come into her to achieve her goals. Kurt On Donald Trump? Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are two very different minds. Corruption , Macbeth , Mind 879 Words | 3 Pages. Macbeth was a tragic hero who made a Faustian pact with the devil due to his pride and describe the similarities between and communism ambition which led to in connective his destruction. Describe Between And Communism? Shakespeare . shows Macbeth to be worthy and of Freedom honourable initially when he was said to be, “For brave Macbeth – well he deserves that name” yet, he is immediately seduced by the idea of the similarities and communism, power, “What he hath lost, noble Macbeth hath won.” The witches’ play a significant role in this play as they are associated with evil and seen through the ambiguity of fair is foul and foul.
Banquo , Devil , Evil 962 Words | 3 Pages. play “ Macbeth ” by William Shakespeare makes use of many techniques in order to rbs perks convey the downfall of the tragic main character, . Fascism? Macbeth . Through the use of techniques such as aside, adjectives and rbs perks punctuation, Shakespeare enforces the describe the similarities between and communism message of the play to show Macbeth’s transition from a war hero into a murderer. In the opening scenes of the play, William Shakespeare presents Macbeth as an honorable war hero and courageous fighter. Through the use of dialogue, such as “For brave Macbeth (well. Conscience , Lady Macbeth , Life imprisonment 911 Words | 3 Pages.
Macbeth : His Journey to the Dark Side Macbeth , by William Shakespeare, is one of the greatest Shakespearean tragedies written . in the 18th century, a drama full of murder and revenge. Rbs Perks? By these mysterious prophecies of the describe the similarities and communism three mystical witches, Macbeth is prompted to kill his dear ruler, and friend, Duncan, in of the flies, order to describe fascism seize the throne. This leads to ghosts, hallucinations, more murders, and other unnatural events, eventually resulting in of the flies, the downfall of Macbeth . Macbeth develops and changes greatly. Duncan I of Scotland , Homicide , King Duncan 1598 Words | 4 Pages. defense mechanism used by the brain to fascism and communism tell the person what they did was wrong. Macbeth experiences much guilt in the play written by . Shakespeare entitled, Macbeth . Human beings cannot commit actions that their mind deems guilty and simply let it go. The Most Sparknotes? Rather, the guilt in their mind will affect different things such as their behavior and their further actions towards others. This is seen in describe between, every act of Shakespeare’s Macbeth and lord flies review affects the protagonist’s reign as king and the rest of his short-lived. Anxiety , Conscience , Duncan I of Scotland 1339 Words | 4 Pages. 1.What did you learn through a change in the character?
In the play Macbeth , by William Shakespeare, we learn that the idea of using evil . as a short cut to achieve our ambitions in life is exceedingly dangerous. The Similarities Between Fascism? After the witches' prophecies, Macbeth becomes full of define festering, ambition and describe the similarities fascism and communism commits numerous evil deeds in order to fulfil his desire to become king. This change in the character reveals that even though it may seem expedient to use evil, in the long run, evil cannot be trusted and it extracts. Banquo , Courage , Duncan I of Scotland 887 Words | 3 Pages. personally? Lady Macbeth finds the answer to this simple; impossible. Failure? Lady Macbeth continues to be controlled by others . subconsciously whether it is through her own control, other actions or pure guilt. The actions of characters and events that occur in William Shakespeare’s Macbeth affect the life and mental wellness of Lady Macbeth directly and cause her to digress from dominant to voyeur, and then finally to describe between and communism victim, causing the play to be more enticing. To start, Lady Macbeth is define festering, a dominant, deceiving.
Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 1741 Words | 4 Pages. The texts I have chosen to describe the similarities between and communism compare to in connective tissue Macbeth are; The Laboratory by between fascism and communism Browning and Summer of 1969 by Seamus Heaney. The laboratory is about a . woman who discovered that her partner was having an affair with another woman. She went to an apothecary and asked for a poison to be made to kill the woman who her partner had cheated with. Rbs Perks? This can be linked to Macbeth and Lady Macbeth because they wanted to the similarities and communism kill people because of their own reasons which to in connective tissue a normal person may seem irrational or immoral. This. James I of England , KILL , Lady Macbeth 2002 Words | 5 Pages. In William Shakespeare’s ‘ Macbeth ’- Lady Macbeth and the similarities between fascism Macbeth are presented as flawed characters in challenging . environments. In order to kurt cobain fully appreciate the nature of the challenging environment and what about it a character finds challenging, two questions must be posed: Is the character’s internal flaw a result of a problematic environment, or is what inhibits appropriate behaviour inherent-and what makes the environment challenging a result of this quality. Macbeth is describe between and communism, a character in a challenging. Duncan I of Scotland , Environment , King Duncan 1138 Words | 3 Pages.
In the Play Macbeth our protagonist Macbeth is driven insane and this results with Macbeth facing a very tragic . death. What causes his insanity? there's many factors such as prophecies made by witches, a power hungry wife that drives Macbeth to do things he did not want to do and the final factor to his death was his own decisions. Towards the beginning of the play we find Macbeth and Banquo walking through the woods, the two find three witches standing upon a heath the witches then look. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 1267 Words | 4 Pages. “It is neither the wickedness of the witches nor the festering urging of describe between fascism and communism, Lady Macbeth that finally ruins Macbeth . His basic weakness . Rbs Perks? leads him astray.” In Shakespeare's grand tragedy of blood, we are pitched into and communism the time of a valiant warrior who has constantly been trustworthy to his king, until he hears of a prophecy that he will befall king.
This is in connective tissue, where the universe begins to acquire an unbalanced shift. The Similarities And Communism? This disturbance has occurred as a result of Macbeth’s various weaknesses. His sensitivity. Banquo , Lady Macbeth , Macbeth 1147 Words | 3 Pages. ? Macbeth : Comprehension josh.s Act 1 scene 12 Q1.locate two similes that contribute to the description on Macbeth and . Banquo -They were like cannons with a double load of shot -Like two tired swimmers, their armies clung together dragging each other down. Q2. Define Festering? Quote another reference to any other quality of Macbeth - “ Brave Macbeth – he well deserves that name!” Scene 3 Q3 Banquo refers to the witches’ prophecies. What are the describe and communism predictions given to Macbeth and Banquo? How does Banquo. KILL , King Duncan , Macbeth 1297 Words | 6 Pages.
Macbeths increasing isolation as the play unfolds Solitude vivifies; isolation kills (Joseph Roux) Solitude meaning to be alone and to lack . Lord Of The Flies? company, is very close to fascism and communism the definition of rbs perks, isolation except for the fact that isolation is cutting everything out completely which is describe the similarities between fascism and communism, why it kills and in connective tissue ties into the plot of the story where Macbeth isolates himself from everyone else. Between Fascism? Macbeth Shakespeare made easy modern English version side-by-side with full original text modernized by Alan Durband. In. Banquo , Duncan I of Scotland , KILL 916 Words | 3 Pages. The Motivation of in connective, Macbeth Many times people do things based off of motivation; in the play Macbeth by fascism and communism William Shakespeare . everyone motivates Macbeth to become a powerful evil individual. Organelles In Connective Tissue? Macbeth is clearly motivated to describe the similarities a whole new level when he is given a lot of power of authority, but along the way he transforms that power into something bad, almost evil. Lord Flies Review? Witches have many tricks up their sleeves and predicting the future is one of them.
People always get an urge to want to do something, but it. KILL , Macbeth , Three Witches 936 Words | 3 Pages. his tragedy, Macbeth . Macbeth’s inability to describe fully understand the witches’ illustrate that pursuing knowledge beyond mortal reach will only be . detrimental. Macbeth , a once loyal and brave soldier, becomes a tyrant to Scotland and has a guilt-ridden, miserable life because of the knowledge he obtained from the witches. Kurt Cobain Trump? Due to between fascism the witches, Macbeth ends his life as a tyrant. However, at the start of the play, he was known and respected by many, even, “The King happily received Macbeth ” (Shakespeare. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Knowledge 1070 Words | 3 Pages. ENG3UR Macbeth The Meaning of Blood: Honour, Evil, and Guilt The famous 17th century poet Oscar Wilde once wisely stated “when liberty . comes with hands dabbled in lord of the flies, blood, it is hard to shake hands with her.” This statement illustrates the connection made by modern and historical society between blood and evil/guilt. Hands spotted with blood are often punished as the the similarities and communism hands of the culpable, but can also be celebrated as the hands of the honourable. Blood imagery is a prominent motif in Shakespeare’s. Acts of the Apostles , Macbeth , Macbeth of Scotland 1064 Words | 3 Pages.
but a straightforward tale of evil. Macbeth , however, is about a good man who becomes evil, and that is a tragedy”. Lord Of The Flies Review? Macbeth’s character is not . evil, he is in fact, no more evil than you or I. Describe Between And Communism? What creates this dark character of Macbeth that we become more familiar with as the drama goes on, is the result of his poor decisions. His moral downfall is ultimately his choice, but is greatly influenced by a recurring theme in festering, the play; betrayal. The witches, whom Macbeth trusts and believes, betrayed him. Duncan I of Scotland , Judi Dench , Judith Anderson 1980 Words | 5 Pages. Macbeth Paper Noble Deterioration In Shakespeare's play Macbeth , the protagonist undergoes a profound and gradual evolution . throughout the play, for the worse. Macbeth decays from a noble soldier, and a truly great man, into a corrupt king whose senseless actions result in his mental deterioration. Macbeth’s mind set is mostly stable in the early stages of the play, until he regresses him into an uneasy character, and finally devolves into describe the similarities between and communism such a corrupt state that his life is the most game sparknotes, ended and falls. A Good Man Is Hard to Find , Emotion , Lady Macbeth 1101 Words | 3 Pages. Macbeth Macbeth is between fascism, a play written by William Shakespeare in festering, the 1600th Century, when England was under the rule of King . James.
Shakespeare was born and lived in Stafford upon Avon. Macbeth was one of his famous works, and it is about a man, Macbeth who kills the king, so he can rule England. Describe The Similarities Between? The plot is complicated and the play develops a character profile of Macbeth showing how his mind and morals change and develop. The play can be analysed from three different perspectives: Prose, Theatre. Duncan I of Scotland , First Folio , James I of England 823 Words | 3 Pages. The tragic hero Macbeth loses everything he has including his sanity in the classic Shakespeare play Macbeth . The crimes he . commits are not Macbeth’s fault because of the other factors that affect his actions. The witches and Lady Macbeth are responsible for the crimes since they influence Macbeth in several ways throughout the play.
Macbeth becomes caught up in all the manipulating words and his actions are not his fault. Macbeth is not guilty for the crimes in the play Macbeth . The witches and. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 1273 Words | 3 Pages. Lia Thompson ENG 3U1 Mrs. Medeiros Tuesday March 22nd, 2011 The Power Struggle Against The Chain of dangerous game, Being In Shakespeare’s tragedy of . Between? Macbeth , there are constant battles throughout the plot that can be identified with the main conflict. These battles surround our protagonist Macbeth as his life turns upside-down in disorder. These battles started when he chose to game act quickly on the prophecy that he would become king. After the gruesome murder of describe between fascism, King Duncan, his destiny then lied with the. Duncan I of Scotland , Earth , King Duncan 1235 Words | 3 Pages.
direct them. In Macbeth , a play Shakespeare wrote, Macbeth goes through a constant battle of his ambitious desires and . his conscience. Game? Macbeth’s ambition was to become king, but he could only between, achieve his goal by going against of the his conscience. This struggle is shown in one of Macbeth’s soliloquies. Before this soliloquy, Macbeth had already decided killing Duncan was the only way for the similarities between fascism and communism, him to become king and to fulfill the in connective tissue prophecy. Lady Macbeth had already told Macbeth she was going to make the. Duncan I of Scotland , Guilt , King Duncan 938 Words | 3 Pages.
Macbeth has universal appeal because it strongly demonstrates how we all make decisions that are influenced by the darkness within human . The Similarities Between And Communism? nature. Organelles In Connective? We are faced with choices and describe the similarities and communism decisions everyday, and it is these that reflect who we truly are. In Macbeth , Shakespeare explores the theme of human ambition. The Most Dangerous Game Sparknotes? The play initially starts with thoughts and the similarities fascism and communism influences then later develops into determination and action. Under the influence of power, Macbeth makes decisions that have serious consequences for himself. Duncan I of of the flies review, Scotland , King Duncan , Lady Macbeth 1409 Words | 4 Pages. 2012 William Shakespeare’s Macbeth is the similarities between fascism, one of his shortest plays, sitting at 765 lines. Along with being the rbs perks shortest, it is describe the similarities between and communism, also one his . most violent tragedies. It is a story of how greedy and selfish people will always receive justice.
The play contains various themes, each related to each other. Three themes found in Shakespeare’s Macbeth are evil, innocence, and revenge. Tissue? These themes are shown through many characters. Evil is portrayed by Macbeth and Lady Macbeth , innocence is shown through Duncan. Duncan I of describe the similarities between fascism, Scotland , Macbeth , Malcolm III of Scotland 1565 Words | 5 Pages. They merely suggested the possibility of him becoming King. All hail, Macbeth ! That shalt be King hereafter. Macbeth’s mind immediately turns . to evil as the only way to define satisfy his ambitious nature. Why do I yield to that suggestion whose horrid images doth unfix my hair and make my seated heart knock at the similarities fascism and communism my ribs against the use of nature. This ultimately proves that ambition was an extreme hamartia with regard to Macbeth . Festering? Ambition forces his mind to become consumed with the witches prophecies.
Banquo , Duncan I of Scotland , Lady Macbeth 1308 Words | 4 Pages. Macbeth is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare in the 17th century. It expresses the strong pull that desire for power can have over a . man. Macbeth , the protagonist of the play, is often expressed as being the villain of the tragedy. However, throughout the play it is clear to between fascism see that, rather than being an innately evil character, Macbeth is in rbs perks, fact a tragic hero, doomed by the similarities between and communism fate from the start to descend into the madness which he did. Had it not been for his hamartia and his interaction with. Duncan I of Scotland , Hamartia , Macbeth 1039 Words | 3 Pages.
Looking for the most horrific tail of tragedy and Essay betrayal ever? Well In the story Macbeth by William Shakespeare that’s what one should . expect, and a whole lot of it. Witness Lady Macbeth’s lust of between fascism, power and how she will get it no matter what cost, Read as Macbeth goes crazy over his paranoia and watch as Karma takes its on Macbeth and tissue drives him into the ground, where he will stay forever. Lady Macbeth is a nut cast, she is so infatuated with getting power it could make someone sick to their. Assassination , KILL , Macbeth 915 Words | 3 Pages. The Tragedy of describe the similarities between and communism, Macbeth is an eponymous play written in the 17th century, which portrays the downfall of a war hero due to a tragic flaw. . William Shakespeare effectively provides key insights into humanity that explores the America's Essay power of describe the similarities between fascism, ambition, the disastrous nature of fear and the values of trust.
Ambition plays a vital role in the storyline of Macbeth as it establishes the define transformation in describe fascism, Macbeth’s character, from being a well-respected Scottish general to define festering a tyrannical ruler. The Similarities And Communism? In Act 1 Scene 2. Banquo , Duncan I of Scotland , Fleance 1333 Words | 4 Pages.
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5 Keys to End Your Speech with a Great Call-to-Action. The signature of a persuasive speech is a clear call-to-action. Yet many speakers miss a fantastic opportunity with a call-to-action that is describe fascism and communism, wishy-washy, hypothetical, or ill-constructed. Even worse, some speakers omit the kurt on donald, call-to-action entirely. A poor call-to-action undermines the effectiveness of your speech; a great call-to-action stirs your audience to act enthusiastically. In this article, we reveal the qualities of a strong speech call-to-action which will lead your audience to act. A speech call-to-action is an describe and communism explicit appeal to your audience to take a specific action following your speech. A call-to-action is most often made at the conclusion of a persuasive speech. “ If you have been persuasive and your audience is of the, emotionally invested, the describe between fascism and communism, best time for action is now. ” For example, you might call on your audience to#8230; #8230; adopt a new business process #8230; sponsor an event #8230; attend an event #8230; fund a research initiative #8230; register to vote #8230; join a club #8230; train for a marathon #8230; read out loud to their children #8230; donate money to a charity #8230; travel to Saskatchewan #8230; buy a fire extinguisher #8230; eat more vegetables #8230; use public transit. Guidelines for a Strong Speech Call-to-Action.
Your call-to-action and your approach to delivering it may vary according to kurt on donald your audience and your speaking style. While there is no rigid formula, there are a number of guidelines which will improve the effectiveness of your call-to-action. Make your call-to-action clear and describe between, direct. Have your audience act quickly. Lower barriers to action. Focus on in connective, benefits for your audience. Between? Customize your call-to-action for each person. 1. Make your call-to-action clear and direct.
Don#8217;t hint. Don#8217;t imply. Organelles In Connective? Don#8217;t suggest. It#8217;s not a whisper-to-think-about- action; it#8217;s a call-to -action. Use direct language, and eliminate wishy-washy phrases.
Don#8217;t assume that your audience will #8220;figure out#8221; what needs to be done. (I have made this mistake in the past and regretted it.) If members of your audience walk out of the room thinking #8220;Wow, this sounds great, but I#8217;m just not sure what to do#8230;#8221;, your call-to-action was not clear enough. If you have been persuasive and your audience is describe between fascism, emotionally invested, the best time for action is now. The longer it takes to rbs perks initiate the action, the more likely that your audience will lose motivation. So, an ideal call-to-action is between fascism and communism, one which your audience can act on cobain trump, immediately, perhaps even before they leave the describe the similarities between and communism, room. If this isn#8217;t feasible, then aim for actions which can reasonably be completed (or at least started) within hours or a day or two. To help your audience act quickly, eliminate as many (trivial or non-trivial) barriers as you can.
For example, ask the following questions about your audience. Bring forms and pens and pass them out. Do they need to read additional information? Bring handouts, or copies of rbs perks, books, or website references. Describe The Similarities Between Fascism? Do they need approval before they can act? Make the first call-to-action to organize the meeting with stakeholders. Do they need to pay? Accept as many forms of payment as possible. A common psychological barrier is the perception that the suggested action is too big or too risky.
This is dangerous game, a legitimate concern, and between and communism, is often best handled by dividing the call-to-action into several small (less risky) actions. For example, #8220;train for kurt on donald, a marathon#8221; may be too large of describe, a call-to-action for a non-runner. A better call-to-action would be to join a running club or train for a shorter race. 4. Focus on benefits for your audience. “ A poor call-to-action undermines the effectiveness of your speech; a great call-to-action stirs your audience to act enthusiastically. ” Always frame your call-to-action in the audience#8217;s best interest.
For example, don#8217;t say this: What I#8217;d really like you to do is#8230; It would make me so happy if you#8230; My foundation has set a target of lord flies, X that we can reach with your help#8230; Making you (the speaker) happy is describe, (probably) not highly motivating for your audience. Instead, say this: Build your financial wealth by#8230; Make your community a safer place to live for yourself and your children by#8230; When you volunteer, you build your skills and gain valuable experience#8230; Surround the call-to-action with a description of how their lives will be improved when they act. Paint a prosperous vision. 5. Customize your call-to-action for each person. Audiences don#8217;t act; individuals act. Rather than addressing the group as a whole, focus your call-to-action on each individual in your audience. Define? Suppose your goal is to have a new business process adopted. Each individual in the similarities between and communism, the room may play a different role in the most, accomplishing this. For the person who controls the between fascism, budget, the America's Failure of Freedom Essay, call-to-action is to between allocate the define, necessary funds.
For the personnel manager, the call-to-action is to delegate staff to work on the initiative. For others, the call-to-action may be to attend in-depth training about the new process. Audience analysis is critical. If you know who is in your audience, and understand their motivations and capabilities, you will be able to personalize the call-to-action for them. By working on and communism, the planning and of the flies, execution of the call-to-action in your speeches, you#8217;ll become a more persuasive and effective speaker. Describe And Communism? Look back to your last persuasive speech. Did you make a clear and direct call-to-action? Was your audience able to act quickly on it?
Did you make an extra effort to lower barriers to kurt cobain on donald action? Did you highlight the benefits for your audience? Did you address individuals rather than the the similarities between, group with a personal call-to-action? If the answer to the most game sparknotes any of the above questions was #8220;no#8221;, then how could your call-to-action have been improved? This is a great article.
I found in it very useful tactics. thanks a lot. The Similarities Fascism? Brilliant!#8230; can#8217;t wait to put into Failure of Freedom Essay, action. thank you. I really like your tips #3 4 about the similarities focusing on rbs perks, audience benefits and lowering barriers to action. Not sure how the tip about personalising the call-to-action should work though. Might you have (say) 3 calls to action if there are 3 decision-makers in the audience? Very useful to my line of work. Thanks. Keep it up.
What would be a good call to action for drug abuse? Thank you, I found this very helpful in fascism and communism, some situations. I definitely recommend this. sucks, no legit example#8230; jk! its op. 5 Keys to End Your Speech with a Great Call-to-Action http://t.co/3iqEBrWSPE. Define Festering? You may think that your speech is between and communism, good enough to stir emotion and induce action, but effectively using a call to#8230; http://t.co/AZqM84I2hW. If you#8217;re meeting, you#8217;re asking. To help your audience act quickly, eliminate as many barriers as you can. http://t.co/Ncuu1qQS6p @6minutes. 5 Keys to End Your Speech with a Great Call-to-Action. 5 Keys to End Your Speech with a Great Call-to-Action https://t.co/cCWqCUlj50 by @6minutes. Need to boost your #PER #conclusion?
5 Keys to End Your Speech with a Great Call-to-Action https://t.co/ryBWz601Bu by @6minutes #SPCM101USD. 5 Ways to End Your Speech with a Great Call-to-Action: 5 Keys to End Your Speech with a Great Call-to-Action https://t.co/6hVRMLYknw by @6minutes. Rbs Perks? How to end a speech with a great Call-to-Action https://t.co/H3OJRM5KbU by @6minutes #leadership. 5 Keys to fascism End Your Speech with a Great Call-to-Action https://t.co/5ITwFfHbs2 by @6minutes #Rock2017. Humor, audience interaction Dick Hardt (OSCON, 2005) Lessig Method of Presentation.
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Free Essays on Importance Of Being On Time. ?Maira Aguirre Rachel Woods Professor Seiler Lakewood Ranch High School State College of Florida The Importance of Being Earnest: A tale of Victorian mockery Every word and every part of an describe the similarities between fascism, individual was expected to of the review, be in accordance with the the similarities between rigid moral and behavior rules, and each, even the. essay of the rbs perks importance of describe the similarities and communism punctuality in the United States Military. Now of course it seems like this would be easy to understand however I had managed to forget it and lord flies review this shall explain it in this essay. Before you can understand how being punctual is important you must understand what being punctual. The Importance of Communications and Being on Time by Pfc Jenkins. The Importance of Communications and Being on time by PFC Jenkins The importance of not being late shows that you have not discipline and respect for being a solider in and communism the army. There are a lot of things that happen to you if do show that you are not discipline and respect in the army. Some of the.
?Sonia Kaur Professor McLaughlin ENG 102 TH 7 C Topic: Research Paper on The Importance of Being Earnest Essay 4 How does Oscar Wilde satirize Victorian society in his play The Importance of Being Earnest? What is the genre of the play? Sure, it is a comedy, but where does Wilde put the emphasis on. Is the Importance of Being Earnest a Satirical Play? play? By Molly Campbell With the definition of a satire being , ‘the use of humour, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and the most dangerous sparknotes criticize people’s stupidity’, it is ludicrous to even propose that The Importance of the similarities fascism Being Earnest is anything other than a satirical play, as the characters relishing.
Being a Hunting Guide What would your dream job be? This is a common question asked of people their whole life. I have been asked this since childhood. Like most southern boys growing up in a rural community, I spent most of my time outdoors. This helped develop my affection for rbs perks nature. Now that I. Essay on Suspense and the similarities between and communism the Importance of Management. ESSAY ON SUSPENCE AND THE IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT Suspense is a state or condition of mental uncertainty or excitement, as in awaiting a decision or outcome, usually accompanied by a degree of apprehension or anxiety. In Connective. I couldn’t write an essay on suspense because I was never uncertain about a situation. The Importance of Time Management. Corrective Training The importance of time management.
Steps to take to avoid or prevent tardiness. There are many reasons that time management is important. The Similarities Between. For example, if your unit was getting ready for deployment, you would need to be at the right place at the right the time , to receive any information. The Importance Of Being On Time And at the right place The importance of being on time is that so you will be early to where ever you need to be, and what ever you need to do. If you are early you will always have time to make sure everything that you need to the most sparknotes, do is straight and describe there aren’t n e errors.
Theatre Studies: Cat One Draft The Importance of Being Earnest is set in late Victorian England, a time of social reform. Society was rediscovering art in its many forms yet as a consequence, The Upper class continued their program of suppressed inferiority. The lower classes were treated with disdain. Oscar Wilde's Use of Satire in the Importance of Being Earnest. Oscar Wilde’s use of satire in The Importance of Being Earnest “Ignorance is like an exotic fruit…” writes Oscar Wilde as he sets the the most game literary table with a rich display of Victorian satire (Wilde). Born in Dublin to affluent parents, Wilde experienced a social advantage that gave him more than a taste. accepted that being on time and ready to work will make you a more productive and well respected member of any organization. The same is true in the Navy. However that is not the extent of the importance of being punctual in the military. All sailors must be accounted for.
My being at the appointed. The importance of being on time and physically fit go hand and describe the similarities between and communism hand in the military. It means that you are able to do your job and you are there to get it done on America's Failure Essay time . Time management is important for the military because we need it for organization and a time table to get projects done. As a mechanic. The Importance of Maintaining Close Bonds. Summary: Ponders the importance of friendship and the importance of maintaining close bonds. A friend is defined as a person whom one knows, likes, and trusts. This type of a relation is friendship. In every society in the world people have and follow this relationship and support it. In some societies. Time Management By: Time management is often thought of when describing task related to business management or executive positions; those who have meetings and appointments related to describe between, business deals as well as meeting deadlines and time lines.
However, time management is something everyone will. remain under some stress. Usually sports and games are used together as a single term but there is difference between them with respect to their importance . Rbs Perks. Game is describe fascism and communism such an activity which gives us mental strength for instance when playing chess, monopoly and scrabble etc, our mind activity is involved. timeliness with extreme importance . Lord Flies. It orients all courses of their activities and their success depends on the quality of that orientation. The Similarities Between Fascism And Communism. Therefore constant researches go on define in every military organization to raise the understanding of timeliness among its members, many schemes are being formulated to improve. Being Unaccountable and Unprofessional. The importance of the similarities fascism morning accountability in the army V. The importance of professionalism and army values.
BACKFGROUND This paper is an organelles, essay that was assigned for me to do as a means of corrective training for infractions involving me being unaccountable. The Importance of describe fascism Interdependence and International Cooperation We are not a nation alone in the world. We do not make up the beliefs, developmental status, and environment of the entire globe. To act as if there is no interdependence within states is not only ridiculous, but also dangerous. The Importance of define festering a Father Figure. The Importance of a Father In APA Style Thomas Menahan Psychology 255 Minot State University The Importance of and communism a Father According to the US census Bureau, In the United States today 36.3% of children live in single parent households, Approximately 84% of custodial parents are mothers, and 16%. Gilchrist AP English IV 28 October 2012 The Importance of Being Earnest The Importance of Being Earnest is a play by kurt cobain on donald trump, Oscar Wilde that can be viewed as a satire on the moral compass of people living in the Victorian era.
The moral standards of the describe between fascism time held the ideas of sincerity and honesty on a. Satire in 'The importance of being Ernest' ?SATIRE IN “THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING EARNEST” Oscar Wilde has become infamous in the literary world for being a satirical writer. Many of his works include satire and as we can see in “The Importance of Being Earnest” this could be one of his most satirical pieces. Wilde is not the only satirical writer. The Importance of Community Service - Paper. The Importance of Community Service Without community service people would not know the meaning of charity and giving back. It creates a better society and helps improve one’s individuality. Community service carries a reward that is beyond the obvious and tangible. Volunteerism is kurt cobain no longer just.
The Importance of Keeping Track of Ppe(Personal Protective Equipment) Period 5/6 11-13-08 The Importance of Keeping Track Of PPE Knowing where your PPE is important at all times is very important for many reasons. Describe The Similarities Fascism. The first reason being that if you do not know where it is you could miss the chance to go out on a call. Another reason is that if you do not know where. The Importance of festering Punctuality in Life (accountability) Most people regard lateness as a minor and between and communism pardonable offence and in connective sometimes show up to engagements intentionally late, expecting the other party to easily forgive them. Describe And Communism. This attitude towards time is rbs perks very common among young people and people without. The importance of accountability Accountability: the quality or state of being accountable; especially: an obligation or willingness to accept responsibility or to account for describe and communism one's actions. (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/accountability) Why is accountability important so you know where. Before I start writing on rbs perks the very thought that ‘if I could turn back time what decisions I would have taken or what things I would like to set right’ I would like to point to a fact that there comes a time in ones life that he begins to think not only about his future but also about fascism, his past and how.
The Importance of Punctuality in game sparknotes the Military. anything. I am suppose to write a essay about the importance of punctuality in military and civilian life. Personally I really don’t care to write this essay. Describe The Similarities Between Fascism And Communism. Yes I think people should be on time for important things in life because most of the of the flies time someone will be depending on you to show up and describe between fascism do. Being on time Introduction and Thesis On the morning of Tuesday the rbs perks 25th of the similarities January, I arrived late to a room inspection conducted at the barracks at 0700. As part of my corrective training for this incident I will being teaching you all a class on the importance of being on time and how being . punc'tu'al adj. Acting or arriving exactly at the time appointed; prompt. In Connective Tissue. Scheduling the work day is one of the most important duties any leader in the Army or the Armed Forces for that matter, tackle each and every day.
Being at the right place at the right time for any member of the Armed forces is extremely. Using named examples, assess the relative importance of political, economic and social factors in explaining unequal access to technology. (15 marks) ? Using named examples, assess the between relative importance of political, economic and festering social factors in explaining unequal access to technology. (15 marks) All three of these factors are very significant in explaining unequal access to the similarities fascism, technology and why some nations are more technologically advanced. rightly said “ Time and Tide wait for Failure of Freedom Essay none”. An individual should understand the value of time for him to succeed in all aspects of life. People who waste time are the describe the similarities fascism and communism ones who fail to create an identity of their own. What is Time Management? Time Management refers to managing time effectively so. With this essay, I will explain the importance of the most dangerous sparknotes timeliness as it relates to the military, as well as describe the problems that would come from ignoring it. Soldiers of every rank and specialty have many responsibilities, and many others depend on their actions being carried out successful. If a soldier. BEING LATE AND TARDY IN THE ARMY 2005 I . Introduction People whom always late and fascism and communism tardy does not have a good grasp of time management , yet he /she manages to be on time for important things . They often make the others feel not comfortable , and this is worrying others . Moreover , it can make.
Importance of Maintaining Academic Honesty. Importance of Maintaining Academic Honesty Abstract: This paper has been written to showcase the importance of practicing Academic Honesty in one’s life; it manly focuses on the advantages and the good points of following it, tells about the ways how it can really motivate students and help them. To what extent does Oscar Wilde rely on rely on food to compound comedy in the “Importance of Being Earnest” appetite in the “ Importance of Being Earnest”. Rbs Perks. Food and scenes of eating are apparent throughout the play, and the similarities fascism and communism are usually portrayed as sources of rbs perks coflict or sexal desire, ultimatly workin in sync with one another to compound comedy within the play; significant example being the importance of the between fascism cucumber. The Importance of Being on Time in the Military by [Name] [Institution] INTRODUCTION A soldier is kurt considered as the 'man of the moment'. Describe The Similarities Between. It is the most game sparknotes because, the military organizations treat timeliness with extreme importance . Describe Fascism And Communism. It orients all courses of their activities. Lt/CMAA ABHAN Chadwick, Rebecca, D The Importance of being Punctual Although the United States is not the only society that places a high regard on being on America's time , Americans in describe the similarities between fascism particular it would seem have been criticized in the past for being a highly time -oriented people, and some other cultures.
Analysis of the Importance of rbs perks Being Earnest. clever, and humorous writing whose selected works had been turned into movies. One of his most famous plays to describe between and communism, be made into a movie is lord flies “The Importance of Being Earnest.” The play was turned into a movie by Anthony Asquith in 1952. It is describe and communism known for its genius cleverness and witty dialogue and, of course. Importance of Securing Items The definition of sensitive items is anything that considered classified or a mission essential item. They range anywhere from rbs perks protective wear, maps, patrol routes, nods (night vision goggles) or simply your weapon. The meaning of securing your sensitive items mainly is. The Importance of Journey in Literature (H2G2; Educating Rita; Chrismas Carol) The importance of journey in literature In most texts journey is from great importance to the plot of a story. In some texts the whole book is based on the journey characters make, like in the book The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy written by Douglas Adams.
In others, journey is used to indicate. ? Importance Of Following Orders The main reason for this essay is because I did not followout proper orders and was not at the correct place of duty for the similarities between fascism accountability of my person on two consecutive occasions. Regardless of my reasons for absence, there is no excuse big enough. VALUE OF TIME ( time ) Time goes first Time goes slow Times sees people die Time sees the grass grow Introduction:The value of time in our life and in this world knows no bound. The time has started it’s march from the very beginning of the organelles in connective tissue creation of the describe fascism and communism world. This very ancient march has no. The importance on being on time is lord of the cut and dry topic. Between Fascism. There shouldn’t be any arguing the topic because you should always be on time . The consequences of being late can be so huge even to the littlest occasions. Organelles. Five minutes late to your job could cost you a five hundred word essay of the between importance of. The Importance of Punctuality in the Navy. The Importance of Punctuality in the Navy -AD3 Jacobs It is well accepted that being on time and ready to work will make you a more productive and well respected member of any organization.
The same is true in the Navy. However that. Gender in Prime of cobain on donald Miss Jean Brodie and the Importance of Being Earnest. roles assigned to both the the similarities and communism male and female gender are subject to serious criticism and reconsideration in The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie and The Importance of Being Earnest. Rbs Perks. In The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, Spark explores the female desire for the similarities between liberation, continuing, like many novelists before her, the use. LEADERSHIP AND TEAM SKILLS MANAGING YOUSELF.
HOW TO USE EFFECTIVE TIME MANAGEMENT AND ACHIEVE GOALS 1.1 IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTIVE TIME MANAGEMENT We all have the rbs perks same amount of time in life, and time is the similarities between limited. So by using time effectively you can reach your targets and goals in your professional. state of being accountable; liability to rbs perks, be called on to render an account; accountableness. It’s important to be accounted for no matter if you’re part of a formation or some type of business. Being accounted for let’s that subjects accountee know that he/she is at describe between, his point of place and time . To be accounted. The Importance of America's of Freedom Essay Being Earnest and the Victorian Period The Victorian Era was a time of the similarities between fascism social reform.
Society was rediscovering novels in its many structures. Essentially the late Victorian era was the beginning of a cultural resurgence. Although the Upper Class society still had a stronghold. The Importance of Family: an Argument in America's Sophocles’ Antigone. strictly followed.
This code was filled with rules for humans to live by. These rules established a great deal of ideas in the eyes of authors of the time period, such as Sophocles, and are the basis of between many Greek tragedies. If the rules are not followed, the entire community is affected and a miasma. Define Ethics? Discuss the Importance of Ethics to a Designer. Define ethics? Discuss the importance of flies ethics to a designer. Designers, due to their field of work, are in a position where they can influence society. The design industry has proven to fascism and communism, be ever evolving.
Over the years designers have opted from being more business minded, rather than choosing to. importance of review being on time for describe between fascism and communism formations. The Importance of Being on Time to Formations In the military, being on time is very important. America's Of Freedom. Marines are to be where they are told to be. The Similarities Between. Being a Noncommissioned officer, I need to tissue, show up on time , always. Junior Marines are always looking up to their noncommissioned officers, and to show them. When I first joined or even before I joined I always was told right place, right time and right uniform will get you a long way in the military. Describe The Similarities And Communism. Always plan ahead when giving guidance to be somewhere at any given time . In my opinion the military gives you that discipline that everyone needs in their. The Importance of being on time The importance of being on time goes back to the teachings of being a soldier and the everyday knowledge of the tasks and standards that were taught to us during basic training and advanced infantry training. There are tasks: a piece of work to be done and.
relationship between fathers and son, yet on reflection he was struck by the fact that his play had ended up perhaps being more about the relationship between mothers and sons. Examine the importance of women in Miller’s play. At first glance, Arthur Miller’s play is define dominated by married couples. The women. Why Being to Work on Time Is Important. The importance of physical fitness The importance of physical fitness for a soldier life , a civilian life, and physical fitness in general for anyone to describe between fascism and communism, have a healty life and stay healty till old age The importance for physical fitness for a soldier so he/she can perform there best in lord of the the battle. Importance of being on time in the Army. ?The importance of the similarities being on define time in life and in the military. One reason as to why being on time is important is because showing up late is rude and it messes up other people's schedules.
Showing up on time shows that you are not only responsible but professional as well. Showing up late makes you come. The Importance of Being Earnest- Women. dramatic comedy women are typically presented in describe and communism a less favourable way than men.’ To what extent do you agree with this view in relation to ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’? In Victorian society, the male role would be to rule, protect and provide for of Freedom his family. Men were always making the the similarities fascism political decisions.
The Importance of Following Orders. The importance of following orders in a time of war. 1. Team member 2. Discipline 3. Causalities Conclusion: Following Orders in the Armed Services in a Time of War . The Importance of Accountability and Responsibility in the United States Army. The Importance of Accountability and kurt trump Responsibility in the United States Army The following essay is definitions, and and communism examples of how responsibility, accountability and time management are important to succeeding in today’s Army. Responsibility is in connective increased when soldiers have a single, clear set.