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c3 net resume Get via App Store Read this post in our app! What is the moon, best alternative On Error Resume Next for C#? If I put empty catch blocks for my C# code, is derived it going to be an equivalent for VB.NET's On Error Resume Next statement. The reason I am asking this is because I have to the burning moon, convert a VB.NET code to C#, and the old code has. 200 On Error Resume Next statements although I am using a proper try catch in my new code, but is there is a better alternative? I've found that VB programmers often littered code with many On Error Resume Next statements out of (bad) habit. Speech! My suggestion would be to start with no suppressed exceptions, and see what actually breaks. There may not be as many issues as you think. Conversely, the more regression testing you can do, the the burning, better; there may be some edge cases that only write, work when errors are ignored. Ultimately, you need to decide on an error handling strategy, whether it is graceful unwinding inside many try/catch blocks, or letting errors percolate to a top-level handler (both strategies have their uses). If you end up having to suppress some exceptions to meet a deadline, at the very least log those exceptions so that the next developer working on the burning, your code doesn't get burnt by an empty try/catch . Although sometimes this is acceptable, generally it indicates a code smell.

If you're 100% sure you want to tendulkar, swallow the exception that has occurred you can do it the way you have, but generally if an the burning moon, exception is thrown you should do something . Derived! Generally you can achieve the same outcome with well designed code. If you're currently experiencing a specific error, add it to your question, but if you're asking just out of curiosity, no there isn't an the burning, equivalent, and that is a good thing. You need to analyze the On Error Resume Next statements one by myers biography one and see what their purpose is. Some may be just sloppy code, but there are valid reasons for On Error Resume Next in Visual Basic 6.0 code. The Burning! Some examples of why to use On Error Resume Next in Visual Basic 6.0 code: To check if a given key exists in a Visual Basic 6.0 collection. The only way to do this is to access the element by key, and walter myers biography, handle the error that is raised if the key does not exist. When converting to .NET, you can replace this by a check for the burning moon, the existence of the biography, key. Parsing a string to the burning moon, an integer. In .NET you can use TryParse.

No, it's not the same. When using On Error Resume Next, VB would skip to the next line if an error occurs. With try/catch, execution jumps to the catch block if an error (exception) occurs. Although On Error Resume Next is tendulkar speech certainly abused more than it's used legitimately, there are places where it would be helpful even in moon, VB.NET. Consider a program which assigns values to a large number of Excel properties, such as defaults to walter dean myers, all printer parameters -- there are a zillion printer parameters in Excel. Later versions of Excel might have properties which earlier versions don't support, and it isn't trivial to figure out which ones are supported in each version. The program should assign a value if the property exists but ignore the property if an older version of the burning, Excel is used. Marketing! The right way to do this with VB.NET would be to determine which printer properties are supported by each version of Excel, read the version in the burning moon, use, and only assign to walter myers, properties that are implemented in that version. That would require a lot of research and some code, all for little benefit.

On Error Resume Next would be a more practical solution. And, unfortunately, I'm faced with precisely this problem now. The workaround I'm going to try is to write a subroutine which just assigns one value to another, ignoring errors. I'll call this subrouting in the burning moon, place of each assignment statement. Not too terible, but not so great either.

Using On Error Resume Next is walter dean not a good idea for error handling (of course, this is the burning moon my personal opinion, but seems that most of the developers agree with me though). As other guys advised you in previous posts, use Try. Walter Dean Myers! Catch. Finally (whether in VB.NET or C#). This is a very smart option for error handling, but it will also allow you to moon, do nothing with the m and s autograph, error (an empty catch block) :) I would suggest you to put every line of code (which may cause error) in separate Try. Catch Block , so that you would have the the burning moon, opportunity to do whatever you want if an runner, error occurs. Happy Coding guys :) I happen to think those people who invented On Error Resume Next did have something in mind when they created it. The answer to your question would be no, there's nothing equivalent to this construct in C#. We have in the burning, C# and tendulkar, .Net a lot of functions that are so hungry for moon, care and attention it gets tiring after a while to cater to m and, everybody's exceptional behavior.

When almost everything can throw an exception the word itself looses it's meaning somewhat. You're inside an iteration and what should you do if few thousands of the million items happen to moon, be exceptional ? Resume Next could be one of the handy answers. Walter! On Error Resume Next allows for Inline Error Handling, which is the expert level error handling in VB. The Burning Moon! The concept is to handle errors line by line, either performing an confessions book, action based on the error or ignoring the error when beneficial - but running code in the sequence in which it is moon written and not using code jumps. Unfortunately, many novices used On Error Resume Next to hide either their lack of ability or out of laziness from those using their applications by ignoring all errors. Try/catch is block level error handling, which in the pre-.NET world was intermediate by design and implementation. The problem with On Error Resume Next in VB.NET is that it loads the err object on every line of executing code and is, therefore, slower than try/catch . The Kite Runner! I'm somewhat alarmed that this forum checked and promoted an inane answer that claimed using On Error Resume Next is the burning a bad habit and code litter. This is a C# forum; should it really be used for C# programmers to augustine confessions, take shots at another language that they aren't well versed in? It being said that intermediate C# programmers with no real VB experience shouldn't try to keep C# dumbed down and feature limited because of their weird disdain for the burning, another Microsoft Net language, Consider the following code: If the xml usually has a value for Field3 but sometimes not; I'm going to get an annoying error that the s autograph, table doesn't contain the the burning, field. I could care a less if it doesn't because it's not required data.

In this case, ON Error Resume Next would allow me to just ignore the error and I wouldn't have to code around each line of how to a good essay, code setting the the burning moon, variables checking for the existence of the table, row and myers, column combination with Contains methods. This is a small example; I might pull in thousands of table, column, row combinations from large files. Also, assume here that the string variables must be populated this way. This is unhandled code and there will be trouble. Consider a VB.NET and the burning, ON Error Resume Next Implementation: In the above code, it was only necessary to confessions book, handle one possible error condition; even though there were two errors before the third one was handled. RAD development needs On Error Resume Next. C# is my choice of languages but it isn't as much a RAD language as VB for many reasons. I hope all programmers realize that several major languages (i.e. C) just run and don't halt execution on unhandled errors; it's the developers job to check for them where they think necessary.

On Error Resume Next is the closest thing to that paradigm in the Microsoft world. Luckily, .NET does give many advanced choices to handle these situations; I eluded to the Contains. So, in C#, you have to beef up your knowledge level of the moon, language and you properly, according to the C# language specification, work around such issues. Consider a solution for handling a large block of repetitive lines of augustine confessions book, code that could contain an annoying throw away error: Although in a try/catch block, the lambda function is checking for moon, the existence of every table, row, column combination that is derived demand marketing being pulled from the the burning moon, dataset that was populated dynamically by the xml. This could be checked line by line but would require a lot of excess code (here we have the same amount of executing code but far less written code to write a good history, maintain). This unfortunately might be considered another bad practice of One Line Functions. The Burning! I break that rule in the case of lambdas and anonymous functions. Since .NET offers so many ways to check the status of objects; On Error Resume Next isn't as vital to VB experts as it was prior to .NET but still nice to have around; especially when you're coding something that would be a waste of time to not code fast and a good essay, dirty.

To you Java converts to C#; join the Microsoft world and stop pretending that if 10000 intermediate Java and C# programmers say it, than it must be true because if one top level Microsoft Guru (such as any one of those who created the VB language and .NET) obviously contradicts you in their development of .NET itself, it is false and you look foolish. The Burning! I want all the functionality I can get in C# and VB and how to write a good history, F# and any other language I need to use. C# is the burning moon elegant but VB is augustine book more evolved due it's much longer tenure but they both do the Same Thing and use the same objects. Learn them both well or please resist commenting on either in comparison conversations; it's nauseating for those of us who have been around since the moon, mid nineties using Microsoft technologies at a high level. As been said by @Tim Medora, you have to dean myers, make an effort to avoid using such approach when coding.

However, in some cases it is useful, and it is possible to emulate such behavior. Here is a function and an example of using it. (Note that some code elements were written using C#6)

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Indian Freedom Fighters Essays and Research Papers. called as Netaji, was one of the moon most prominent leaders of Indian freedom struggle. • Subhash Chandra Bose was born on . January 23, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa. • Subhash Chandra Bose was the ninth child among fourteen siblings. • Subhash Chandra Bose was a brilliant student right from the s autograph childhood. • He founded Indian National Congress. Bal Gangadhar Tilak • Bal Gangadhar Tilak is considered as Father of the burning Indian National Movement. • Bal Gangadhar Tilak was born on July. Bal Gangadhar Tilak , India , Indian independence activists 678 Words | 3 Pages. all Indians under the m and s autograph British rule. Everyone during that rule fought in some way or the other with a common aim of ending British and moon other . Derived Demand Marketing? colonial authorities in India. After a century of revolutions, struggle, blood shedding, battles and sacrifices, India finally achieved independence on August 15, 1947. The Burning? India was free in dean myers biography, 1947 from the British Empire but the country lost many men and women who were filled with undaunted courage and spirit of patriotism. Today, they are known as freedom fighters.

British Empire , Gujarat , Indian independence activists 905 Words | 3 Pages. the Indian freedom struggle. His sole aim was the freedom of his country and he termed it as a necessity and didn’t . The Burning Moon? agree with Gandhiji on the terms that it can be negotiated. He was well educated and history believed that there should be complete intolerance for the burning moon caste-differentiation, racism or religious separation. Runner? His was so active in the Indian National Congress that he was arrested several times by the British Government. Soon he realised that international backing was a must for India’s freedom and.

Bhagat Singh , British Raj , Hindustan Socialist Republican Association 1079 Words | 5 Pages. ? Sardar vallabhabhai patel Sardar Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel was an Indian barrister and statesman, one of the leaders of the . Indian National Congress and one of the founding fathers of the moon Republic of India. He was a social leader who played a leading role in the country's struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. In India and elsewhere, he was often addressed as Sardar, which means Chief in Hindi, Urdu and Persian. Sardar Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai. Bhagat Singh , British Raj , India 1410 Words | 4 Pages.

central figure in Indian politics for much of the walter dean 20th century. The Burning? He emerged as the paramount leader of the Indian Independence . Essay? Movement under Mahatma Gandhi and ruled India from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in office in 1964. Nehru is considered to the burning moon, be the architect of the modern Indian nation-state; a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. A committed nationalist since his teenage years, Nehru became a rising figure in Indian politics during the. India , Indian National Congress , Indira Gandhi 2592 Words | 5 Pages. The Lgbt: Misunderstood Freedom Fighters. The LGBT: Misunderstood Freedom Fighters The lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgendered are some of the most misunderstood . persons in our world today. People have grown close-minded and judgmental towards them, unfortunately unaware of the effects of those actions. Imagine being seen as an outcast everywhere you go, in which you do not have a sense of belongingness and security.

People cast you disgusted looks, as if your presence alone makes them uncomfortable. These are what the augustine book lesbians, gays. Bisexuality , Gay , Homosexuality 1209 Words | 4 Pages. Essay ELC Cause and the burning Effect Emma van der Maas ICV1A Terrorist or freedom fighter Terrorists are evil . and write a good want only to destroy and terrorise the the burning moon western society. Augustine 7? They all have beards and the burning moon see the Quran as their holy mean to the kite setting, convey this awful jihad (holy war). They have their ways and beliefs to justify their terrorist actions and the burning moon they do not care about the augustine confessions people they hurt or kill. The Burning? Or do they? Is the ‘western world’ not forgetting that we for centuries have excluded these.

Fairy tale , Hamas , Narrative 2121 Words | 6 Pages. 23, 2014 American Indians and Freedom American Indians have striven for freedom ceaselessly since . the colonization in 1800s. But for different American Indians , the definitions of freedom vary a lot. For the chief Seattle, the writer of AUTHENTIC TEXT OF CHIEF SEATTLE’S TREATY ORATION 1854, the freedom means the walter rights to live with the nature harmoniously and to keep their religion and traditions. For Carlos Montezuma, the writer of the burning moon Let My People Go, the derived demand marketing definition of freedom is very absolute and. Hawaii , Law , Mexican American 1183 Words | 5 Pages. down permanently in the burning moon, India. Chengis Khan, the Mongolian, invaded and looted India many times. Columbus wanted to come to India, but instead landed on the . shores of America. Vasco da Gama from Portugal came to trade his country's goods in augustine book 7, return for Indian species.

The French came and moon established their colonies in India. The British achieved political power in India. And while the British power gained its heights during the middle of the 19th century, the resentment of the local rulers, the m and s autograph farmers. British Empire , British Raj , Delhi 1303 Words | 4 Pages. Fighter Jets in the Indian Air Force. the Sukhoi Su-30 jointly-developed by Russia's Sukhoi Corporation and India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force . (IAF).

It is a heavy class, long-range air superiority fighter which can also act as a multirole, strike fighter aircraft. The development of the variant started after India signed a deal with Russia in 2000 to the burning moon, manufacture 140 Su-30 fighter jets.[4] The first Russian-made Su-30MKI variant was integrated into the IAF in 2002,[5] while the first indigenously assembled. Air-to-air missile , Fighter aircraft , Indian Air Force 1506 Words | 4 Pages. Nelson mandela - a freedom fighter or terrorist. Nelson Mandela - The Fight For Freedom Imagine living in your own country where drinking from the wrong water fountain could get you into tendulkar speech . Moon? jail. These are the how to write essay types of moon dangers that a black South African, or also known as the ‘coloured’ person, could get into. The ‘coloured’ and the ‘non-coloured’ were forced to ride on how to, separate trains, go to separate schools, and were even forced to sit on different benches. In 1913, 7.3% of the South African land is was given to the blacks, who take took up. Africa , Black people , Johannesburg 1019 Words | 3 Pages. Boyz in the Hood and the burning Black Freedom Fighters.

the themes of Boyz in the Hood written by John Singleton and Black Freedom Fighters in Steel by speech Ruth Needleman. Boyz in the Hood . is a film that follows the lives of a group of young African Americans living in South Central Los Angeles, California. Each main character faces some common struggle modern day children and teens face today. Their fate relies on what they decide to do about the burning moon, their common struggle. In Black Freedom Fighters in Steel, you glimpse into the lives of five men connected by one.

African American , Boyz n the Hood , Hood 1847 Words | 5 Pages. Role of Gujarat in Freedom Struggle. ROLE OF GUJARAT IN FREEDOM STRUGGLE Gujarat played a vital role in Indian freedom struggle. Many incidents such . as Satyagraha were started in walter myers biography, Gujarat. Many freedom fighters took part in Indian freedom struggle.They are as follows: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) was born into a Hindu Modh family in Porbandar, Gujarat, India in 1869. The Burning Moon? He was the tendulkar son of the burning Karamchand Gandhi, the derived divan (Chief Minister) of Porbandar, and Putlibai, Karamchand fourth wife (his. Gandhians , Gujarat , Indian independence activists 705 Words | 3 Pages. Brave Ladies of Indian Freedom Movement. been a beacon of inspiration to many women. At a time when women were oppressed to the burning moon, a large extent in essay, many states, she was one of the moon first few women who . stepped out and took the reins of leadership in her own hands. As the first woman President of speech Indian National Congress and Governor of Uttar Pradesh, she displayed some rare qualities.

Her poems continue to inspire us. The Burning? vijaya laxmi pandit Rani Lakshmi Bai was the queen of the princely state of Jhansi, which. Baji Rao II , British Raj , Gwalior 708 Words | 3 Pages. stronger as a person and helps us keep moving through our lives. The Kite Setting? Sometimes the environment that surrounds us tries to belittle us by making us feel useless . and by making us believe we won’t be able to accomplish our goals. In Gym class Heroes song “The fighter ”, the moon American band encourages people to not give up in tendulkar speech, life and always keep fighting, as they describe the journey of a boxer. The song explains the struggles he has to face every day; like his fears and a confused society. The opening.

Blazing Star , Debut albums , Gym Class Heroes 1019 Words | 3 Pages. Te Whiti O Rongomai - a Freedom Fighter. The freedom fighter that I have chosen to focus on is Te Whiti O Rongomai. He is a significant figure in our history who has . shaped peoples lives. He is an inspirational, original thinker who was driven by the times in the burning, which he lived, a time of persecution of Maori rights.

His actions continue to derived, be remembered today. The four questions that I address in my essay are: Who was Te Whiti and why is he known as a freedom fighter ? What techniques did he use? What did his actions lead to? Which Human. Civil disobedience , Maori , New Zealand 1297 Words | 4 Pages. Role of the burning Press in Indian Freedom Struggle.

Indigo crop for the white traders. Walter Dean Myers Biography? This resulted in the formation of a Neel Commission. Later, the paper was taken over by Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar. The . paper strongly opposed the Government's excesses and the burning demanded that Indians be appointed to dean, top government posts. The Indian Mirror was the other contemporary of this paper which was very popular among the reading public. Yet another weekly, Amrita Bazar Patrika which was being published from Jessore, was critical of the government, with the. Bipin Chandra Pal , India , India House 1815 Words | 6 Pages. An Independance Day INDEPENDANCE DAY means a day when we had got freedom from the burning moon, not only our brute rulers but freedom from want . from m and s autograph, fulfillment of the burning moon right needs and from dishumilitation it means we have got our own identity and our own valves. India is celebrating her 63rd independence day.

In these 62 years our independence, India became one of the world’s largest economies in terms of growth On 15 August 1947, India attained freedom from the British Rule. Every year, August 15 is runner celebrated as the. British Empire , Indian independence activists , Indian independence movement 803 Words | 3 Pages. 1920(1920-08-01) (aged 64), was an Indian nationalist, teacher, social reformer and independence fighter who was the first . popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. Moon? The British colonial authorities derogatorily called the great leader as Father of the Indian unrest. S Autograph? He was also conferred with the honorary title of Lokmanya, which literally means Accepted by the people (as their leader).

Tilak was one of the first and the burning strongest advocates of Swaraj (self-rule) in Indian consciousness. His famous. India , Indian independence activists , Indian independence movement 8546 Words | 20 Pages. Struggle of Indian Women During Revolution. Women in Indian Freedom Struggle Women in Indian Freedom Struggle have played a vital role with . immense courage, confidence and patriotism. They were the iconic figures in Indian political arena. Role of demand Women in Independence Movement Women in moon, Indian freedom struggle have significantly contributed almost at par with their male counterparts in fighting the British yoke. The initiative, bravery, guts and headship that the women have showed in the freedom movements for the country’s. British Empire , British Raj , India 1308 Words | 4 Pages. Freedom of Speech Freedom of speech is arguably the most precious gift of democracy.

Democracy nurtures freedom . of speech of its citizens. Citizens, in the kite runner, turn, safeguard democracy by voicing their protest against the burning each and every violation of democratic rights of people. Evolution of democracy is nothing but a history of the extension of the right of freedom of speech from the s autograph limited group of the burning moon privileged citizens to the universal right of m and every citizen granted by democratic regimes of the world. It. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , Democracy , Freedom of speech 1367 Words | 5 Pages. Evaluate the Statement, “One Person's Terrorist Is Another Person's Freedom Fighter.” Evaluate the statement, “One person's terrorist is moon another person's freedom fighter .” According to Dictionary.com, the . definition of setting “terrorist” is “a person, usually a member of a group, who advocates terrorism or a person who frightens others.” As for the phase “ freedom fighter ”, it refers to the burning moon, “a person who battles against established forces of tyranny and dictatorship.” In the Western media, and often in runner, the world media “Terrorists” are always described as violent people, and moon enemies of world. Islam , Organized crime , Terrorism 1220 Words | 3 Pages. Role of confessions 7 Women in Indian's Struggle for Freedom. Role of Women in India’s Struggle for the burning Freedom Introduction The history of Indian Freedom Struggle would be . incomplete without mentioning the contributions of augustine book 7 women. The sacrifice made by the women of India will occupy the foremost place.

They fought with true spirit and undaunted courage and faced various tortures, exploitations and hardships to earn us freedom . When most of the men freedom fighters were in moon, prison the women came forward and the kite runner took charge of the struggle. The list of great women. British Empire , British Raj , India 2148 Words | 7 Pages. TGT(S. Sc.) Topic :- Role of Women in the burning moon, Freedom struggle of India Women of the freedom struggle ? India has for augustine confessions 7 a long time . produced of most as feckless female as she did male ones. The Burning Moon? Unlike in most other civilizations and contrary to popular belief, Indian women played politically and socially important roles since times unknown. HERE is m and a look at a few such forgotten women heroes of the Indian freedom struggle. ? Women’s participation in India’s freedom struggle began as early as 1817 when BHIMA. Indian independence movement , Indian National Congress , Jawaharlal Nehru 2004 Words | 20 Pages. Freedom Fighters of India Vallabhbhai Patel His brave deeds earned Vallabhbhai Patel the title of the iron man of India. For . his role in the Bardoli Satyagraha, Patel came to be called the the burning Sardar.

Sardar Patel was a famous lawyer but gave up his practice in order to fight for the freedom of the country. After independence he became the dean deputy PM of India and played an important role the integration of India by merging numerous princely states with the Indian Union. Moon? Bal Gangadhar Tilak Bal. Bhagat Singh , British Raj , India 11795 Words | 45 Pages. proud of our freedom . We are proud of walter dean myers biography our democracy. We are proud of the burning moon our values and ideals. Runner Setting? But we should also remember that it has taken the . sacrifices of lakhs of Indians to bring us where we are today. Our well being and moon progress have been built upon the foundation of the hard work and sacrifices of our freedom fighters , the brave jawans of our armed forces, our farmers, our workers and s autograph our scientists. Today, we remember all those martyrs who laid down their lives for the burning moon the freedom and a good security. Bengal , History of India , India 1234 Words | 4 Pages. - India.

It was on the burning, this day in 1947 that India became independent. We won freedom after a hard struggle. On this day our first Prime Minister . Pundit Jawaharlal Nehruunfurled The National Flag at The Red Fort for the kite runner setting the first time. All the people irrespective of the burning moon their caste, look and walter dean creed celebrate this day everyyear amidst great rejoicing. It is declared a public holiday. Moon? On this day we take a pledge to defend our freedom with all our might.

The Independence Day is celebrated all over India. Delhi , India , Indian independence movement 756 Words | 3 Pages. Indian Independence Movement and Indian National Congress. November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of how to a good history India and a central figure in moon, Indian politics for much of the walter biography 20th century. He . emerged as the the burning moon paramount leader of the walter myers biography Indian independence movement under the tutelage ofMahatma Gandhi and ruled India from its establishment as an independent nation in the burning, 1947 until his death in tendulkar, office in 1964. Nehru is considered to the burning, be the architect of the modern Indian nation-state: a sovereign, socialist, secular, and speech democratic republic. The son of Motilal. East India Company , India , Indian independence movement 1588 Words | 5 Pages. ? Freedom ? Or Restriction?

Mr. Musselman Cheongna Dalton School Class Section A Hyun Jun Han Theoretical Psychology . Experiment Title: Freedom ? Or Restriction? Name: Hyunjun Han Institutional Affiliation: Cheongna Dalton School Class section: A Introduction For long there has been a surplus of controversy regarding the human race’s choice between freedom and restriction. Do people excel in a environment where they are restricted, or do they excel when they are completely. Experiment , Grammar , Human 1033 Words | 6 Pages. ?Michelle Marano Mr. Weir ENG3U1 May 30th, 2012 The importance . of Freedoms Freedom is a very important aspect of the burning moon a society, without freedom people live in fear and insecurity.

Benjamin Franklin once said “Any society that would give up a little liberty to confessions book 7, gain a little security will deserve nether and lose both” (Franklin). Throughout history one can see how much control the moon governments have had over their. Censorship , Democracy , Freedom of speech 1466 Words | 6 Pages. ?IN MY opinion, our teenagers nowadays are enjoying too much freedom compared to those before. Freedom helps teens feel more . powerful and self-confident. But too much freedom can easily backfire, leaving a teen floundering. Some of them start taking advantage of marketing too much freedom . Although teenagers might be reluctant to admit it, they still need the stability that parental authority can offer. Some parents remain so busy with their work that they forget their responsibilities towards their children. Adolescence , Childhood , Developmental psychology 1011 Words | 3 Pages.

Freedom Are you free? The following essay will explore the concept of the burning freedom . But what is freedom ? . Dean Myers? According to Wikipedia “ freedom is the quality of being free.” However, it depends on how people see their own freedom . In addition, this essay will explain more about this concept with different texts such as, “Eveline” By James Joyce, “Tosca” by Isabel Allende, and “The Myth of Sisyphus” by Albert Camus. These essays will show us different points of view of what freedom is and which. Absurdism , Albert Camus , Isabel Allende 1014 Words | 3 Pages. ? Freedom has been a rallying call for reformers and revolutionaries throughout human history. The passion and the burning moon sacrifice poured into that cause . has however, not been based on any general consensus about the definition of the speech term. Almost the first thing to strike any student of the subject is the bewildering variety of moon concepts, social constructs and meanings that have become attached to this single emotive word. This is an demand marketing, issue in human history far too important to be ignored in this series of Essays. Liberalism , Libertarian socialism , Liberty 1333 Words | 4 Pages.

A Short Essay on Freedom What exactly is freedom ? Can you taste it, see it, reach out and touch it? The . answer to these questions is no. However, if reflected upon, freedom can certainly be felt, not by the hands but by the emotion called feeling. Since all we can do is describe properties of freedom , the moon question remains how freedom is explainable with words. Youth are not burdened by restrictions placed upon adults; therefore, a simpler idea of being able to. Activity , Body fluid , Body fluids 963 Words | 3 Pages. ?Ethan Wieland Mrs. Trickel 2nd Period Social Studies 12/16/14 Loyalty vs. Freedom You have just returned home from a day’s work in the kite runner, the shop, . when all of a sudden your door is kicked down. The dust settles.

Four British troops enter, weapons drawn. One of the troops comes and points his rifle at your chest, bayonet stabbing your skin. “Are you loyal to England, or are you a rebel traitor, a patriot?” You look towards your family, cowering in the corner. You know that your decision will mean life. American Revolution , British Empire , England 948 Words | 4 Pages. Samantha Briley Ms. Haupt ENG3UV-02 5 July 2013 Freedom is moon being accepted.

Freedom is defined as “the state of how to write history being free . Moon? or at liberty rather than in confinement or under physical restraint” (Dictonary.com).When you arrive to myers, a new town you are somewhat free, although unless you are accepted by the burning the town, you won’t feel free. In his short story, The Strangers that Came to Town, Ambrose Flack shows that true freedom is about being accepted. How To Write History Essay? This is shown by the people in town mocking the Duvitches. 1989 albums , Blake Lively , English-language films 745 Words | 3 Pages. Orissa Review Role of the burning Women in India’s Struggle For Freedom Siddhartha Dash The entire history of the freedom movement is . replete with the saga of bravery, sacrifice and political sagacity of hundreds and thousands of tendulkar women of our country. Their participation in the struggle began as early as 1817 when Bhima Bai Holkar fought agaist the the burning British Colonel Malcolm and defeated him in guerilla warfare.

At a very critical time for our mother land when the British East India Company was fast expanding. India , Indian independence activists , Indian independence movement 1763 Words | 5 Pages. ? Freedom vs. Predestination Perform a comparative analysis that reflects the difference between freedom and runner setting predestination. . Provide an moon, example of how to a good history essay each and reflect how these theories are applicable for today's society. Submission Requirements: Submit your answer in the burning, no less than 500 words in an MS Word document. Cite sources in APA format. Font: Arial; 12-point Line Spacing: Double ethical system: egoism?

If they must always act in their own self- interest because that is simply the way. Determinism , Free will , Metaphysics 1285 Words | 3 Pages. concentrate and do the session delivery seriously. There the quote was quite related because we had the freedom to be a teacher trainer but we . have to be more responsible and develop certain habit, there with the freedom comes the responsibility. How To A Good History? Looking at the history of freedom one can always see war as the synonyma for the freedom . The Burning Moon? The first thing that comes in our mind when we talk about freedom is derived demand war and quarrels. This phrase is mostly used by the people to show gratitude towards those who have.

English-language films , Free will , Human 1796 Words | 4 Pages. outside protected areas. On conviction, the penalty for moon hunting is imprisonment for a period ranging from a minimum of three to a maximum of tendulkar seven years with . fines not less than 10,000 rupees. 2. The Indian Forest Act (1927) and Forest Acts of State Governments The main objective of the Indian Forest Act (1927) was to secure exclusive state control over forests to meet the the burning demand for timber. Demand Marketing? Most of these untitled lands had traditionally belonged to the burning moon, the forest dwelling communities. The Act defined. Anas , Bird , Birds of Asia 1561 Words | 4 Pages. “We shall never leave this house, nor let it be taken from us.

This is our home and tendulkar the end of the burning moon our journey… we shall not share it with others, as we share no . Walter Myers Biography? other joy with them this is the end of our days” (Rand 91). Prometheus sets the tone for moon freedom in this home, where no man can take happiness or joy away. Because of the council and their society, the men can now understand what it feels like to be in control of their own lives, without anyone to point out what they are required to do. Similarly. Ayn Rand 1176 Words | 3 Pages. When judging the advancements of Native Americans to derived demand, others one might look into the perspective of the surrounding environment of certain tribes. For . example, many woodland Indians such as the the burning moon ones on the Eastern Coast were more advanced as to making tools and trading with other local tribes. While other Native American groups stayed in a routine of making the same crops, and using the same weapons, others experimented with what they were given and used different techniques to demand marketing, aid in their success. By the moon Way , Christopher Columbus , Cleveland Indians 1589 Words | 4 Pages. Many writers’ feel strongly about m and s autograph, ‘ Freedom ’ and the burning how important it is. Compare how they use language to convey what they feel’.

In this essay . I’m going to how to write a good history, be analysing and explaining three poems that I have chosen from the variety of poems that we studied in the anthology called “The Struggle for Freedom .” The poems I have chosen are: “Still I Rise,” “Warning,” and “Black Brown and White.” I’m going to be comparing the use of language, poetic devices, and moon the range of techniques the different writers. Maya Angelou , Poetry 1262 Words | 3 Pages. ? A Life of Freedom Austin Norton History 1032 Dr. Arnold-Lourie 9/24/2013 In the 19th Century the . Indian community faced harsh scrutiny. They were a misunderstood group of walter dean people who just like the the burning blacks, wanted freedom and to be accepted in how to essay, America. In 1869, Indians had thought their prayers had been answered when Ulysses S. Grant announced a new “Peace Policy” in the west. “In reality the [peace] policy rested on the belief that Americans had the right.

19th century , Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War 847 Words | 3 Pages. Indian Independence Movement and India. substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom . A moment comes, which comes but . rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. We end today a period of the burning ill fortune, and India discovers herself again. - Jawaharlal Nehru (Speech on Indian Independence Day, 1947) History of Independence Day On the eve of India’s independence, Pandit. British Empire , British Raj , India 1832 Words | 6 Pages. Martin Luther King, Jr.: Fighter for Freedom.

and with his words, which touched not only book 7 his followers, but also his adversaries. He preached concern for families, friends, and neighbors. He preached for . Moon? those who worked for justice, freedom , and the kite runner peace. He preached for the victims of hunger, fear, oppression, and sorrow. Most of all, he preached for the burning the freedom of his people (“Martin Luther King: Preacher, Prophet, Poet”). He spoke daily, often several times a day. Most are familiar with his “I Have a Dream” speech, his declaration made in derived demand, the. African American , Civil disobedience , Coretta Scott King 1509 Words | 4 Pages.

retarded fag! at Arnold. Moon? The language is offensive. It’s hurtful, ignorant, and crude, but it’s not uncommon to hear young boys talk that way. Why does . Rowdy use that language? In Sherman Alexie’s novel, The Absolutely True Diary of a Part Time Indian , Arnold’s best friend Rowdy calls him a “retarded fag” for transferring at the start of their freshman year of high school. Due to 7, his background as a child, Rowdy uses cruel language and hurtful gestures anytime Arnold and Rowdy came face to face.

Sherman Alexie , The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian , The Beautiful Life 1007 Words | 3 Pages. Role of Students in the Struggle of Freedom. and linguistic differences are popularly known as Kashmiris. Moon? The people of confessions Kashmir are the long—suffering people in South Asia and undoubtedly their struggle . for freedom is a long-running popular movement like any other freedom struggle. For Indian and Pakistan it may be a dispute but for Kashmiris it is their right to fight for the burning their freedom and a good history the right of the burning moon self determination. How To Write A Good Essay? Kashmir is also a central factor determining political and economical relations between India and Pakistan This can easily. Azad Kashmir , Jammu and Kashmir , Kargil War 1384 Words | 5 Pages. History of the Indian Frontier Wars In today’s world, Americans aren’t known to moon, “take over” Indians land. Why so? It has been . done in tendulkar, the early revolution dating back to the year of 1622.

Before 1622, North America was mainly claimed by the Indian folk. However, the settlers that ventured into moon North America believed that the Indians had no right claiming the land, and soon took over, as time progressed. As the years went on, disagreements amongst the derived English men and Indians grew. In the year. American Revolution , Canada , French and Indian War 1105 Words | 3 Pages. problems. Low income citizens would much prefer the cash than the the burning moon myriad of in-kind benefits they receive today and most likely could stretch the dollars . much further to improve their standard of living. M And S Autograph? This would give the poor far more opportunity, freedom , dignity and most of all control over the burning, their lives. This would ultimately make welfare more affordable for augustine the tax payer. If we look into all 13 antipoverty programs of the federal government as a welfare system in whole, we can quickly determine.

Conditional Cash Transfer , Poverty , Temporary Assistance for Needy Families 2022 Words | 6 Pages. Terrorists or Freedom Fighters ? The word terrorism carries a very negative connotation in the western world. The attacks on . the World Trade Center in New York City, the the burning Unabomber, and countless atrocities the tendulkar modern news is moon plagued with frequently skews what terrorism is and what terrorists are. During the American Revolution, the colonist rebels used terrorist tactics to win the war and secure their freedom . Marketing? They were considered freedom fighters , not terrorists. However, when opinions are taken. Easter Rising , Ireland , Irish nationalism 3117 Words | 9 Pages.

Role of Marathi Press in Freedom Movement of India. India[2] Occupation freedom fighter , activist, linguistic activist, poet, author Language Konkani Ethnicity Konkani . Ravindra Kelekar (March 25, 1925 – August 27, 2010) was a noted Indian author who wrote primarily in the Konkani language, though he also wrote in Marathi and Hindi.[3] A Gandhian activist, freedom fighter and the burning a pioneer in the modern Konkani movement, he is a well known Konkani scholar, linguist, and creative thinker. Kelkar was a participant in the Indian freedom movement, Goa’s. Goa , India , Indian literature 1204 Words | 5 Pages. Freedom Of Indian Press Freedom of Press In India DESPITE BEING the demand marketing largest Democracy in the World, the . Indian Press has never been accorded a free status. A survey of civil and political liberties carried out by Freedom House listed the Indian press as being partly free. What is of concern here is that it figured even below countries like Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Comoros, Ecuador and El Salvador. Ever since, the time of Hickey, the moon administration has recognized the walter dean myers biography potential of the. Burkina Faso , Democracy , Freedom of speech 440 Words | 2 Pages. A study of Indian history from 16th to the burning, 20th centuries will indicate that the transition from feudalism to modern society has been slow and . incomplete despite the occasional turbulence, turmoil, wars, social reforms, and intellectual ferment. It was during the mid-19th century (First War of Independence) and the 20th century freedom movement that the Indian newspapers played a powerful and tendulkar speech prominent role in the burning moon, questioning the s autograph forces of authority, social prejudices and the suppression of personal liberty.

Advertising , India , Johannes Gutenberg 1990 Words | 6 Pages. IIndian nationalism Indian nationalism refers to the many underlying forces that molded the Indian independence movement, and . strongly continue to influence the the burning politics of India, as well as being the heart of how to write history many contrasting ideologies that have caused ethnic and religious conflict in Indian society. Indian nationalism often imbibes the consciousness of Indians that prior to 1947, India embodied the broader Indian subcontinent and influenced a part of Asia, known as Greater India. National. Bengal , British Raj , Empires and kingdoms of India 1770 Words | 5 Pages. In a landmark judgment of the case Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India,[2] the Supreme Court held that the freedom of speech and expression has no . geographical limitation and it carries with it the right of a citizen to the burning moon, gather information and to s autograph, exchange thought with others not only in India but abroad also. The constitution of moon India does not specifically mention the freedom of s autograph press. Freedom of press is implied from the Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution. Thus the the burning press is subject to the restrictions.

Contempt of court , Democracy , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 1897 Words | 5 Pages. fifty-three years there have been regular elections to the Parliament and state legislatures. This reflects the maturity and wisdom of the . Confessions 7? Indian electorate, in whom the the burning moon ultimate power and s autograph sovereignty rests. With the passage of time, Indian voters have become more assertive and the burning moon active as regards their participation in the kite runner setting, the process of democracy. The turnout of Indian voters has significantly increased during the the burning past elections. It was about 52% only during the Lok Sabha elections of 1952 which increased. Communist state , Democracy , Government 1369 Words | 4 Pages. Nelson Mandela - Long Walk to confessions, Freedom. Nelson Mandela in his book, Long Walk to Freedom argues through the first five parts that a black individual must deal, coop, and grow through . a society that is hindering their lives#8217; with apartheid and suppression of the burning their rightful land. Book 7? Rolihlanla Mphakanyiswa or clan name, Madiba was born on July 18, 1918 in a simple village of Mvezo, which was not accustomed to the happenings of South Africa as a whole. His father was an respected man who led a good life, but lost it because of a dispute.

Africa , African National Congress , Constitution of moon South Africa 2253 Words | 6 Pages. Terrorism as a Social Construct , Indian Context. focusses on how terrorism is a social construct. With special reference to augustine confessions book 7, India I have tried to accentuate factors that seem to the burning, reiterate on the above. | . Do you think terrorism is a social construction, discuss it with suitable examples from the Indian context? Probably INTRODUCTION “The most significant contribution of sociological thinking to our understanding of terrorism is the derived demand realization that it is a social construction” (Turk,2004:271). Moon? The sociologists like to believe that. Emile Durkheim , Sociology , Terrorism 1341 Words | 4 Pages. April 22, 2010 Indian Independence India, in the 18th century was ruled by the British for two centuries.

The Indians . wanted freedom from the British. British looted and caused fights in India and derived demand marketing treated them with no respect. The Indian Independence was caused by British Imperialism. The British wanted to take over India, but India wanted freedom as well since it’s their country not the the burning British. Although politics and nationalism were important causes of the Indian Independence Movement.

Bengal , British Empire , British Raj 1255 Words | 5 Pages.

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essay film history Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to the burning moon see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the derived demand video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of course creates a moving target. Moon? Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter.

Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an derived marketing old movie, though it still seems fresh and the burning moon, vital. Now for write a good essay the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Moon? Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places. M And? Some are documents of everyday existence or of the burning moon extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in confessions book our times.

Still other old movies are resolutely strange. The Burning? They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. They force us to augustine confessions acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. Moon? They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in tendulkar speech earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for social and the burning moon, cultural influences on films, we understand better the walter biography ways in which films bear the moon traces of the societies that made and speech, consumed them. Film history opens up a range of the burning moon important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in the kite which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of the burning moon a young discipline. Derived Marketing? Over the the burning moon past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated.

Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into how to a good essay, our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to moon be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for tendulkar speech fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the moon field.

The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by the kite setting, its most accomplished scholars. But the the burning moon book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of runner cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films. We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in moon college courses.

Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into walter dean biography, the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for moon all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in myers order to answer them in the course of an argument.

When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and the burning moon, formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at confessions book 7 this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is the burning moon tracing the walter myers biography fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Moon? Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Setting? Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by moon, the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files.

And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. The Kite? Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the moon accumulating of facts about derived marketing their passion as an end in itself. But whatever the pleasure of the burning moon knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs.

Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from write history essay a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in the burning moon a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified.

Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from derived marketing that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to the burning it by a distributor.

It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is m and s autograph a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the moon dates further? The film’s style helps. S Autograph? The camera points straight toward the the burning moon back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway.

All these stylistic features are typical of m and European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to the burning a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. Confessions Book 7? For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. Moon? She had reason to believe that films staged and write a good history essay, cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from the burning other films of the period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by derived, the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process.

Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and the burning, other staff; and sketches for derived demand sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The Burning Moon? The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. S Autograph? One scholar might be interested in moon tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company. Derived Marketing? She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the the burning moon focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines.

The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. Walter Dean Myers Biography? Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions.

But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and the burning, then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and walter myers, sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and the burning, absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the walter myers early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor. Moon? The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion.

Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in tendulkar historical research. Moon? One scholar gained entry to tendulkar the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to the burning put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. Walter Myers Biography? For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on moon the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to how to a good history save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to the burning a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and the kite runner setting, where and when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style?

What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at the burning moon this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the tendulkar historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is moon indispensable for write a good essay all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and the burning moon, creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The Kite Setting? The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs.

He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the the burning company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of how to a good history essay art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . The Burning? Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on tendulkar an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and the burning moon, background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is how to write not just a mass of facts but an argument.

The historian’s argument consists of moon evidence marshalled to speech create a plausible explanation for an event or state of the burning moon affairs. That is, the argument aims to the kite runner setting answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question.

Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the the burning films they study are central pieces of evidence. Augustine Book 7? But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is moon a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in speech the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of the burning collecting and sheltering the confessions book thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to the burning retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an m and Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive.

Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. The Burning? Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in tendulkar many copies and did not circulate widely. The Burning? Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to runner suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the burning the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. The Kite Runner? These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony. Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. The Burning? A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence.

Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. Tendulkar? The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. The Burning Moon? In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for tendulkar speech the United States and one for export.

These could differ considerably in length, content, and the burning, even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in derived Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to the burning moon cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the demand differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The Burning? The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of m and questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to moon sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied. S Autograph? For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material.

Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of the burning moon explanation in walter dean myers film history. A standard list would include:

Biographical history: focusing on the burning moon an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is how to write history essay not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question.

Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of the burning moon these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. Derived? A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures.

The techniques of the burning moon descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is printed. The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in speech which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the moon film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the speech age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and the burning, country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of derived demand marketing them. Chronology Chronology is moon essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to tendulkar establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and the burning moon, low tides gives no hint as to why tides change.

History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. Augustine Confessions Book 7? It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. The Burning? This is not to augustine book 7 say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did.

It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is moon that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the write a good history essay power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the the burning moon Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well.

Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to the kite setting treat D.W. Griffith as the the burning most important figure in write a good the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. Moon? More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on demand marketing standard editing practice. As an the burning individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Speech? Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about the burning what all the individuals involved believed and did.

When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. Marketing? We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of the burning filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and write a good history, style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. The Burning? Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to demand marketing editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer.

Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in moon the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of augustine book a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by the burning moon, a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the a good arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in moon a personal way. The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it.

The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by tendulkar, a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the the burning 1920s influenced the history essay documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by moon, it certainly did not see exactly the confessions same films.

Influences are particular kinds of the burning moon causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. The Kite? Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to moon explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. M And S Autograph? For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and the burning, streamlines according to derived demand marketing the question he is moon pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends.

Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the whole” or “for the the kite setting most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to moon explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and book 7, aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at moon a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality.

By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is the kite runner trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The Burning? The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and a good history essay, they go on moon to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the m and historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the the burning 1910s, and the 1920s. How To Write A Good Essay? Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the burning the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929.

Every historian marks out periods according to tendulkar the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the the burning early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in s autograph the 1970s and afterward. Moon? Histories of speech genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the burning the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in s autograph relation to changes in film form or the film market.

The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. The Burning Moon? Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and how to write essay, central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and the burning, parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss. Walter Dean Myers Biography? We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is the burning moon a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria.

They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of derived demand film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and the burning moon, an excellent film may never exert much influence.

The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. Dean Myers Biography? But of course in some cases the criteria can combine. The Burning? A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in a good essay the Rain or Rio Bravo , is moon often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and speech, some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema?

That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the the burning moon material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the m and film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the moon patterned uses of write a good history film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and moon, costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the m and s autograph Western, the thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to moon survey the uses of the medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and demand, style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking.

At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of the burning moon structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in s autograph which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the the burning moon ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products. Derived Marketing? An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to moon be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in confessions book which films are exhibited have also affected film history.

For example, the the burning moon major technological innovations associated with the speech early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to moon do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in book the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to moon introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by the kite setting, directors and the burning, films that have migrated across their borders. M And? Genres are vagabond as well.

The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of moon films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions.

For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the write history Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social.

If we had to squeeze our book into the burning moon, one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is m and s autograph predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and moon, film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of augustine confessions book films. The Burning Moon? But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at a good essay what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an the burning moon imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology. And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the the kite runner setting film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about the burning moon aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s.

Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at once economic, technological, and tendulkar, aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the moon film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the book nationality of a film they were seeing. In the the burning 1910s, however, war and the kite runner setting, nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the degree to moon which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others. In addition, the runner setting circulation of U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility.

In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the the burning moon evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by walter biography, Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on.

But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. The Burning? To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. Dean? might start by moon, considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. How To History Essay? This is moon a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on how to history essay a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by the burning moon, tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by walter dean biography, telling a story.

For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the the burning Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at derived demand marketing an agreement about an the burning acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Derived? Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to the burning be created, we might lay out the 7 causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the the burning situations in which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the write a good past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. Moon? We divide film history into tendulkar, six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the the burning moon 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and derived demand, exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the moon topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. M And S Autograph? If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of the burning 9/11, and so on.

The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at a good history essay various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and the burning, come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life.

5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the derived process of researching a book-length study of moon Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Derived Demand? Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. The Burning? Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of m and moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to the burning pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Corner (1940).

Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries?

A study of walter dean biography Lubitsch could also highlight how American and the burning moon, German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an tendulkar art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of moon filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and how to write a good essay, short features during the the burning moon war. Demand? He moved into features in 1918.

I decided to limit my focus to moon the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the walter biography core body of evidence for my study. Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema.

American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the moon war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Tendulkar? Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the the burning German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to walter myers expand, and the industry emerged from the the burning moon war second in size and m and, strength only to Hollywood. The Burning Moon? It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in a good most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously.

What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into the burning, closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the write a good history essay spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the moon action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and derived demand marketing, small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the moon action simpler and hence less distracting. Dean? In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into the burning, play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the kite the forefront of moon this change.

His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the leap into tendulkar, Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against moon, the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against myers biography, the sets, as in this frame from the burning moon Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over the kite setting, this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the moon new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s?

I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. The Kite Setting? I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for moon the new book. To learn about the marketing very different German style of the same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by the burning moon, other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the confessions book 7 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the moon director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and setting, American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about moon their look.

All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. Confessions Book 7? I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. Moon? I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the m and s autograph book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of moon Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period.

Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. Tendulkar Speech? An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the burning moon the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from s autograph ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the moon influences of derived demand marketing Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and the burning, significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique.

The overall argument moved from specific to general. Runner? While the the burning moon opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the how to write a good essay last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to the burning moon Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set.

Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to history essay ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and questions, data and the burning, arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by marketing, analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an the burning essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Write Essay? Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy.

Finally, if we have any curiosity about the the burning films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of walter myers Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. Moon? 22951.

6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. How To Essay? See www.davidbordwell.net/blog. have comments about the the burning moon state of this website? go here.

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Complete Biography of Iltutmish the Sultan of Slave Dynasty. Iltutmish was the greatest of the slave kings. He was the slave who rose to eminence by sheer dint of merit. He was a Turk of Ilbari Tribe in Turkestan. He belonged to a noble family. As a child, he was very beautiful and showed signs of intelligence and sagacity.

He excited the moon, jealousy of his brothers who managed to deprive him of confessions book his paternal home and care. He was sold to a merchant of Bukhara and the latter sold him to Qutb-ud-Din Aibak. Iltutmish rose step by step till he was made Governor of Badaun. He was also married to the burning moon, the daughter of Qutb-ud-Din. He won his spurs in m and the battle against the Khokhars. In recognition of his service, Iltutmish, by the orders of Muhammad Ghori, was manumitted and given the rank of the burning moon Amir-ul-Umara. When Qutb-ud-Din Aibak died in 1210 he was succeeded by Aram Shah. As he was found to be most incompetent, the nobles of Delhi decided to invite Iltutmish to the throne and their choice was in the best interest of the infant empire. The election of Iltutmish was opposed by the commander of the guards of Qutb-ud-Din but his opposition collapsed as there was no serious backing.

The jurists headed by how to write history essay, Qazi Wajih ud-Din opposed Iltutmish on the ground that he was not a free man. The Burning? When Iltutmish showed them the letter of manumission, they also kept quiet. Iltutmish was not a usurper as there was nothing to the kite runner, usurp. The Burning? There was no sovereign in India at that time. Augustine Book 7? The sovereign power of Iltutmish was based on three things. In the first place, he was elected by the officials. Secondly, he could claim by the right of conquest and the power to enforce. In the third place, he was formally recognized by the Khalifa of Baghdad. It is not clear whether Iltutmish made any special request to the Khalifa or the Khalifa himself gave the same to him voluntarily.

The Khalifa confirmed Iltutmish in the possession of all the land and sea which he had conquered as Sultan-i-Azam or Great Sultan. The act fastened the fiction of Khilafat on moon the Sultanate of Delhi and involved legally the recognition of the final sovereignty of the Khalifa and authority outside the geographical limits of a good history essay India but instead that vague yet nonetheless real brotherhood of Islam. On his coins, Iltutmish described himself as the Lieutenant of the Khalifa. Difficulties of Iltutamish. When Iltutmish became the ruler in 1211, he had a large number of difficulties to face. Instead of the burning moon being disheartened by them, he faced them boldly and m and overcame them all. He took prompt action against Qutbi and Muizzi Maliks and gave them a crushing defeat in the neighbourhood of Delhi. He consolidated his position in the area around Delhi. He also secured a letter of manumission from Yildoz.

Taj-ud-Din Yildoz was a formidable foe of Iltutmish. Moon? He considered himself to be the successor of Muhammad Ghori and derived marketing was not prepared to allow the Muslim Empire in India to be independent. In 1214, Yildoz came to Lahore and occupied the same. This was too much for Iltutmish. The Burning Moon? He marched against speech Yildoz and defeated him in the Battle of Tarain near Thanesar. Yildoz was made a prisoner and sent to the fortress of Badaun where he was later on put to death. It was in this way that Iltutmish was successful in disposing of the burning one of his enemies.

Iltutmish was also successful against Nasir-ud-din Qabacha who ruled over Uch and Multan. After the death of Qutb-ud-Din, Qabacha had occupied even a portion of the Punjab. As Qabacha refused to recognize Iltutmish as overlord, lltutmish declared war against the kite runner setting him in 1217 and he was successful in driving him out the burning, of the Punjab. As the derived, power of Qabacha was not completely crushed,' he managed to the burning, remain independent for another decade. In 1227, Iltutmish once again marched against him and was successful in capturing Uch without much resistance. Qabacha escaped from Uch and took shelter in Bhakkar. When Bhakkar also was besieged by Iltutmish, Qabacha lost heart and walter dean myers asked for peace. He sent his son Masud Bahram to negotiate the terms but he was impirisoned. Qabacha was so much upset that he tried to escape from Bhakkar but was drowned in the River Indus. One view is that he was killed in an accident.

Still another view is moon, that he committed suicide. Whatever the truth, Iltutmish captured Bhakkar and appointed Vizir Muhammad Junaidi to complete the conquest for Lower Sindh. After the death of dean biography Qutb-ud-Din Aibak, Ali Mardan declared himself independent in Bengal and took up the title of Ala-ud-Din. However, he died after two years. He was succeeded by his son Hisam-ud-Din Iwaz. The latter took up the title of Ghias-ud-Din and struck coins in his own name. Even the Khutba was read in his name. This was too much for Iltutmish to put up with such defiance.

No wonder, he sent an expedition against him in 1225 and the burning moon he followed the walter dean myers biography, same. Ghias-ud-Din heard the approach of Iltutmish, he at once submitted and moon agreed to dean biography, lay a huge sum as tribute. The submission of Ghias-ud-Din was not a lasting one and the burning after some he once again raised the standard of revolt. Another expedition was sent against him. Ghias-ud-Din was defeated and killed and Bengal was completely brought under the throne of Delhi. When Nasir-ud-Din who had conquered Bengal died in 1229, the the kite, Khalji Maliks revolted in lengal under Balka.

Iltutmish himself went to Bengal at the head of the army and defeated Balka id put Ala-ud-Din Jani in charge of Bengal. After the death of moon Aibak, the Rajputs did their best to m and, drive away theTurks.The Chandelas covered Kalinjar and Ajaigarh. The Pratiharas drove away the Muslim Garrisons from moon Gwalior d reoccupied the city. They also occupied Narwar and Jhansi. The Chauhan Ruler of Ranthambhor rends out the Turkish troops and brought under his control Jodhpur and the adjacent areas. The hauhans of Jalor conquered once again Nadol, Mandor, Bharmer, Ratnapur, Sanchor, Radhadhara, hera, Ramasin and Bhinamal. Jadon Bhattis established their sovereignty in Northern Alwar, Bayana and Thangir put an end to Turkish supremacy and became independent. Iltutmish could not be expected to book 7, allow the Rajputs to remain independent for long.

In 1226, he besieged Ranthambhor, captured it and regarrisoned it. Mandor, capital of the Parmara Rajputs, was also captured and regarrisoned. Next he besieged Jalor. Moon? Udai Singh, its ruler, offered stiff Resistance. Ultimately, he was made to surrender.

However, he was allowed to continue as ruler, on the condition of his payment of tribute. Bayana and walter dean myers Thangir were also recaptured. Ajmer was captured after stiff resistance. Nagair in Jodhpur was recovered. In 1231, Gwalior was besieged. Malayavarma Deva, it ruler, fought bravely but ultimately surrendered. Trilokyavarma, the ruler of the burning Kalinjar, abandoned Kalinjar and the same was plundered. However, the Chandelas were able to book, trun out the Muslims once again. Iltutmish led the attack on Nagada in person. The Burning Moon? However, he was defeated by Ksetra Singh, its ruler and Iltutmish suffered heavy losses. How To A Good History Essay? Iltutmish tried to subdue jthe Chalukyas of Gujarat but he was unsuccessful.

In 1234-35, Iltutmish led an expedition to Malwa. He plundered Bhilsa and Ujjain. He also destroyed the temple of the burning Mahakal at Ujjain. The contention of Sir Wolseley Haig is augustine confessions book 7, that Iltutmish conquered and annexed Malwa but it appears that it was merely a raid and not a war of conquest. Badaun Kanauj, Banaras and Katehar (Rohilkhand) etc., asserted their independence in the burning the time of Iltutmish. However, as soon as Iltutmish was able to re-establish his authority, he took. action against them.

One by one, Badaun, Kanauj and Banaras were recaptured. The same was the setting, case with Katehar. An expedition was sent to Bahraich and the same was captured. Avadh was also brought under Delhi after stiff resistance. It was found difficult to the burning, defeat a local tribe which was fighting under their chief named Bartu or Pirthu. The Turks were defeated by them on many occasions and speech more than a lakh of the troops were destroyed by them. It was only after the death of Prithu that the local tribes were subdued. Expeditions were also sent against moon Chandwara and speech Tirhut. In the year 1221, the Mongols appeared for the first time on the banks of the river Indus under their famous leader Changiz Khan who had overrun the countries of Central and Western Asia with lightning rapidity.' When he attacked Jalal-ud-Din Mangabami, the last Shah c r Khwarizm of Khiva, the latter fled to the Punjab.

He asked Iltutmish to give him shelter. Iltutmish felt that by helping Jalal-ud-Din he would be inviting trouble from Changiz Khan. Consequently he wrote back saying that although he had no objection to giving him shelter, he was afraid that the the burning moon, climate of the Punjab would not suit him. This was a very polite way of refusing the request. The result was that Jalal-ud-Din entered into an alliance with the Khokhars. A Good History? He defeated Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha of the burning moon Multan and plundered Sindh and Northern Gujarat. After that he went away to Persia.

The Mongols also retired. Thus, the infant Muslim Empire in India was saved. Tendulkar? The last expedition of Iltutmish was directed against Banian. According to Raverty, this was situated in hill tracts of the Sindh Sagar Doab or in the country immediately West of the Salt Range. Iltutmish was attacked on the way by the burning, such a severe illness that he had to be carried back to Delhi in a litter. The disease proved fatal and he died on 29 April, 1236.

The famous Qutb Minar near Mehrauli in Delhi was got completed by Iltutmish in the year 1231 -1232. It stands as a testimony to the greatness of Iltutmish. The Qutb Minar was not named after Qutb-ud-Din Aibak but after Khwaja Qutb-ud-Din-a native of Uch near Baghdad who had come to live in Hindustan and was held in great esteem by Iltutmish and others. Out of gratitude, Iltutmish got the names of his patrons, Qutb-ub-Din Aibak and Sultan Muiz-ud-Din, inscribed on derived demand marketing it. A magnificent mosque was also built by the orders of the Sultan. The reign of Iltutmish saw the decline of moon Lahore and the rise of Delhi. Delhi gradually became the greatest centre of learning and culture in the East.

Great scholars like Nur-ud-Din, Mohammad Aufi, Minhaj-us-Siraj and Hasan Nizami were assembled in his court. Likewise, many saints, artists and artisans also flocked to Delhi. The result was that Delhi became Second Baghdad. Minhajus Siraj tells us that Changiz Khan was a tall, well built man, with a robust frame. He had eat-like eyes. He was extremely brave, wise, far-sighted, clever and derived marketing just, excellent in administration and in over-throwing his enemies. He was a terrible killer and a ferocious blood-shedder. His justice was so severe that no one except the owner had the courage to pick up a whip that had fallen by the road-side An idea of the havoc brought by the burning, Changiz Khan in his conquests is given by Juwayni in these words : Wherever there was a king or a ruler or the tendulkar speech, Governor of the burning moon a city that offered him resistance, Changiz Khan annihilated him together with his family and his followers, kinsmen and strangers, so that where there had been a hundred thousand people, there remained, without exaggeration, not a hundred souls alive, as a proof of which statement may be cited the fate of various cities. After capturing the town of a good essay Khwarizm which lay in shambles the Mongols drove the people into the open More than a hundred thousand craftsmen were selected and sent to the countries of the east. The children and the young women were taken away as captives Order was given for the rest to be slaughtered Every Mongol soldier had to execute 24 persons.

No inhabitants were left. After the fall of Nishapur. All of its inhabitants were brought out and slaughtered even cats and dogs were not spared. The result is the burning, that nothing remains now on the site to the great historic city. After the s autograph, fall of the Fort of Taliqan all its inhabitants were massacred. Even cats and dogs were not spared. The wombs of pregnant women were cut open, the moon, heads of derived demand marketing babies were severed, and the ramparts, palaces and houses were levelled with the ground. Prof.

Habib says that the ruthlessness of Changiz Khan enabled him to unite the Steppeuluses into a homogeneous unit by the complete annihilation of all rival chiefs. His high grade intelligence cannot be doubted, nor was his genius for organisation, but his military victory due primarily to his capacity for striking below the belt - to his meanness of character in the burning attacking the civil population on a wholesale scale. The Delhi Sultanate owes the outlines of its administrative system to tendulkar speech, Iltutmish. He organised the Revenue and Finance Departments. This was a task which had not been attempted by any other Muslim Ruler in India before him.

An administrative structure could not be built without the support of the Turkish Nobility and that could be done either by fear or through favour. The first was out of the question as the Muslim State in India was in its infancy and the burning moon there was also the augustine confessions book 7, danger of Mongol invasions and opposition from the Hindus. No wonder, Iltutmish tackled the problem in a spirit of reconciliation and compromise. He divided the Empire into several Iqtas which were assigned to various nobles. Every Iqtadar had to maintain law and order and collect revenue. The Burning Moon? After deducting his salary and the expenses of the Government, he sent the surplus revenue to the Central Government. The Iqtadari system differed from the book 7, feudal system of the burning moon Europe. The Iqtadars were not the owners of the land allotted to them.

They were mere functionaries. They could be transferred from one assignment to another and could even be deprived of their Iqtas at the sweet will of the Emperor. It is runner, true that the Iqtadari system was not an ideal one but it suited the the burning moon, needs of the moment. The system also satisfied the vanity of the nobles and they could be prevented from frittering away their energy in mutual fights or in tendulkar opposing the Emperor. In order to check the the burning, tendency on the part of the nobles to become too powerful, Iltutmish set up an official nobility of slaves known as the Chahalgani or the corps of forty.

As the members of the write a good history, Chahalgani were the personal slaves of the Emperor, the latter could depend on their loyalty and allegiance and through them could keep a grip over moon the affairs of the runner setting, Government. It cannot be denied that by establishing peace and by curbing the centriftigal forces, Iltutmish created a sort of political unity and a centralised government which guaranteed protection to the. People both from foreign invasion and the burning moon internal disturbances. Iltutmish inscribed upon his coins the proud legend The Mighty Sultan, Sun of the Empire and confessions the Faith, Conquest laden Iltutmish and the burning Aid of the Commander of the Faithful. Before Iltutmish, the Muslim rulers issued small bullion coins of the native form and inscribed their names sometimes in Nagari script and sometimes in Arabic. Those coins also bore symbols familiar to the Hindus, such as the bull of Shiva and the horseman. Speech? Iltutmish was the first who introduced a purely Arabic coinage. He adopted as his standard coin the silver tanka, the ancestor of the rupee, weighing 175 grains. Gold tankas of the same weight were introduced later on by Balban. Iltutmish was a pious Muslim. He was very particular about his five daily prayers.

However, he was intolerant towards the Shias. No wonder, the Ismail-Shias revolted against him but their revolt was crushed. A large number of them were put to death. His treatment of the Hindus was also not enlightened. He continued to persecute them. Moon? Iltutmish cannot be described as a constructive statesman. However, through his courage and bravery, he was able to save the infant Muslim empire in India. He continued the work started by Qutb-ud-Din Aibak. Preserve Articles is home of thousands of articles published and preserved by users like you.

Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies, notes, reviews, advises and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Before preserving your articles on this site, please read the following pages: