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Bacon As An Essayist Essays and Research Papers. Francis Bacon's Essay Of Love Sir Francis Bacon was a famous English essayist , lawyer, philosopher and statesman who had a . Bergeron Lesson? major influence on the philosophy of science. In his time Bacon wrote sixty different essays. He devoted himself to types, writing and scientific work. His experiences make him an harrison bergeron lesson expert on the topic of love. Francis Bacon's essay Of Love is an essay about love. The purpose of the essay is to explain love and the affects it has on all kinds of people. The essay informs the reader. Essay? Affect , Essay , Francis Bacon 1174 Words | 3 Pages. ?Michel De Montaigne As an essayist . ? Introduction:- Michel de Montaigne the famous essayist is considered as the . great French essayist was born 28th February, 1533.

His father was a merchant and had occupied many municipal offices in lesson plans, Bordeaux in France. His mother was descended from a family of the problem of scarcity Spanish Jews. Plans? The third son of system his parents, Michel became head of the family through the death of the elder two. Montaignes father had made a hobby of education but the harrison bergeron various methods to. Essay , Friendship , John Florio 1282 Words | 4 Pages. Charles Lamb as a Personal Essayist. CHARLES LAMB AS A PERSONAL ESSAYIST Charles Lamb has been acclaimed by common consent as the Prince among English essayist . He . occupies a unique position in the history of English essay. Of Scarcity? William Hazlitt, himself a great essayist , praised Lamb in harrison bergeron plans, high terms: The prose essays, under the signature of Elia form the most delightful section amongst Lambs works. They traverse a peculiar field of observation, sequestered from general interest, and laissez-faire they are composed in a spirit too delicate and unobtrusive. Charles Lamb , Edmund Blunden , Essay 1847 Words | 5 Pages. critical analysis of of studies by bergeron plans, bacon. its terseness. Bacon displays a great talent for condensation.

Every sentence in his essays is pregnant with meaning and is capable of history of country being . expanded into several sentences. Bergeron Lesson? Many of sentences appear to three of economic, be proverbial saying by virtue of their gems of thoughts expressed in a pithy manner. Its can say two most in the fewest words. Its essays combine wisdom in thoughts with extreme brevity. The short pithy sayings in his essays have become popular mottoes and house hold expressions. Bacon appears before. Essay , Francis Bacon , Mind 1461 Words | 4 Pages. Bergeron Lesson? Roger Bacon was an English Philosopher who placed considerable emphasis on empiricism, and types is believed to be one of the earliest advocates of . the modern scientific method. Roger Bacon played a key role in the early stages of the movement which eventually led to the Scientific Revolution. Instead of relying on rational deductions from the harrison bergeron lesson statements of United States' Systems Essay ancient authorities for truths about the natural world, he advocated that confirmation by observation or experiment using the methods of lesson plans mathematics.

Empiricism , History of scientific method , Opus Majus 1450 Words | 4 Pages. Analytical Summary on the essay ?Of Studies? by system, Francis Bacon 11m1 121026 ??? ?Of Studies? was written by Francis Bacon . Harrison Bergeron Plans? (1561. 1626), who is best known for his own rational analysis of data and subjects. This essay provides concise but valuable advice and knowledge on what is study and how we should utilize it. Perhaps because of the problem of scarcity Bacons unique style of writing, which was very rational, the ideas in this essay can be variously understood by individuals diverse perspectives. Especially, within. Harrison Lesson Plans? Confucius , Essay , Essays 870 Words | 3 Pages. Essay On Antigone? Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was born in bergeron lesson, London to parents who were members of the court of Queen Elizabeth I. He attended Trinity College, . entered the practice of law in his late teens, and became a member of the United House of Commons at harrison bergeron plans, the age of 23. His career flourished under King James I, but later scandals ended his life as a politician. The Problem? A philosopher/scientist by harrison bergeron, nature and one of the most admired thinkers of his day, Bacon was a founder of the modern empirical tradition based on closely observing.

Elizabeth I of England , Essay , Essays 933 Words | 1 Pages. Not Just Essays Francis Bacon wrote a collection of essays, playing a significant role in the development of the essay. History Of Country Music? Not only was . Bacon a significant contributor to the development of the English essay, but also promoted learning through experimentation (Norton Anthology, 1550). Much of the critical response applauded Bacon for the art he had of creating wise and fascinating work. Harrison Plans? Bacon wrote about universal concepts: truth, death, love, goodness, friendship, fortune, and praise, controversial. Essay? 21st century , Critical thinking , Essay 846 Words | 3 Pages. CHARLES LAMB (1775-1834), an original and bergeron lesson delightful English essayist and critic, was born in Crown Office Bow, Inner Temple, London, February . 10, 1775.

His father, John Lamb, a Lincolnshire man, who filled the situation of clerk and servant companion to Mr Salt, one of the benchers of the three of economic Inner Temple, was successful in obtaining for Charles, the youngest of bergeron lesson three children, o presentation to Christ's Hospital, where the boy remained from his eighth to his fifteenth year (1782-1789). Here he was. Charles Lamb , Mary Lamb , Samuel Taylor Coleridge 2053 Words | 5 Pages. want to take credit for such brilliant work and gifted writing, right? I will only explore some of the many claims and theories regarding the Shakespeare . identity controversy, and point towards a few facts which seem to indicate that Sir Francis Bacon was the real author behind Shakespeare's work. More than twenty thousand books and Essay articles have been written about the identity problem regarding William Shakespeare.

The more I read about it, the more suspicious about Shakespeare, as the true. Harrison Bergeron? Elizabeth I of England , First Folio , Francis Bacon 1405 Words | 5 Pages. ?Francis Bacons work Self Portrait (Francis Bacon , 2014) exemplifies the state of history of country music shock and disillusion prevalent in the world after the . dreadfully horrendous World War II. His work embodies the threatened way the population felt after World War II was over. Everyone was pessimistic and disoriented, just as the world was out of sorts by the devastation of the harrison lesson plans war. There was a loss of faith in reaction to music, the horrors of the war. People were questioning the very nature of humanity and felt as though.

Cubism , Francis Bacon , Les Demoiselles d'Avignon 1352 Words | 4 Pages. Nathaniel Bacon was a pivotal character in the building of the nation in its early years and it will be discussed here. Bacon was . not born in the US but after coming to the land of America he was pivotal in a rebellion that was against the treatment of Native Americans by William Berkeley. Harrison Plans? Bacon believed that Berkeley was treating these hostile people in a way that was not beneficial to the colony. Bacon did not live a long life but he obviously had an impact on the people of his time.

Bacon had a significant. Bacon's Rebellion , India , Middle East 2054 Words | 5 Pages. Bacons Rebellion was the first stirring of the revolutionary sentiment in America. It began in Jamestown Virginia in 1676. It was a short . rebellion between two stubborn men wanting all the power in Essay, the world, or just Jamestown.

Due to harrison lesson, economics, environmental, and social struggles the rebellion got further out of hand than it should have and did not really solve much, other than a few issues. Bacons rebellion was not truly a fight against tyranny but a dispute between two stubborn selfish leaders. History Of Country Music? Bacon's Rebellion , Indentured servant , James City County, Virginia 974 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Life of Francis Bacon Francis Bacon was born in London in 1561 and died 1626. He ended up being a great philosopher, an . Lesson Plans? author, and the inventor of the inductive method, also known for music advancing the scientific method. He was the second son of Sir Nicholas Bacon and Lady Anne Cooke Bacon . Bergeron Lesson? Lady Anne was the second wife of Sir Nicholas.

Sir Nicholas was also the Lord Keeper of the Seal at the time, which is a job that would eventually be held by his son, Francis Bacon . Bacon started going to Trinity. Edward Coke , Francis Bacon , History of scientific method 1298 Words | 4 Pages. | Connections and how to absolute maxima and minima Contrasts of plans Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes | | | | The Discourse on absolute maxima the Method of Rightly Conducting . One's Reason and of Seeking Truth in the Sciences is plans one of the most influential works in find maxima, the history of modern philosophy, and important to the evolution of harrison bergeron lesson natural sciences. In this work, Descartes tackles the problem of skepticism. Descartes modified it to account for a truth he found to be incontrovertible. Types System? Descartes started his line of reasoning by doubting. Deductive reasoning , Epistemology , Inductive reasoning 2300 Words | 6 Pages. Bergeron Lesson Plans? Francis Bacon was born on January 22, 1561 in London, England.

Bacon served as attorney general and Lord Chancellor of England, . resigning amid charges of the problem of scarcity corruption. His more valuable work was philosophical. Bacon took up Aristotelian ideas, arguing for an empirical, inductive approach, known as the harrison lesson plans scientific method, which is the foundation of modern scientific inquiry. Writing Career During his career as counsel and statesman, Bacon often wrote for the court. In 1584, he wrote his first political. 2006 singles , England , James Mill 1159 Words | 5 Pages. key events ? Effects of Bacons Rebellion What is Bacons Rebellion ? Bacons Rebellion was a stirring of revolutionary sentiments in America. History Of Country? ? This . rebellion was between two cousins, by marriage. Bergeron Plans? ? Was a confrontation between Berkeley and Bacon ? This was over settlers violating a treaty with the Indians The causes of Bacons Rebellion ? White settlers that migrated into Indian granted territories ? Imperialism: Englands population growth (needing more land) ? Colonialism: Europeans. How To Find And Minima? Bacon's Rebellion , Galactic Empire , Indenture 330 Words | 9 Pages. ?Joseph Trillo English 103 2/28/14 Sir Francis Bacon Sir Francis Bacon was born in London on harrison January 22, 1561 to a . How To Find Absolute Maxima? well-connected family. His father was Sir Nicholas Bacon , also known as the Lord Keeper of the Seal, and his mother Lady Anne Cooke, was the daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, who was a knight and a tutor to the royal family. Bergeron? Francis, who was the of economic younger of their two sons, attended Trinity College at harrison bergeron, age 11, and completed his studies there in just two years. A wise man will make more.

Alice Barnham , Amias Paulet , Anthony Cooke 840 Words | 3 Pages. Brett Whiteley and Francis Bacon Essay Question: Discuss the way Whiteleys work; Self Portrait in the Studio 1976, and Bacons Figure in three types system, . Bergeron Lesson? Movement, 1976 show two very different approaches to practice. How have these artists used gesture, colour, and laissez-faire leadership form differently in bergeron, these works to explore totally different emotional and how to find absolute psychological territory? Francis Bacon and Brett Whiteley show two very different approaches to their practice. They use gesture, colour and form differently in these works. Archibald Prize , Brett Whiteley , Emotion 1413 Words | 4 Pages. Scientific Inquiry of Bacon and Descartes. During the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century, both Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes established and promoted their own forms of . scientific inquiry and lesson plans natural philosophy. Francis Bacon promoted the use of inductive research with the goal of three types benefiting mankind, and Rene Descartes promoted the use of lesson plans mathematics in system, scientific understanding.

Both Bacon and Descartes challenged, and were radically different from, the traditional Aristotelian school of thought, and each believed that the. Abductive reasoning , Aristotle , Deductive reasoning 1198 Words | 4 Pages. Harrison Lesson? Studies by Francis Bacon -- the Theme and Style of the Essay Of Studies is the first essay of the first collection of ten essays of Francis . Bacon which was published in 1597. School Systems? But it was revised for the edition of 1612. More than dozen new sentences were added and some words were also altered.

Of Studies is typically Baconian essay with an astonishing terseness, freshness of illustrations, logical analysis, highly Latinized vocabulary, worldly wisdom and Renaissance enlightenment. Plans? Bacon through a syllogistic. Consciousness , Mind , Perception 718 Words | 2 Pages. March 2011 WWBS: What Would Bacon Say? Justice, at what costs should it come? Revenge, is it really that sweet? Justice is a civilized . action or way of making someone accountable for their wrongful actions, and music leaves it at that. Bergeron Plans? Revenge is the problem of scarcity a selfish action that brings a persons personal justice to ones wrong-doer, where it can spiral into an uncontrolled cycle. Both bring consequences to ones actions, and yet they are one in the same. According to Francis Bacon , the Colonel set up his own. Francis Bacon , Justice , Law 1176 Words | 3 Pages.

Francis Bacon : A Moralist Bacon is not a true moralist. His morality is a saleable morality. He is a moralist-cum-worldly wise . man. Bacon appears as a moralist in his essays, for he preaches high moral principles and lays down valuable guidelines for human conduct. Some of his essays show him as a true lover and preacher of harrison high ethical codes and conducts. For instance, in Of Envy, he puts: A man that hath no virtue in himself, ever envieth virtue in others. Then, in his essay Of Goodness. Essay , Essays , Francis Bacon 15631 Words | 40 Pages. Thoughts of Francis Bacon About Love. of Francis Bacon are the United Systems first in date of classics of English prose, in proper sense of the term. They are used as class-books almost as much . of harrison plans Shakespeare's plays. No one in English literature has ever written a greater number of essays packed with striking formulas and find maxima and minima loaded with practical wisdom.

Bacon's Essays' are the fruit of his close observation of human life. They have been described to be the treasure house of wisdom. 'Of Love' is one of most famous essays of Francis Bacon . He discloses. Essay , Essays , Francis Bacon 861 Words | 3 Pages. tells that self is not sticking by nature, or what one is from the time of its birth; but it is something nurtured, or developed through time. Such quotation . can be realized from bergeron lesson plans one of the best essays of all time, which is Essay on Antigone Of Studies by Francis Bacon . As the essay generally implies the purposes of written records such as of history and literature, it can also be entailed from such how a person can search deeper in himself. And through examination deeper of ones life, he can find the purpose in. Harrison? Francis Bacon , Human , Intrinsic value 1229 Words | 3 Pages. Francis Bacon: Of Revenge - Exploratory Analysis. ?Noe Ayala Dr. Wilson Composition II 11/12/13 Revenge: Is an eye for an eye what is best? Sir Francis Bacon was an English philosopher, . statesman, scientist, jurist, orator and author. In 1597 he wrote a short story called Of Revenge.

When I came across the music short story in my book Reading Literature and Writing Argument I became interested in the story after reading the title. Revenge always happens to be a very interesting topic, typically filled with drama or action. After reading I began. Francis Bacon , History of scientific method , Novum Organum 1121 Words | 3 Pages. Sir Francis Bacon Sir Francis Bacon was born January 22, 1561. He died April 9, 1626. He was an bergeron lesson plans English . United States' Systems Essay? essayist , lawyer, statesman, and philosopher . Harrison Plans? He had a major influence on the philosophy of how to absolute science.

When he was 12 years old, he began studies at Trinity College, Cambridge. Harrison? In 1576 he entered Gray's Inn to pursue a career in law. He was first elected in 1584. Bacon's opposition to royal tax measures would probably have brought an end to his political advancement, but he had the. Francis Bacon , History of scientific method , Isaac Newton 481 Words | 2 Pages. Of Scarcity? ?The Essay and harrison bergeron lesson The Essayist by E.B. White The essayist is three of economic system a self-liberated man, sustained by the childish belief that everything . he thinks about, everything that happens to him, is of general interest. He is a fellow who thoroughly enjoys his work, just as people who take bird walks enjoy theirs. Each new excursion of the essayist , each new attempt, differs from the harrison plans last and takes him into new country. This delights him. Only a person who is congenitally self-centered has the effrontery and maxima and minima the.

Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 593 Words | 1 Pages. This is not about bacon . heartily sorry if u were trying to learn about bacon . CHARTER OF RIGHT S AND FREEDOMS A section of the harrison bergeron lesson plans . Constitution Act ,1982, which sets out constitutionally protected rights and freedoms FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS -conscience, religion -expression ,press(media) -association -peaceful assembly -thought, belief , opinion FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION VS. CENSORSHIP Restrictions: -materials that spread hatred - school boards decide on the problem what books to allow -certain forms of pornography . Abuse , Canadian Charter of harrison lesson Rights and Freedoms , Canadian Human Rights Act 1492 Words | 6 Pages. Pattern of Distruction- Machiavelli vs. Bacon. belief that one is superior to another, lack of control, and self-destructive patterns. Within the reason category, there are the physical aspects of . personal gain, and the rise and quest for power.

Two great philosophers, Machiavelli and Francis Bacon , write of the destruction through man. Machiavellis writing of The Qualities of the Prince, and Bacons writing The Four Idols, show their views of human nature and how it can become a destructive force. Three System? The quest for power is one of the harrison lesson evils. Francis Bacon , Human , Humans 2431 Words | 6 Pages. ?FRANCIS BACON OF STUDIES Bacon argues that studies serve for Delight, for Ornament, and for laissez-faire Ability. For delight, . Bacon means one's personal, private education; for harrison bergeron lesson Ornament, he means in music, conversation between and among others, which Bacon labels as Discourse.

Studies for Ability lead one to judgment in business and bergeron plans related pursuits. The Problem Of Scarcity? From Bacon's perspective, men with worldly experience can carry out plans and understand particular circumstances, but men who study are better able to. Critical thinking , Knowledge , Learning 514 Words | 1 Pages. 1620, Francis Bacon ; the philosopher and harrison bergeron plans creator of Empiricism made a great contribution in history of country, defining the course of harrison bergeron plans modern science by a . How To Find And Minima? breakthrough in process of scientific reasoning and method. Bacon did not propose an actual philosophy of harrison lesson plans science rather a method of developing philosophy. He demanded science based on induction. While being the first in the philosophy of science, Bacon discovered that Aristotle methods taught scientists nothing about the music universe. The contributions Bacon made to the. Empiricism , Epistemology , Hypothesis 532 Words | 2 Pages. ? BACON AS A MORALIST: Bacon is certainly a moralist and he appears in that role in his essays.

His essays abound in lesson, moral . percepts. He lays down valuable guidelines for human conduct. He urges human beings to follow the right path in every field of life--- political, social, domestic, etc. The essay, Of Truth, is frankly didactic. The object of the States' Systems writer is to instill into the minds of the readers a love of truth. A mans mind, says he, should turn upon the poles of truth. All the bergeron plans reasoning. Essay , Essays , Ethics 3082 Words | 8 Pages. Francis Bacon , 1st Viscount St.

Alban,[1][a] Kt., KC (22 January 1561 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, . Three Types Of Economic? orator and author. He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England. After his death, he remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution. Bacon has been called the creator of empiricism.[2] His works established and popularized. Elizabeth I of England , Francis Bacon , Gray's Inn 654 Words | 2 Pages. ?Camille Khaye Gapate Summary of Francis Bacon Of Studies Francis Bacon examines the benefits and effects of studies, . maintaining that when studies are balanced by experience, diverse studies may help counteract personal imperfections.

Bacon proposes that study may be done for three purposes: for ones own entertainment, such as reading book on a favorite author, to impress others and bring attention to oneself. Too much study may be considered a downfall, as the harrison lesson individual studying may be. Cultural studies , Francis Bacon , Individual 519 Words | 3 Pages. Of Studies by Francis Bacon An analysis The purpose of this work is to analyze Sixteen Century Francis Bacons essay Of Studies by . summarizing its main points and the relevance of its statements to this day. Francis Bacon was an English Philosopher and writer best known as a founder of the modern empirical tradition based on the rational analysis of Essay data obtained by observation and experimentation of the physical world. The main focus of Bacons essay rests on explaining to the reader the.

Concept , Francis Bacon , Idea 629 Words | 2 Pages. Francis Bacon : Essays, J.M. Dent and Sons, London, 1972 (Introduction by Michael Hawkins) In Francis Bacon , we see great . brilliance of intellect wedded with the dual taints of misanthropy and misogyny. Even before the proclamations of Descartes, Bacon viewed others and the world as mere objects, and lesson his own being as sovereign. He viewed love as both burden and liability to of scarcity, those real men of history who flexed muscle. Bacon was a man most knowledgeable in the arts of human power. He consorted with. Francis Bacon , God , Good and evil 10698 Words | 21 Pages. direct rendering of the textures of flesh, satin, lace, metal delicate glazes set of the highlights of impasto Colour: rich, warm and harmonious His . use of harrison lesson Horror are meant to remind us forcefully of the dangers of unlimited power Aim: Bacon aims to reveal on the problem the canvas those things which are normally hidden in the subconscious. He wants to confront us with images which will disturn our comfortable notions of human goodness and dignity. He has an image of realty as a kind of Hell on Earth. Crucifixion , Fear , Nervous system 374 Words | 2 Pages.

The Concept of Essays and Essayists. series of photographs; it may or may not have an accompanying text . or captions.bjdjfjfjfjdndndd-djdifndindkcndnskcbfozufbdksifbensidjdksksnebrickenrifodkwne- fodnrhrjrjfjfnrnfkdosk Jdjrjrbfkdidnfjfivivjfnebwhsusnwkqoajf djdbd dkdnr iw f d English essayists included Robert Burton(15771641) and Sir Thomas Browne (16051682). In France, Michel de Montaigne's three volume Essais in harrison bergeron, the mid 1500s contain over 100 examples widely regarded as the predecessor of the modern essay. In Italy, Baldassare Castiglione wrote. 17th century , 19th century , 2nd millennium 578 Words | 2 Pages. Laissez-faire Leadership? Francis Bacon - The Portraits Francis Bacon was born in Dublin, Ireland to English parents. When F. Harrison Lesson Plans? Bacon grow . Leadership? up and harrison bergeron plans was more independent he then travelled to Berlin were he spent most of Essay his time there.

He then moved onto Paris, before returning to London and starting out as an interior designer. Bacon never attended art school; he only began his work in watercolours about harrison plans 1926 27. An exhibition of works by Pablo Picasso inspired him to make his first drawings and paintings. The influence. Alcoholic beverage , Cubism , Face 648 Words | 2 Pages. ? BACONs WORDLY WISDOM BACON is the problem of scarcity veritably one of literary and intellectual giants in the history of English . literature .He possessed a versatile genius. He belonged to age of discovery and divulgation .He wrote as a scientist, as a philosopher and as a religious preacher. Most hotly discussed aspect of Bacons writings especially his essays is his philosophy which revolves around the art of bergeron lesson success in this world.

He points man to the part he should play on and minima the. Virtue , Writing 761 Words | 2 Pages. ?Francis Bacon is generally recognized as the first great writer of English philosophy although he had no great respect for the English . Harrison Bergeron Plans? language. It is a known fact that Bacon is influenced by Montaigne. Emerson is the one modern writer with whom Bacon may be fairly compared, for types system their method is much the same. They endeavour to bergeron, reach the of scarcity readers mind by lesson, a series of aphoristic attacks. In rhetorical power, musical cadence, quaint turns of speech, he is United School Systems Essay equalled by many of his contemporaries, excelled. Francis Bacon , Knowledge , Natural history 2805 Words | 6 Pages. 2 The ideas of Plato and harrison Bacon are related as they hold the same relationship between the real world and what is perceived in human mind. Three Of Economic System? . These two philosophies I believe could possibly have an percussion to our minds, on how they look at knowledge and the ability to define sense of knowledge, which been consider by Plato and Bacon . They both have possessing their views and still create diverging upon base in reality on human mind.

Although, Plato and Bacon have their little distinguish. Cognition , Mind , Perception 364 Words | 2 Pages. crave is bacon . It seems to bring out the good in everything. The sky is brighter when I eat bacon ; the grass is greener; the . glass is half full. Bacon just makes everything seem alright. I feel reenergized. Harrison Bergeron Lesson Plans? Alert. Happy. How To Find Absolute? Bacon is lesson my substance of leadership choice for mood-enhancement, as it optimally raises my dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine levels with no negative effects besides a little weight gain that is easily avoided by the addition of exercise.

From an evolutionary stand point, bacon is the. Harrison Bergeron Lesson? Dopamine , Hypothalamus , Metabolism 482 Words | 2 Pages. Oliver Bacon(the Duchess and the Jeweller) THE DUCHESS AND THE JEWELLER Oliver Bacon , the jeweller, is really the only developed character in the short story The Duchess and the . Jeweller by Virginia Woolf. The author uses the indirect stream-of consciousness technique as well as her own words to depicts the enterprising merchant as a many-sided man: He is both ambitious and sympathetic. The jeweller is highly arrogant and ambitious. His strutting smugness is evident through the animal metaphors used to portray him-from his physical. Academy Award for Best Art Direction , Human , Humans 480 Words | 2 Pages. The Problem? ? Causes of the Bacon Rebellion: Antonio Malik Jones Ferrum College Bacon's Rebellion can be attributed to many of . causes, all of which led to dissent in the Virginia colony.

It had economic problems such as declining in harrison, tobacco prices, growing commercial competition from Maryland and the Carolinas, an types of economic system increasingly restricted English market, the rising prices from English manufactured goods (mercantilism) caused problems for the Virginians, and Autocratic rule of governor. Bacon's Rebellion 523 Words | 4 Pages. Francis Bacon was a very controversial philosopher. In Book 1 of the Novum Organum, Bacon begins with the introduction of the . four idols. The four idols were four natural tendencies that people believe and seem to live by.

The idols consisted of harrison idols of the tribe, idols of the United States' School cave, idols of the marketplace, and idols of the theatre. These four idols, essentially began the start of modern psychology for the benefit and teaching of man. The first idol, the idol of the tribe, was a symbol. Human , Meaning of life , Mind 464 Words | 2 Pages. ?Alex Swanger Thought Provokers 2. What caused Bacons Rebellion? Were the Baconites justified in revolting? In what ways did their rebellion . foreshadow the American Revolutionary War?

Bacons Rebellion was a result of harrison bergeron plans many different factors. It started with the fact that land was becoming scarce in Virginia because much of it was owned by the rich tidewater planters. When an indentured servant was freed, he was usually given freedom dues by his master, which usually included a small. Essay On Antigone? American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Native Americans in the United States 520 Words | 2 Pages. Francis Bacon was an English philosopher, lawyer, and scientist from the early 1600s. Francis Bacon's major contribution to philosophy was his . application of induction, the approach used by harrison bergeron plans, modern science. Otherwise, known as the scientific method. There are 2 steps evident in Bacons inductive method which includes: 1. Observe data and of scarcity 2. Make generalizations from harrison bergeron lesson plans observations. Bacon believed the bible allowed him to explore nature, in which he used his method.

Bacon states Science, on. Empiricism , Francis Bacon , History of scientific method 740 Words | 2 Pages. How To Find Maxima And Minima? By:Lo. Ty. Bergeron Plans? Meteorologist June- Bacon Bercey, born June Esther Griffin, is a native of Wichita, Kansas. The Problem Of Scarcity? She was the only child of James . Griffin, an attorney, and Cherrie MacSalles, a music teacher.

Being married twice, once in 1956 to Walker Bacon (doctor) and in 1968 to John Bercey (businessman), is how she got the combination of her last name. Lesson Plans? Her parents were an leadership influence of bergeron her interest in science at a young age and her interest in science stayed with her in high school. She spent a brief time. African American , Barack Obama , Black people 661 Words | 2 Pages. School Essay? The transition that Damon experience parallels that which Bacon demands for the sciences. Harrison Bergeron Plans? For Bacon , the restoration of . humanitys Edenic mastery begins with treating Nature as any woman subject to history of country, masculine domination. However, in perceiving Nature through Bacons terms, Marvells protagonist does not discover a path to bergeron, back Paradise but reenacts the Fall. On this basis, Marvell problematizes the the problem tropological foundation on which Bacon rests the bergeron new science. Of Country Music? Companions of My. Damon, Texas , Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality 7767 Words | 21 Pages. paid to bergeron lesson plans, the majority of workers, laborers, and States' Systems Essay mechanics within a particular area.

The culprit of all of this is the plans Davis Bacon -Act (DBA) . The act was amended several times and has been attacking by three, opponents claiming its racist, unnecessary, expensive and costing taxpayers and harrison the government a lot of money. Republicans have been attacking and trying to repeal the Davis- Bacon Act on the grounds that it is find absolute outdated, expensive and harrison lesson plans bureaucratic. Their latest effort last year was claiming, the repeal. Collective bargaining , Construction , Employment 9483 Words | 29 Pages. Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes blazoned the advent of three types of economic system a scientific civilization. Both men ridiculed earlier methods of seeking knowledge, . that were once used in the academic traditions of the harrison bergeron plans universities founded in the Middle Ages. Both men published between 1620 and 1640 and held to find and minima, the belief that Medieval or Aristotelian methods were retrograding and worthless. Lesson Plans? Through their works they stressed that truth was something we find at the end, after a long process of investigation, experiment, or. Epistemology , Francis Bacon , History of scientific method 699 Words | 2 Pages. Laissez-faire? ?OF REVENGE: A CRITICAL APPRECIATION SUBSCRIBE OF REVENGE is a masterpiece of Bacon who in the eyes of Hugh Walker is: First of English . essayists , as he remains for bergeron lesson plans sheer mass and weight of genius, the greatest. OF REVENGE is a testimony of Hugh Walker's statement.

It contains counsels civil and moral. It contains strange mixture of utilitarianism and high ideals as Bacon declares that revenge is of scarcity ignoble and that forgiveness is noble, but almost immediately adds that in certain circumstances. Core issues in bergeron lesson, ethics , Essay , Forgiveness 923 Words | 11 Pages. Evaluation of One of the Writings of Francis Bacon. Francis Bacon was a writer during the late sixteenth and history of country early seventeenth centuries, who wrote a classic essay called Of Studies. The main . purpose of his essay is to explain to the reader why study, or knowledge, is important. He writes about the practical uses of knowledge and how they can be applied, along with the lesson plans benefits and uses of reading and writing. He immediately delves into the main ideas of his essay in the opening sentence, which states the of scarcity three purposes of studies. Bacon writes about. Essay , Essay mill , Francis Bacon 738 Words | 2 Pages.

Of Truth by Francis Bacon and a Short Analysis What Is Truth? Said Jesting Pilate, and Would Not Stay for an Answer. Certainly There Be, That Delight in Giddiness, and Count It a Bondage to Fix a Belief; Affecting1 Free- Of Truth by Francis Bacon and A Short Analysis What is truth? said jesting Pilate, and would not stay for an answer. Certainly there be, . that delight in giddiness, and count it a bondage to bergeron lesson plans, fix a belief; affecting1 free-will in thinking, as well as in acting. United Essay? And though the sects of philosophers of that kind2 be gone, yet there remain certain discoursing3 wits, which are of the same veins, though there be not so much blood in them, as was in those of the ancients. But it is not only the difficulty. Avicenna , Human , Lie 1952 Words | 5 Pages. Plans? Francis Bacon's Utilitarian Philosophy in Essays. ?rancis Bacon is three types of economic a moral and utilitarian philosopher Question: Francis Bacon is a moral and a utilitarian philosopher justify . your answer in the light of the essays you have studied. Answer: Francis Bacon , the father of English essays, is an bergeron lesson plans Elizabethan essayist , moralist and thinker whose essays are loaded with ripest wisdom of experience. Nobody can deny the wisdom of his understanding of the affairs of the world.

He shows an Essay extraordinary insight regarding the lesson plans problems that men face in. How To? Essay , Essays , Francis Bacon 1027 Words | 3 Pages. Our five Essay Samplers include works by the first major English essayist (On Studies, by bergeron lesson, Francis Bacon ), the of economic first great Irish . Bergeron? satirist (A Modest Proposal, by Jonathan Swift), and the most notable American essayist of the 19th century (Self-Reliance, by Ralph Waldo Emerson). You will also find several pieces by three major essayists of the 20th century: Virginia Woolf, George Orwell, and E. B. White. If your reading interests are more contemporary, have a look at the essays by journalist. School Systems? 2007 , A Modest Proposal , George Orwell 532 Words | 5 Pages. HRE4M1(unit1) Step 1: Introduction 1. The trial that Jesus offers us to this 1st century young man in harrison bergeron, this Markan account is that he wants to teach the . young man what really is important in life. Having many objects as treasure does not mean that it is something you have to have.

The challenge to me and the rest of the leadership youth as a student in harrison bergeron lesson, the 21st century is the problem of scarcity that the different kinds of objects are seen as something very valuable. The most valuable things in life to treasure is your family. Debt , Dignity , Ethics 1867 Words | 6 Pages. Lesson? Statement of laissez-faire Interest Form-Buyer_________________________________________________ 1. The statement of Interest is to harrison bergeron, be signed by the authorized signatory of . the interested organization. (The accepted signatory would be the sole proprietor in case of a sole proprietorship, the partner in case of a partnership firm, and the director in case of private public limited companies.) 2. On Antigone? Following documents are required to be submitted along with the Statement of Interest a) Non Refundable bidder registration. Ammonium nitrate , Arbitration , E-mail 1749 Words | 6 Pages.

Harrison Bergeron Lesson Plans, Activities, Summary,

Harrison bergeron lesson plans

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Harrison Bergeron Lesson Plans, Activities, Summary,

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Harrison Bergeron Lesson Plans, Activities, Summary

million man essay MINISTER LOUIS FARRAKHAN, MILLION MAN MARCH ( 16 OCTOBER 1995 ) The Pennsylvania State University. On October 16, 1995, an estimated 837,000 black men traveled to harrison bergeron plans, Washington, D.C., to attend the Million Man March, a political protest organized to promote change within the black community. [1] The march's messages of hope, self-improvement, and commitment to how to find absolute maxima, family generated support from many Americans. According to an ABC News / Washington Post poll, 76 percent of harrison bergeron lesson plans all respondents said that they supported the the problem of scarcity, demonstration and about 84 percent of the blacks surveyed said they think it's a good idea. Harrison Bergeron Lesson Plans! [2] The same respondents answered less positively when asked about the protest's controversial leader, Minister Louis Farrakhan. In all, 51 percent surveyed said that Farrakhan's participation in the march made them less likely to support the Essay, event, 16 percent reported that his participation made them more likely to harrison bergeron lesson, endorse the demonstration, and 25 percent said that it made no difference. Three Of Economic System! [3] Media coverage leading up to the march highlighted these divergent views, casting aside the larger issues the march sought to publicize.

The Pittsburg Post-Gazette , the Washington Post , the New York Times , and the Boston Globe all focused the spotlight on harrison bergeron, Farrakhan and his critics' repeated attempts to rhetorically distance the system, contentious messenger from the march's positive messages. [4] In his speech at harrison lesson, the Million Man March, Farrakhan had the opportunity to on Antigone, redirect attention back to the demonstration's goals. Yet rather than emphasize the march's messages of plans hope, change, and unity, Farrakhan used the speech as an opportunity to respond to his critics. Reasserting his position as the messenger of the movement, Farrakhan claimed that God had sent him to lead blacks on their path to liberation. He offered the march's initial success as evidence of his leadership appeal and as validation of his vision for the black community. Absolute! God and his people had granted him his authority, Farrakhan argued, and none of his critics could discredit it. Because of his controversial public image, Farrakhan's involvement in the Million Man March drew considerable national attention to himself and the movement. Bergeron! In his speech, however, Farrakhan evaded his responsibility to direct that attention away from the controversy over his own leadership and how to absolute and minima toward the marchers' demands for civil rights. Instead, Farrakhan delivered a two-and-a-half hour speech that focused primarily on his own legitimacy as the messenger of the movement. Harrison Bergeron! The confrontational speech, which confirmed his critics' concerns that Farrakhan would use the march to support his own agenda, helped undermine the march's theme of unity and the problem of scarcity the common cause.

In the end, many will remember the Million Man March as a powerful demonstration of harrison plans black men joining together in support of their communities. Few, however, will describe Farrakhan's involvement in the march as positively. The controversial leader's speech at the Million Man March and his attempts to retain control over the movement in the months following the event revealed how one man's drive for power can eclipse a whole movement's commitment to change. Louis Farrakhan was born Louis Eugene Walcott on May 11, 1933 , in the Bronx, New York . [5] His mother, Sarah Mae Manning Clarke, was a Caribbean immigrant and his father, Percival Clarke, was a Jamaican immigrant. Absolute! Farrakhan, who never met his birth father, grew up with his mother and harrison brother in the middle of a West Indian community in the Roxbury section of Essay on Antigone Boston . [6] There he witnessed first-hand the difficulties of growing up poor and bergeron black in America . Louis Eugene Walcott, the boy, biographer Arthur J. Magida writes, was everything that the world at on Antigone, large would later say Louis Farrakhan, the preacher, was not. [7] The young man, whom his family and friends called Gene, was obedient and well-mannered, attended church regularly, rarely got into trouble, and bergeron lesson plans earned high marks in laissez-faire school. He developed an all-consuming passion for music and, at the age of sixteen, began a career as a Calypso singer and violinist. Bergeron! [8] After he graduated from high school in 1951, Farrakhan set aside his musical aspirations and enrolled in the Winston-Salem Teacher's College, an all-black school in North Carolina . Unable to handle the intense racism in the south, he left college two years later and of scarcity married his girlfriend, Betsy Ross, who was pregnant with their child. [9] To help support his family, Farrakhan returned to bergeron plans, performing and, as Florence Hamlish Levinsohn notes, was on his way to a successful career until he found a more exciting life as a visionary. [10] Farrakhan's life changed in February 1955, when he and of country music his wife joined the Nation of Islam (NOI), an Islamic religious and socio-political organization founded by Elijah Muhammad to restore and harrison lesson resurrect black people. [11] Elijah Muhammad's and the NOI's message of black redemption, liberation, separatism, and self-improvement appealed to Farrakhan, but he later admitted that he was far from fully persuaded that this was the right path. Of Scarcity! [12] Magida writes, not until a few months later, when [Farrakhan] heard Malcolm X speak, was he convinced that he had found the harrison bergeron lesson plans, right niche for himself. Of Country Music! [13] Farrakhan later explained his decision: I went looking not for a new religion, but for new leadership that would address the concerns of black people. And I found Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad. I was not interested in changing my religion, but they were Muslims and they spoke a truth that I could identify with. [14] This truth resonated with much of the Black Nationalist thought Farrakhan was exposed to as a child. Harrison Bergeron! [15] Magida asserts that the young Farrakhan, surrounded by supporters of Marcus Garvey's Black Nationalism movement, had absorbed by osmosis, if not directly a less vitriolic but no less potent brand of theological black pride that Farrakhan would echo, if not outright mimic in his own fashion, decades later. [16] After joining the on Antigone, Nation of Islam at the age of bergeron lesson 22, Louis X, as Farrakhan began calling himself, quickly ascended through the ranks. [17] Malcolm X, the minister of Temple 7 in United School Essay Harlem , New York , took Farrakhan under his wing and placed the new recruit in the temple's ministry as his personal assistant. [18] In 1957, the NOI transferred Farrakhan to the struggling Boston mosque, where he was appointed as the assistant minister and captain of the Fruit of bergeron plans Islam, the three types, paramilitary branch of the movement.

Implicit in Louis X's assignment in Boston , Magida writes, was to plans, do what Malcolm X had not been able to pull off: increase the Boston temple's membership roles. [19] Farrakhan did just that and more. Within six months of taking over Temple #11 he was appointed minister, and in fewer than five years, he had tripled the temple's membership. [20] In 1965, Farrakhan was promoted to the national representative, one of the how to find maxima, most distinguished positions in the Nation of Islam. When Elijah Muhammad fell ill in the early 1970s, Louis X poised himself to harrison bergeron lesson, assume leadership of the NOI. Essay! [21] Although he was not chosen to replace Muhammad as the lesson plans, leader, Farrakhan eventually assumed power over on Antigone the organization in the late 1970s. Asserting that he was divinely chosen to bergeron, lead the Nation of Islam, Farrakhan set out to rebuild the movement and promote the resurrection of absolute and minima our people. Lesson Plans! [22] Over the next ten years, Farrakhan established himself as a prominent, yet controversial, black leader. System! His bold statements, calls for separatism, and unapologetic condemnation of racism attracted more than 10,000 blacks nationwide to the NOI and generated many more supporters within the bergeron lesson, larger black community. [23] Farrakhan's fiery approach also attracted a fair share of history music critics. His overly defiant attitude toward the white establishment, his description of Hitler as a 'very great man,' and his characterizations of harrison bergeron lesson plans Judaism as a 'dirty religion' became the sources of great controversy among members of the broader black, white, and Jewish communities. [24] Robert Singh writes that Farrakhan is easily the most controversial black American to have achieved a public position of national political influence since Malcolm X. [25] Farrakhan's bold rhetoric and leadership his separatist views have prompted some critics to label him a reverse racist, an anti-Semite, a black Hitler, a bigot, a hate monger, a demagogue, and an Islamic fundamentalist. [26] William Pleasant sums up Farrakhan's image: painted as a monster by the corporate-owned media, denounced by the left, center and right political establishments, Farrakhan has come to symbolize the uncompromising fury of Black political resistance. [27] Yet, in plans spite of all of his critics, Farrakhan has remained one of the three system, most prominent black nationalist leaders for more than two decades. Bergeron Plans! [28] Ron Daniels writes: Minister Farrakhan more than any other black leader in leadership this period has captured the imagination of Black America precisely because of his steadfast denunciation of racism and white supremacy and his persistent call for harrison lesson plans moral and how to find absolute spiritual renewal, self reliance and self determination. [29] A Time magazine and CNN poll in 1994 supported these assertions. The poll found that 67 percent of the blacks who knew of harrison plans Farrakhan said he was an effective leader, 62 percent said he was good for the black community, and 53 percent said he was a good role model for youth. How To! [30] While Farrakhan's authority within the black community is undeniable, his ability to command larger and more loyal audiences than other black leaders is perplexing. [31] Why are so many blacks attracted to bergeron plans, Farrakhan and his visions for black America ? In order to address these questions, we must examine Farrakhan's rhetoric and assess his messages to the black community in America . The Call to Essay on Antigone, March. The 1980s and early 1990s was a period of stagnation for the black civil rights movement.

Michael C. Dawson and Lawrence D. Harrison Plans! Bobo assert that during the 1980s, whatever progress Blacks had made on how to find absolute maxima and minima, a number of fronts came to a halt. [32] The Reagan and Bush administrations' strong opposition to lesson, race-based policies and social welfare programs led some blacks to view the government as hostile to their cause. The political downfall of Jesse Jackson during the 1980s and a leadership vacuum within the black community left black Americans with no strong voice in Washington . [33] President Bill Clinton's election in 1992 offered hope that the White House would once again turn its attention to remedying the racial inequalities within the social, economic, and justice systems. However, the laissez-faire, Republican Congress' resistance to harrison, civil rights initiatives meant that blacks would not see significant results for of scarcity several more years. In 1994, Minister Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam announced that they were tired of lesson waiting for the government's response and introduced a plan to three types system, bring blacks together to initiate immediate social and political change. Farrakhan first presented his vision for harrison bergeron plans what would become the Million Man March and Holy Day of laissez-faire leadership Atonement to the First African American Leadership Summit in June of that year. [34] Addressing many of the black leaders who had repudiated him in the past, Farrakhan asked them to reconcile their differences and to harrison bergeron, join together under one banner for black liberation. He asserted that there was an increasingly conservative and hostile climate growing in America towards the aspirations of Black people and he called upon blacks to make a unified response. [35] A few months later, Farrakhan introduced his vision to the public and issued a national call for one million disciplined, committed, and maxima dedicated black men, from all walks of life in bergeron America to join him in Washington, D.C., for a day of atonement, reconciliation, and protest. [36] Over the next year, Farrakhan rallied support for the demonstration and of country encouraged thousands of men to stand up for themselves and join together at the march to bergeron, make demands upon absolute maxima and minima our government and ourselves. [37] The official purpose of the Million Man March was to enable and encourage black men in the United States to take a greater responsibility and play a greater role in caring for, and uplifting the status of, the Black family. [38] Farrakhan blamed black men for the proliferation of harrison lesson drug use, crime, and fatherlessness within their communities and called upon the men to atone for their sins.

In addition to promoting self-enhancement and moral reform within the black community, the absolute, march would demonstrate to the nation and the world that black Americans would no longer tolerate racism, inequality, and inaction. Cornell West wrote that the march was intended to jump-start a critical dialogue on the legacy of white supremacy with President Clinton and Congress, send a sign of harrison plans hope and a sense of possibility to black Americans, and--perhaps most importantly--magnify the marchers' demand that black suffering take center stage for the country and of scarcity world. [39] Farrakhan's leadership of the protest bolstered the marchers' demand, drawing both attention and controversy. S. Craig Watkins explains that the organizers' publicity efforts, the march's anticipated size, and its arrival in a period of high racial tensions amplified media coverage. . [40] However, the harrison bergeron lesson plans, most crucial factor, Watkins asserts, was the presence, leadership style, and on Antigone racial politics of Louis Farrakhan. [41] News coverage leading up to harrison lesson plans, the demonstration pivoted around Farrakhan and focused on his past reputation, his anticipated messages, and his claims to leadership within the black community. [42] Watkins writes that the media's decision to peg the march to leadership, Farrakhan was crucial to the formation, tone, and ideological implications of the coverage leading up to the march, and it played a decisive role in how the harrison bergeron, demonstration was constructed and three types system perceived as a newsworthy event. Harrison Lesson! [43] Farrakhan's promotion of types of economic system himself as the spokesperson for black Americans generated even more media coverage.

William E. Nelson, Jr. asserts that Farrakhan's role as the leader and guiding spirit was a logical extension of a political/career [ sic ] that has seen him emerge as one of the best known and most popular political figures in Black America. [44] At the same time, Farrakhan's role in the march embroiled it in controversy, distracted attention away from the issues the march sought to publicize, and led several public figures and harrison bergeron organizations to renounce the how to maxima and minima, event altogether. Black congressmen Gary Franks (R-CT) and John Lewis (D-GA), a well-known civil rights activist and chairman of the harrison bergeron, Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee in the 1960s, openly stated that they could not endorse or join a march led by Farrakhan. [45] 'I don't want to be associated with or identified with anything that tends to demonstrate signs of racism, bigotry or anti-Semitism,' said Lewis. [46] Mary Frances Berry, chairwoman of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, expressed similar views: 'African Americans as a community are in the problem of scarcity deep trouble at this hour. However, let me make it unmistakably clear: I do not trust Louis Farrakhan or [NOI leader] Benjamin Chavis to lead us to the Promised Land. I do not endorse the Million Man March.' [47] Neither did the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the National Urban League, the Anti-Defamation League, or the African-American Agenda 2000, a group specifically founded in opposition to the event's exclusion of women and its allegedly sexist agenda. [48] Others leaders and organizations tried to express their support for the march while rhetorically distancing themselves from its controversial leader.

Colin Powell, former chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, refused Farrakhan's invitation to speak at the march and added that the bergeron lesson plans, demonstration was about hundreds of thousands of black men coming together not to celebrate Louis Farrakhan or to history of country, buy into lesson plans his agenda or to speak in racist terms, but to begin to of scarcity, uplift black men and uplift African-Americans to be part of an inclusive America. Harrison Bergeron! [49] President Bill Clinton offered a similar response in a speech at the University of Texas at Essay, Austin on the morning of the march. Clinton praised the marchers and the values they upheld, but insisted that one million men do not make right one man's message of malice and plans division. [50] Some of the marchers also tried to distance themselves and system the event from lesson plans Farrakhan. Joe Certaine, managing director for the city of Philadelphia , told USA Today : The goal is to the problem of scarcity, set ourselves upon a new path in lesson plans our communities and begin to do some things collectively, no matter what organization we represent. This is not about Minister Farrakhan. [51] Jesse Jackson and the Congressional Black Caucus echoed that message. Laissez-faire! Initially refusing to support the march, both eventually endorsed the event after Farrakhan agreed to expand the agenda, adopt a more ecumenical approach, broaden the leadership, and issue new publicity posters that did not include his picture. [52] These demands and Jackson 's assurance that 'the march will be successful because all of the forces are coming together' reflected a concerted effort to distance Farrakhan from the center of the march. [53]

Yet Farrakhan supporters, like the harrison plans, Reverend Benjamin Chavis, Jr., a national organizer for the event and former NAACP president, insisted that 'the attempt to separate the message from the messenger is not going to work.' [54] Chavis defended Farrakhan's leadership and cited the many endorsements of the of country music, march as evidence that 'the message and the messenger have transcended all divisions in the black community.' [55] The list of supporters was indeed impressive. With a few notable exceptions, the march was endorsed by most black leaders and organizations, including the lesson, National African American Leadership Summit, the National Association of Black Social Workers, and on Antigone numerous churches, fraternities, and sororities. Harrison Bergeron Lesson! [56] In spite of Essay on Antigone all the controversy and contention surrounding Farrakhan and the Million Man March, William E. Lesson Plans! Nelson, Jr. observed that the march was successful in drawing representation from virtually every sector of the Black community. [57] On Monday, October 16, 1995 , more than 837,000 thousand black men, women, and children from of country music diverse backgrounds, professions, and regions registered for harrison lesson and attended the much anticipated Million Man March. United States' Essay! The demonstration on the nation's Capital would prove to be the largest demonstration of black power and unity in U.S. history. [58] Farrakhan's Address at the Million Man March. Black religious leaders, Felton O. Best and Charles Frazier write, have long been flames of fire in the communities they serve. Harrison Bergeron Lesson! [59] As the three, leaders of the black church--the most stable institution in lesson serving African-American communities--they have taken the lead in eradicating the social, political, and three of economic system economic injustices that black Americans have experienced historically. [60] The Million Man March provided Farrakhan an opportunity to emerge from the crowd and plans show the world that he too was a flame of fire. The demonstration provided him a platform from which he could present his vision for black America to hundreds of Essay thousands of harrison lesson U.S. blacks dedicated to social change. The march not only offered a sign of hope and possibility to black Americans, it presented Farrakhan with an opportunity to Essay, seize a position of leadership in the broader civil rights movement.

Farrakhan's controversial reputation and the criticism leading up to the march, however, drew attention away from its goals and harrison bergeron lesson plans undermined Farrakhan's vision and authority. In an attempt to promote the of country, march's immediate goals and strengthen his claims to leadership, Farrakhan presented a two-and-a-half hour speech about self-improvement, black liberation, and racism in America . At the same time, he responded to his critics both inside and outside the march. Defending himself against his critics' charges, Farrakhan relegitimized his personal role in the protest and presented himself as a divinely chosen prophet sent to lead the black community. Farrakhan's attempts to reunite himself with the march's message may have been somewhat successful, but they ultimately hindered the march's success because they focused the media spotlight once again on the controversial leader. Farrakhan began his speech by recalling how poorly blacks had been treated in U.S. history. Reflecting on plans, the location for the event, he reminded those gathered that right here on this mall where we are standing . . . slaves used to be brought . . . in chains to the problem of scarcity, be sold up and down the eastern seaboard (11). Harrison Plans! [61] He offered this reference not as an three, illustration of harrison lesson plans how far blacks had come, but rather as a reminder that they remained second-class citizens.

There's still two Americas , one Black, one White, separate and unequal (7) he declared. The Problem! But, he assured the marchers, this is harrison bergeron lesson a very pregnant moment, pregnant with the possibility of tremendous change in our status in America and in the world (24). He echoed the march's message of hope by reminding those gathered that if they accepted the responsibility that God has put upon us, they could become the cornerstone and the builders of a new world (32). Recognizing that the men gathered on the mall had joined together to do just that, Farrakhan explained in detail their path to liberation. Farrakhan invoked the march's themes of how to maxima and minima self-help and personal responsibility as he explained that change must first begin with the individual. Harrison! Our first motion then must be toward the God who created the law of the evolution of our being. And if our motion toward him is right and proper, then our motion toward a perfect union with each other and government and with the peoples of the world will be perfected (40). In order to become closer to God, each man needed to complete an eight stage atonement process that included identifying, acknowledging, and confessing one's wrongs; repenting and atoning for three types system one's transgressions; seeking forgiveness; and lesson plans finally, reconciling with God (40-80). After completing each of these steps, Farrakhan assured his listeners, each man would possess the tools needed to improve conditions for all blacks.

Although Farrakhan declared that freedom can't come from white folks or from staying here and petitioning this great government (87), he acknowledged that whites would need to play a central role in the liberation of blacks. Maxima And Minima! But, he argued, President Clinton's approach to black civil rights failed to address the real problems in white society. Farrakhan stated, Now, the President spoke today and harrison plans he wanted to heal the great divide. But I respectfully suggest to the President, you did not dig deep enough at the malady that divides Black and White in order to affect a solution to the problem (15). Farrakhan asserted that the real problem was not race per se, as Clinton suggested, but rather white supremacy: There is a great divide, but the real evil in of scarcity America is not white flesh, or black flesh. Bergeron Lesson Plans! The real evil in America is the idea that undergirds the set up of the western world. The Problem Of Scarcity! And that idea is called white supremacy (136).

After repeated references to the racist practices of George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, and other national figures, Farrakhan directly addressed President Clinton: So either, Mr. Clinton, we're going to harrison bergeron plans, do away with the mind-set of the founding fathers. You don't have to repudiate them like you've asked my brothers to the problem of scarcity, do me. Harrison! You don't have to say they were malicious, hate-filled people. But you must evolve out of their mind-set (140). Farrakhan asserted that as the leader of America , President Clinton had to help other whites recognize that white supremacy has to die in order for humanity to live (143). Only then could blacks and on Antigone whites both achieve the harrison bergeron, perfect union God had intended. Farrakhan's comments to Clinton were more than just advice from one leader to another. They were a response to one of laissez-faire leadership his most publicly visible critics.

Farrakhan scoffed at harrison bergeron lesson, Clinton's attempts to discredit him, first by defending his contributions to the success of the Million Man March: [W]hether or not you like it or not, God brought the idea through me and He didn't bring it through me because my heart was dark with hatred and three types system anti-semitism, he didn't bring it through me because my heart was dark with hatred for White people and for the human family of the planet (29). Emphasizing the absurdity of the bergeron plans, charges, he added: If my heart were that dark, how is the message so bright, the message so clear, the response so magnificent? (29). School Systems Essay! Farrakhan repeatedly defended himself against Clinton 's criticism: I must hasten to harrison lesson, tell you, Mr. President, that I'm not a malicious person, and I'm not filled with malice (83). And he even challenged the three types, president's ability to mend the nation's racial divide: Power and wealth has made America spiritually blind and the power and the arrogance of bergeron plans America makes you refuse to hear a child of Essay your slaves pointing out the wrong in your society (83). Bergeron Lesson Plans! Americans, Farrakhan stated are being torn apart. Laissez-faire Leadership! And we can't gloss it over bergeron with nice speeches, my dear, Mr. President (81). Throughout the of scarcity, speech, Farrakhan defended himself against Clinton 's and other well-known political leaders' attempts to harrison lesson plans, undermine his leadership. He acknowledged that many have tried to Essay on Antigone, distance the beauty of this idea from the person through whom the idea and the call was made (24).

Again pointing out the harrison bergeron lesson plans, futility of those efforts, he stated: Brothers and sisters, there is no human being through whom God brings an find and minima, idea that history doesn't marry the idea with that human being no matter what defect was in that human being's character. Harrison Plans! You can't separate Newton from the history of country, law that Newton discovered, nor can you separate Einstein from the theory of relativity. Harrison Bergeron Lesson Plans! It would be silly to try to United States' Systems, separate Moses from the Torah or Jesus from the Gospel or Muhammad from the Koran. (25-26) So too would it be ridiculous to deny Farrakhan's appeal within the harrison lesson, black community or to system, question his authority as one of God's greatest prophets.

Farrakhan pointed out that even though his critics had played all the cards and harrison plans had pulled all the strings to trigger division among blacks (52), their efforts had failed. He offered the march's turnout as evidence of his success, asserting: I stand here today knowing, knowing that you are angry. That my people have validated me. I don't need you to School Systems, validate me. I don't need to be in any mainstream (90).

Turning the tables on the dominant society, Farrakhan argued that the men standing before him were the new mainstream and criticized political leaders for failing to represent the masses of the people, White and Black, Red, Yellow, and Brown, poor and vulnerable [who] are suffering in this nation (91). Legitimizing himself as the spokesperson for those forgotten people, Farrakhan insisted that it was the lesson, politicians who were out of touch with reality (91). Farrakhan's critics, however, were not limited to the mainstream politicians. Many of the people who had traveled to Washington , D.C. , for absolute the march had made it quite clear that they did not support Farrakhan or his views. [62] Discussing Farrakhan's attempt to manage this ethos problem in his speech, John Pauley, Jr. has argued that Farrakhan recognized that his reputation was a major obstacle to his rhetorical effect and harrison bergeron plans therefore adopted the the problem, role of the prophet in an attempt to reshape his persona and transcend his past reputation. [63] For example, Farrakhan explained that the men came not at the call of Louis Farrakhan, but had gathered together at the call of God (23). Dismissing the public attacks against his character, he noted that there is no prophet of plans God in the Bible that did not have a defect in his character. But, I have never heard any member of the faith of how to absolute Judaism separate David from the Psalms, because of what happened in David's life . . . you never separated any of the Great Servants of God (28).

Farrakhan once again defended his leadership of the march, asserting that God called upon bergeron lesson him to lead black people to salvation: God is the problem sending His decision. I can't help it if I've got to make the decision known. You don't understand me. Harrison Bergeron Lesson! My people love me. . . . Three Of Economic! I point out the evils of Black people . Harrison! . . but my people don't call me anti-Black, because they know I must love them in order to point out what's wrong so we can get it right to maxima, come back into harrison bergeron lesson plans the favor of God! (99-100). The audience's applause and enthusiastic shouts bolstered Farrakhan's claims as the marchers confirmed that they endorsed and supported Farrakhan a formidable civil rights leader. By portraying himself as God's spokesman, Farrakhan rose above his critics' accusations and legitimized his leadership, which he insisted, God had bestowed upon him. This posturing allowed Farrakhan to address and appeal to three different audiences simultaneously. As Pauley explains: [T]o black Christians, he portrays himself as another Moses or Isaiah, a mouthpiece of God's word; to people of his own Nation of Islam community, he shows himself to be a diviner of mysteries; and for of scarcity his white listeners, Farrakhan assumes the role of the spiritual doctor who has a diagnosis for the illness that affects them. [64] Farrakhan moved among these roles throughout his speech, weaving together a patchwork message of hope, forewarning, redemption, and promise. With every word and reference, however, Farrakhan made it clear that only he possessed the authority and knowledge to speak the truth. Bergeron Plans! Neither Clinton nor any of his other critics could undermine his God-given role as a prophet for his race. Clarence Taylor argues that these appeals were symptomatic of Farrakhan's long-term attempts to shift his public image.

Taylor writes that from the late 1970s to the very early 1990s, Farrakhan depicted himself as a religious-masculine warrior, doing God's bidding on Essay on Antigone, behalf of dark-skinned people. [65] In the early 1990s, however, Farrakhan attempted to shift his image from a masculine figure who was defending the harrison lesson, race to the all-wise and find maxima and minima ecumenical sage who is acting as the savior of the entire nation. [66] Taylor explains that these changes were indications of harrison bergeron lesson Farrakhan's attempts to be seen as a respected national leader. Essay! [67] The Million Man March speech bears some of the general characteristics that Taylor attributes to Farrakhan's new approach. First, Farrakhan attacked the power structure, not Whites in general, a marked change from his past rhetoric. For instance, Farrakhan emphasized that the harrison lesson plans, attitude of white supremacy was at fault for the mistreatment of blacks, not white people themselves. Second, Farrakhan warned of three system doom and devastation, but in bergeron Million Man March he assured Americans that they could avoid destruction by the problem choosing the right path to God and lesson denouncing white supremacy. Finally, Farrakhan aimed his speech at the family of the problem of scarcity all humanity. Even though the march attracted mostly blacks, Farrakhan called upon all Americans to atone and accept an agenda that's in the best interest of the Black, the poor and bergeron plans the vulnerable in this society (191). Of Country! Promoting a more universalized and less racialized view of the problem than was typical of his earlier rhetoric, Farrakhan tried to harrison, appeal to a broader audience than he had in history of country the past. This move had real implications for the larger quest for civil rights. As Gardell asserts: Farrakhan's move to the mainstream means a mainstreaming of Farrakhan. [68] He explains:

In the course of that process, Farrakhan has softened his message and sought reconciliation with former foes. The dress of an elderly statesman requires a moderate voice, which is more inclusive and harrison bergeron lesson plans open to laissez-faire leadership, dialogue and reason than it is exclusive, uncompromising, and unreasonable. This was clearly the tone of Farrakhan's Million Man March address. [69] Nevertheless, an harrison bergeron lesson, analysis of Farrakhan's speech calls into question Taylor 's claim that Farrakhan presented himself as a respected national leader. It also casts doubt on Gardell's suggestion that Farrakhan's rhetoric positioned him more within the mainstream of political thought. History Music! Farrakhan's denunciation of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln as unpatriotic racists, his inexplicable references to numerology and harrison bergeron Masonic mysteries, and his portrayal of himself as a doctor heavenly sent to point out, with truth, what's wrong with America (83) all sounded like the militant and Essay even demagogic Farrakhan of the past. Steven R. Goldzwig has described Farrakhan's use of violent threats, exaggeration, vilification, polarization, and conspiracy appeal as being characteristic of a rhetoric of symbolic alignment, a defiant style that challenges unstated myths (and offers competing ones) by exposing regnant ideologies through verbal and non-vernal symbol-using (and misusing). Harrison Lesson! [70] Although Farrakhan may have toned-down his defiant rhetorical style a bit at the Million Man March, as Taylor and Gardell suggest, he certainly did not abandon that style altogether.

Consistent with his past rhetoric, Farrakhan's highly militant and divisive speech attacked the values of the States' School, present culture and promoted alternative interpretations of bergeron reality that provided the marchers with motives for action on Essay on Antigone, behalf of social change. [71] Farrakhan's revised rhetorical style may have been less militant than some of harrison his past speeches, but it certainly did not sound like the of scarcity, style of a respected national leader. Farrakhan may have reshaped his public persona by adopting the prophetic role, as Pauley has argued. Harrison Bergeron Lesson! He even may have legitimized his leadership in the black community and appealed to a larger national audience with his less militant message. United States' School Systems! However, as those who heard the oration can attest, Farrakhan's speech hardly lived up to its promise to rally the black community toward long-term changes. Farrakhan biographer, Arthur Magida, attended the march and harrison lesson summarized the speech's lackluster reception: A cheer rose when Farrakhan finally took the on Antigone, podium, yet when he started to speak, many were visibly let down. Within fifteen minutes, Farrakhan began to lose the crowd, some drifting toward benches to rest their feet, some heading toward the train stations or bus depots for their long rides home.

At the pinnacle of his career, before a Mall crammed with men who had been stirred by his improbable vision of harrison plans such a gathering, and laissez-faire with 2.2 million households watching him on harrison bergeron, television, Louis Farrakhan, ordinarily a master of oratory, meandered through a loose patchwork of themes that never quite cohered. [72] Even Farrakhan seemed to history of country, notice that his lecture, as he called it, failed to keep the crowd's attention. Plans! More than five times during the on Antigone, speech, Farrakhan assured his audience that he was almost finished (121, 161) and harrison lesson plans beckoned to them Don't move. Don't move (134). His disjointed message, however, failed to hold much less persuade the marchers. How To Find Maxima! Two-and-a-half hours later, roughly two-thirds of his audience had left the Mall. Harrison Lesson! [73] In the end, Farrakhan's attempts to legitimize his leadership overshadowed his audiences' need. The Million Man March, as the New York Times astutely noted, produced a huge crowd hungry for great oratory. But instead of States' Essay something like the crystalline 19 minutes of Martin Luther King's 'I Have a Dream' speech, this crowd got a rambling, self-obsessed two hours from Louis Farrakhan. [74] Instead of focusing the national spotlight on harrison bergeron, the march's goals and three of economic system themes, Farrakhan had stolen the harrison bergeron lesson, attention for himself. Legacy of the Million Man March Initially, the Million Man March appeared to be a great success.

The mass demonstration drew attention to history of country music, the plight of the bergeron plans, black community. Its peaceful nature offered a new image of black men and, perhaps most significantly, the thousands of Essay marchers demonstrated that they were willing to look past their differences to support a common cause. Immediately following the march, several black organizations reported increases in membership. Harrison Bergeron Lesson Plans! [75] A month later, Farrakhan and States' School the National African American Leadership Summit announced a Ten-Point Action Program to harrison, improve the lives of blacks in America . [76] A year later, the black leaders successfully encouraged approximately 1.5 million more black men to vote in the 1996 presidential election than had voted in 1992. [77] Farrakhan's call for unity and community participation, it seemed, had at least some positive, long-term effects. The Million Man March also generated some positive publicity for Farrakhan, at on Antigone, least for a time. Harrison Lesson! Singh argues that the maxima, march represented the culmination of Farrakhan's bold attempts to achieve political legitimacy and bergeron full inclusion within the laissez-faire, ranks of the national black American political leadership cadre. [78] And in harrison Singh's opinion, it worked: To the deep chagrin of his many implacable opponents and ardent adversaries, it succeeded spectacularly. [79] Even Farrakhan's drawn-out speech could not dampen what Gardell has dubbed the greatest manifestation of black solidarity in the history of the United States . Of Economic System! [80] Immediately following the march, supporters and critics alike acknowledged Farrakhan's impressive drawing power. As Magida wrote, the march's indisputable success finally convinced some black leaders that Farrakhan was a force to bergeron lesson, be reckoned with. [81] However lackluster his speech, the find absolute and minima, sheer turnout for the demonstration elevated the status of its controversial leader. At least momentarily as H. Viscount E. Nelson wrote, as Minister Louis Farrakhan eclipsed [Jesse] Jackson as the most prominent African American of the 1990s . . . [82]

Immediately following the march, groups like the African American Agenda 2000 worked to discredit Farrakhan's leadership and his vision for the black community. Farrakhan's personal ambitions inadvertently contributed to his critics' efforts and undermined the march's long-term success. Within three months of the harrison plans, protest, Magida writes, Farrakhan answered the implicit queries about how he would leverage the massive political capital he had gained. [83] He quickly showed that he would deploy his new claim to power on his terms. [84] Farrakhan alienated other black and white leaders by pursuing his own agenda for reform. For instance, Farrakhan's bold criticism of of scarcity U.S. foreign policy and his meetings with some of harrison bergeron lesson America 's worst political enemies during his World Friendship Tour in January 1996 made many Americans question his political sagacity. Magida writes: Instead of marshalling the momentum of the march in of country music the service of harrison a very specific, very detailed agenda, very aggressive political agenda that he could have announced at a press conference the day after the march, he chose to solder alliances with some of America 's worst adversaries abroad. [85] In the process, Farrakhan destroyed the types of economic system, hopes of many blacks that their leaders could transcend their differences and harrison bergeron lesson plans come together to address the absolute maxima, real problems facing the black community. As H. Bergeron! Viscount Nelson has argued, black leaders who pursue selfish agendas help the white establishment maintain hegemony in the judicial, executive, and legislative affairs of the United States' School, nation and serve as gatekeepers at the door of opportunity rather than as leaders of their race. Harrison Lesson! In his opinion, Farrakhan has become one of those gatekeepers. Nelson acknowledges that Farrakhan has presented creative ideas for improving the lives of blacks, but he contends that in the broadest sense those accomplishments have proven meager for several reasons. First, Farrakhan seems reluctant to States' Systems Essay, share the spotlight with other black leaders. Second, he has shown limited commitment to sustain his ideas through follow-up activities and initiatives. Finally, he embodies the long-standing problem that black leaders have displayed for generations--an inability to establish and maintain positive intra-racial bonds.

As Nelson concludes, Farrakhan's actions before, during, and after the Million Man March illustrated these shortcomings and shed light on why he--and other modern black leaders--have had difficulty effecting positive long-term changes for blacks in lesson U.S. society. [86] Ten years after the Million Man March, Farrakhan again discussed the plight of the absolute maxima, black community at harrison bergeron plans, a commemorative ceremony dubbed the Million Man March, part II. Of Country! [87] He again offered a plan for strengthening the harrison bergeron lesson, black community, and again he challenged the audience to initiate change in their own lives. Essay On Antigone! Reflective of the harrison, Millions More Movement's broader vision of uniting all Americas under a shared banner for change, Farrakhan issued a call for all of our brothers and sisters, black, brown, red and the problem white . . Harrison! . to States' School Systems, work collectively to address the many issues that affect our people and harrison plans the poor in laissez-faire this country. [88] He concluded his address with a message of reassurance, stating: U nited we can solve our problems and divided we have nothing. [89] The Million Man March offered many blacks hope that together they could initiate positive change within their communities. As the designated leader and harrison bergeron plans spokesperson of the event, Minister Louis Farrakhan had the potential of drawing media and national attention to the march's goals and themes. Instead, the controversial leader evaded his responsibility and Essay on Antigone seized the opportunity to legitimize his position of leadership. Farrakhan's divisive, self-absorbed two-and-a-half hour speech and his selfish actions in the months following the march proved that he was unwilling to put the interests of the black community above his own. Bergeron Lesson! In the history, end, Farrakhan's drive for power lessened his rhetorical effectiveness, undermined the march's theme of bergeron lesson plans unity, and laissez-faire ultimately hindered the cause's long-term success. Jill M. Weber is harrison bergeron lesson a Doctoral Student at laissez-faire, The Pennsylvania State University. She would like to thank J. Michael Hogan, Shawn J. Parry-Giles, and Lubov Zeifman for harrison bergeron their help with the project. [1] Disputes over the number of Essay people attending the march arose immediately after the National Park Service estimated the attendance at 400,000.

Boston University researcher Farouk El-Baz, who employed a more advanced method of crowd estimation, placed the attendance at around 837,214. Harrison Bergeron Lesson! According to El-Baz, the actual number could have been as low as 670,000 or as high as 1,004,000. Joseph Mallia, New Estimate: Over 800,000 Marched in absolute maxima and minima D.C., Boston Herald , October 28, 1995 . See also New View Cuts Short Million Men, Independent ( London ), sec. International, October 28, 1995 , 10. [2] The exact question asked by harrison lesson plans the ABC News / Washington Post poll was as follows: As you may know, the how to find absolute and minima, Million Man March is harrison lesson intended to encourage black males to States' Systems Essay, accept more responsibility for their families and communities. Do you support or oppose such a march?

ABC News/Washington Post Poll, September 28, 1995-October 1, 1995, Accession Number 0267412. (accessed 21 August. 2007); Michael A. Fletcher and Mario A. Brossard, Poll: Many Blacks Back March but Find Organizers Troubling, Houston Chronicle , October 6, 1995 , A6. [3] The exact question asked by the ABC News/Washington Post poll was as follows: One of the bergeron plans, main organizers of the Million Man March is Louis Farrakhan, leader of the Nation of Islam. Does his participation in the march make you more likely or less likely to support the march? (If more or less likely, ask:) Is that a lot more/less likely to support the march or somewhat more/less likely? ABC News/Washington Post Poll, September 28, 1995-October 1, 1995, Accession Number 0267416. (accessed 21 August 2007 ). [4] The media both documented and perpetuated the contentious message/messenger debate. For examples prior to the march, see: One-Man March: Sadly, Louis Farrakhan's Role Will Leave That Impression, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette , September 25, 1995, A10; Edward Walsh, Criticism of Farrakhan's Million Man March Muted; Nation of Islam Leader's Effort Pushing Him to laissez-faire, Forefront of harrison Black Leadership, Washington Post , October 8, 1995, A22; Francis X. Clines, Organizers Defend Role of Farrakhan in March by Blacks, New York Times , October 13, 1995, sec. A, 1; Rachel L. Jones, Chavis Downplays Farrakhan March Role; But Anti-Semitic Remarks by Nation of Islam Leader on TV Renew Controversy, Pittsburg Post-Gazette , October 14, 1995 , A1; . . The Problem! . Not the bergeron lesson, Messenger, Boston Globe , October 15, 1995, 86; Paul Shepard, Farrakhan's Shadow Rolls with Caravans of Black Marchers, Plain Dealer (Cleveland, OH), October 15, 1995, 1A; Richard Sisk, N.Y.C. Sending Many to history of country music, March Prez Tries to bergeron lesson, Love Goals, Not Goalie, Daily News (New York), October 16, 1995, 4; Julian Beltrame, Million Man March: Controversy Detracts from Positive Message, Ottawa Citizen , October 16, 1995, A6; Lynn Sweet, White House Shrinks from 'Bigoted' Farrakhan, Chicago Sun-Times , October 16, 1995, 10.

The message/messenger theme continued in the post-march coverage. See, for example, Mario A. Brossard and Richard Morin, Leader Popular Among Marchers; But Most Came to Support Black Family, Show Unity, Survey Finds, Washington Post , October 17, 1995, A01; Terry M. Neal, Farrakhan's Message of Redemption; He Denounces White Leaders While Calling for Black Self-Improvement, Washington Post , October 17, 1995, A01: Richard Roeper, Message of Hope Is Worth a Million, Chicago Sun-Times , October 18, 1995, 11; Larry King, A Memorable March; A Bet on Colin Powell, USA Today , October 23, 1995, sec, Life, 2D; William Raspberry, The Only Leadership, Washington Post , October 27, 1995, A25. [5] Clarence Taylor, Black Religious Intellectuals: The Fight for Equality from Jim Crow to the Twenty-First Century ( New York : Routledge, 2002), 151. United School Systems! Farrakhan underwent several name changes over the course of his life. Harrison Bergeron! He was born Louis Eugene Walcott and, upon entering the NOI, began calling himself Louis X. He later renamed himself Louis Farrakhan, Abdul Haleem Farrakhan, and then went back to laissez-faire leadership, Louis Farrakhan. Magida, Prophet of Rage , 58. [6] Shortly after his parent's marriage, Farrakhan's father abandoned the family for extended periods of time. During one of Clarke's long absences, Farrakhan's mother fell in plans love with Louis Walcott, who fathered her first child, Alvan Walcott in 1931. Essay! A year later, Clarke briefly surfaced and Manning became pregnant with Farrakhan. Arthur J. Magida, Prophet of Rage: A Life of Louis Farrakhan and harrison His Nation (New York: Basic Books, 1996), 9-10; See also Florence Hamlish Levinsohn, Looking for Farrakhan (Chicago, IL: Ivan R. Dee, Inc., 1997), 181-182.

[7] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 9. [8] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 15. [9] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 24-27. [10] Levinsohn, Looking for Farrakhan , 206. [11] An old friend convinced Farrakhan and leadership his wife to harrison bergeron lesson, attend the States' School Systems Essay, Nation's annual Saviour's Day convention in Chicago , where Farrakhan had been touring at the time. Taylor, Black Religious Intellectuals , 151. The Nation of Islam was derived from previous Black Nationalist movements, which issued an unequivocal rejection of white America and a turn inward to the black man and the black community as the only source of hope fore resolving racial problems. The NOI places an emphasis on black consciousness and racial pride and grounds its teaching in religious appeals. As part of its separatist plan, the NOI encourages members to support black-owned businesses and it maintains its own paramilitary branch, the Fruits of Islam. For more information, see J. Herman Blake, Black Nationalism, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 382, Protest in plans the Sixties (March 1969): 15-25. [12] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 32.

[13] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 32. [14] As stated in an interview with Author Magida. See, Prophet of States' School Systems Rage , 32. [15] Both Magida and Levinsohn note that Farrakhan's mother, and many of the other West Indian residents in Roxbury, strongly supported the teachings of Marcus Garvey, a Jamaican Black Nationalist. Magida, Prophet of Rage , 15; Levinsohn, Looking for Farrakhan , 168, 214. Marcus Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), the largest mass-based protest movement among Black people in harrison lesson plans the history of the United States . [16] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 17. [17] Upon entering the Nation of Islam, the Muslims provide each member with a new name that eliminates the person's slave name. For example, upon entering the NOI, Louis Walcott began calling himself Louis X. [18] Mattias Gardell, In the Name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996), 120-21. [19] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 59.

[20] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 62. [21] Gardell argues that Farrakhan's ascendancy made him a chief contender to succeed the Messenger and lead the Nation. Gardell, In the Name of Elijah Muhammad , 122. [22] As stated in an interview with Steven Barboza. See, American Jihad: Islam after Malcolm X (New York: Doubleday, 1994), 142, 148. [23] Taylor, Black Religious Intellectuals, 151. [24] Farrakhan Again Describes Hitler as a 'Very Great Man,' New York Times , July 17, 1984, A18; Nathan McCall, Backing Farrakhan Seen as Way of 'Hitting Back'; Popularity Linked to Audacity and Agenda, Washington Post , December 11, 1989, A6. For a more complete discussion of Farrakhan's controversial statements, see Michael C. Kotzin, Louis Farrakhan's Anti-Semitism: A Look at three system, the Record, Christian Century ( 2 March 1994 ): 224-225. [25] Robert Singh, The Farrakhan Phenomenon: Race, Reaction, and the Paranoid Style in America Politics (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1997), 1. [26] Gardell, In the Name of Elijah Muhammad , 5. [27] William Pleasant, Independent Black Leadership in America (New York: Castillo International, Inc., 1990), 22. [28] Taylor, Black Religious Intellectual Leaders , 150. [29] Ron Daniels, The Meaning of the Million Man March and Day of Absence, Million Man March/Day of Absence: A Commemorative Anthology , eds.

Haki R. Madhubuti and Maulana Karenga (Chicago, IL: Third World Press, 1996), 83. [30] Tananarive Due, Farrakhan: Pride or Prejudice, Houston Chronicle , August 13, 1994 , sec. Religion, 1. [31] Pleasant, Independent Black Leadership in America , 22. [32] Michael C. Dawson and Lawrence D. Bobo, The Reagan Legacy and the Racial Divide in harrison lesson plans the George W. Bush Era, Du Bois Review 1, no. 2 (2004): 210. [33] For a discussion of of country music Jackson 's defeat and bergeron plans the black leadership problems in the 1990s, see H. Viscount Berky Nelson, The Rise and Fall of Modern Black Leadership ( Lanham , MD : University Press of America, 2003) 251-311. [34] Cornel West, Historic Event, Million Man March/Day of laissez-faire Absence: A Commemorative Anthology , eds. Bergeron Lesson Plans! Haki R. Madhubuti and Maulana Karenga (Chicago, IL: Third World Press, 1996), 98. Consistent with the religious element of Black Nationalism, Farrakhan emphasized the importance of all blacks' atoning for their sins on the day of the march.

[35] Farrakhan argued that the Republican-endorsed Contract with America and a recent Supreme Court decision against affirmative action showed that Congress had begun turning back the hands of time and that the Supreme Court had set the stage in the United States for United closing doors and impeding the harrison bergeron lesson plans, progress of Blacks. The Vision for the Million Man March, reprinted in Million Man March/Day of Absence , eds. Haki R. Madhubuti and Maulana Karenga (Chicago, IL: Third World Press, 1996), 150. [36] Farrakhan, The Vision for the Million Man March, 151. [37] Haki R. History! Madhubuti, Took Back Our Tears, Laughter, Love and Left a Big Dent in the Earth, Million Man March/Day of Absence , eds. Haki R. Madhubuti and Maulana Karenga (Chicago, IL: Third World Press, 1996), 2. [38] Million Man March Fact Sheet, reprinted in bergeron lesson Million Man March/Day of Absence , eds.

Haki R. Of Scarcity! Madhubuti and Maulana Karenga (Chicago, IL: Third World Press, 1996), 152. [40] S. Craig Watkins, Framing Protest: News Media Frames of the Million Man March, Critical Studies in bergeron lesson plans Media Communication 18, no. 1 (March 2001): 89. Although the Million Man March was scheduled several months in advance, it arrived two weeks after the controversial verdict in the O.J. Types System! Simpson double-murder trial. Plans! Simpson's acquittal sparked controversy across the country as Americans' responses to the verdict seemed to be divided along the color line. [44] William E. On Antigone! Nelson, Jr., Black Church Politics and the Million Man March, Black Religious Leadership from the Slave Community to the Million Man March: Flames of bergeron lesson Fire , ed. The Problem! Felton O. Best (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1998), 246. [45] Nelson, Black Church Politics, 250.

[46] D'Vera Cohn and Debbi Wilgoren, March Foes Assail Leader, Not Aims; Goal of Uniting Black Men Wins Wide Support, But Farrakhan Draws Fire, Washington Post , October 14. 1995, A11. [47] Cohn and Wilgoren, March Foes Assail Leader, Not Aims, A11. [48] Shepard reported that the NAACP and National Urban League voiced support for the movement's goals, but refused to endorse the march because of Farrakhan's involvement. Paul Shepard, Marching for plans a Reawakening; Despite Shadow of Controversy, D.C. Rally is Gaining Support with Local Men Set to Join, Plain Dealer (Cleveland, OH), September 24, 1995, 1B. The Anti-Defamation League vehemently protested Farrakhan's role and issued a full page ad in the New York Times that stated: we understand the need of African Americans to come together in a march on Washington and we understand that the vast majority of participants in the march will not subscribe to the anti-Semitism and racism of the three system, march's leader.

Likening Farrakhan to a white supremacist, however, they maintained that they could not ignore the fact that a hatemonger was the lesson plans, driving force behind the March. Lynn Sweet, Jewish Groups Back Million Man March But Blast Farrakhan, Chicago Sun-Times , 30 September 1995 , sec. News, 5. A partial image of the three of economic, ad is available at (accessed 21 August 2007 ). The African-American Agenda 2000 issued a statement in opposition to the march: No march, movement or agenda that defines manhood in the narrowest terms and seeks to harrison lesson plans, make women lesser partners in this quest for equality can be considered a positive step. Therefore, we cannot support this march. Laissez-faire! Cohn and Wilgoren, March Foes Assail Leader, A11.

A few women attended the march, including Maya Angelou and Rosa Parks who addressed the lesson, marchers. See, Maya Angelou, From a Black Woman to laissez-faire, a Black Man, in Million Man March/Day of Absence , eds. Lesson! Haki R. Madhubuti and Maulana Karenga (Chicago, IL: Third World Press, 1996), 30-31. [49] Colin Powell told CBS This Morning : I was concerned that my presence on the stage with Farrakhan might give him a level of credibility--more of a level of credibility than I would have liked to have seen, so I would have regretted it. States' Systems! Retired General Colin Powell Discusses His Book, the Million Man March, Racism in America and His Reaction to the O.J. Bergeron Plans! Simpson Trial Verdict, CBS This Morning , CBS News, October 16, 1995, (accessed 21 August 2007). [50] William J. Clinton , Remarks at the University of Texas at Austin October 16, 1995, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States Web Page , (accessed 21 August 2007 ): 1601.

For an analysis of Clinton 's speech, see Jill M. Of Country Music! Weber, Bill Clinton 's 'Racism in the United States ,' Voices of Democracy: The U.S. Oratory Project , National Endowment for lesson the Humanities, [51] Desda Moss and Gary Fields. Mobilizing 1 Million; Theme Timely, but Organizer Is Controversial, USA Today , October 13, 1995 , 1A. [52] Art Golab, Jackson Backs Million Man March on D.C ., Chicago Sun-Times , September 23, 4. [53] Hamil R. Harris and Michael A. Fletcher, Jackson Endorses Men's March; Black Caucus, Others Back Farrakhan Event, Washington Post , September 23, 1995 , A01. [54] Francis X. Clines, Organizers Defend Role of Farrakhan in March by Blacks, New York Times , 13 October 1995 , sec.

A, 1. [55] Clines, Organizers Defend Role, 1. [56] Gardell, In the Name of Elijah Muhammad , 344-45. History Of Country Music! Some officials from the NAACP and the Urban League planned to attend the march although their organizations refused to endorse the event. Cohn and Wilgoren, March Foes Assail Leader, A11; Million Man March Partial Listing of Endorsements to Date, September 30, 1995, reprinted in Million Man March/Day of Absence , eds. Haki R. Madhubuti and harrison lesson plans Maulana Karenga (Chicago, IL: Third World Press, 1996), 154-155. [57] Nelson, Black Church Politics, 245. [58] Martin Luther King, Jr.'s 1963 March on Washington , the largest civil rights march, attracted more than 200,000 demonstrators. March on Washington for Jobs and three types of economic system Freedom, The King Encyclopedia , Stanford's Martin Luther King, Jr., Papers Project, (accessed 21 August 2007 ). [59] Felton O. Harrison Plans! Best and history music Charles Frazier, Introduction, Black Religious Leadership from the plans, Slave Community to leadership, the Million Man March: Flames of Fire , ed.

Felton O. Best (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1998), 15. [60] Best and Frazier, Introduction, 2, 15. [61] Here and elsewhere passages in Million Man March are cited with reference to paragraph numbers in the text of the bergeron lesson, speech that accompanies this essay. [62] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 193; Gardell, In the Name of Elijah Muhammad , 344-345. [63] John L. Essay! Pauley, II., Reshaping Public Persona and the Prophetic Ethos: Louis Farrakhan at harrison bergeron plans, the Million Man March, Western Journal of Communication 62, no.

4 (Fall 1998): 519. [64] Pauley, Reshaping Public Persona, 515. [65] Taylor, Black Religious Intellectuals, 151. [66] Taylor, Black Religious Intellectuals, 151. [67] Taylor, Black Religious Intellectuals, 160. [68] Gardell, In the Name of Elijah Muhammad , 345. [69] Gardell, In the Name of Elijah Muhammad , 345. [70] Steven R. Goldzwig, A Social Movement Perspective on Demagoguery: Achieving Symbolic Realignment, Communication Studies 40 (Fall 1989): 218. [71] Goldzwig, A Social Movement Perspective on Demagoguery, 218. [72] Magida, Prophet of United States' Rage , 193.

[73] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 196. [74] Earnest Crowd, Empty Leader, New York Times , October 17, 1995, sec. Lesson Plans! A, 24. [75] Desda Moss, March Gives Black Groups Momentum, USA Today , October 30, 1995 , 3A. Manning Marable, Black Leadership , New York : Columbia University Press, 1998), 162. [76] Where We are After the laissez-faire, Million Man March: Toward the harrison bergeron lesson, Million Family March, Million Family March , (accessed 21 August 2007 ). [77] Marable, Black Leadership , 163. [78] Singh, The Farrakhan Phenomenon , 62. [79] Singh, The Farrakhan Phenomenon , 62. [80] Gardell, In the Name of Elijah Muhammad , 5. [81] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 197. [82] Nelson, The Rise and Fall of Modern Black Leadership 308-309. [83] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 199.

[84] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 199. (original emphasis) [85] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 201. [86] Nelson, The Rise and laissez-faire leadership Fall of Modern Black Leadership , 310-311. [88] More than a Million Pledged to Restore, Rebuild and Repair Broken Lives and Communities at the 10 Anniversary Commemoration of the plans, Million Man March, Millions More Movement (accessed 21 August 2007). [89] More than a Million Pledged to Restore, Rebuild, and Repair Broken Lives, (accessed 21 August 2007 ).

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It's a Frame Up: Helping Students Devise Beginnings and harrison plans, Endings. Date: Winter 2001. Summary : Hillebrand describes how a carefully crafted frame can give a piece of writing a deeper sense of meaning and a way into and out of the assignment that escapes the over-used traditional patterns. A carefully crafted frame can make satisfying metaphorical. connections for both reader and writer, giving the paper a deeper sense of meaning and a way into and out of the assignment that escapes the. traditional pattern and quandary of old hat. Oftentimes, getting an essay started and getting it concluded can trouble my college sophomores and Essay on Antigone, juniors more than finding something to harrison bergeron lesson say in between. They can always rely, of course, on the old standbys: the traditional introduction and the traditional conclusion to the traditional essay, telling the audience what will be said and concluding with what has been said. Granted, this approach works well in speeches or with lengthy writings, but in shorter essays, these crusty techniques come off as predictable and boring. I encourage my students to find instead a single word, a literary/historical reference, or a personal narrative that can provide a fresh way into and out of their writing, surrounding it much like a window frame surrounds a glass pane or a decorative frame surrounds a picture or mirror. Just as the right picture frame becomes one with the painting, the leadership right rhetorical frame becomes one with the composition, enhancing as well as complementing.

This frame not only starts and concludes the writing, but can also reinforce the main idea, offer a broader perspective, or even interject a bit of humor. A set of ungraded papers can appear a burden to the instructor, but framed essays more often than not make reading less a chore and more a pleasant, entertaining, and, at times, informative experience. Last year, a student in my research class wrote a lengthy paper on the relationship between humans and harrison lesson, plants, beginning her rather serious topic with a reference to a well-known nursery rhyme: Ring around the roses, a pocket full of posies . . . . She explains that the of scarcity pocket full of bergeron plans, flowers masked the stench of death during the time of the black plague, only one of the many useful purposes of plants that have benefited us throughout the ages. The paper ends with a reinforcement of the warning that we depend on plant life to add quality to our own lives: Without plants, life on Essay on Antigone Earth would cease to exist as we know it: `ashes, ashes, we all fall down.' On a much different note, a student in harrison lesson plans, my rhetorical conventions class wrote a short paper that manipulates his memories of three types system, a particular odor into a framing device. Harrison Lesson Plans! Students were assigned reflective memoirs, which for this student provided an opportunity to describe his first car-purchasing experience.

He opens the piece by detailing the history musty smell of the bergeron lesson used car and the Blue Bouquet air freshener that made it his. He ends with a description of his strongest memory: Regardless of where I am or what I am doing, whenever I smell the history scent of a Blue Bouquet air freshener, I can hear the rumble of the exhaust behind me, feel the air rustling my hair, and harrison bergeron lesson, sense the urge to slam the pedal to the floor so I can feel the history of country sheer bone-crunching power of acceleration. A good place to find rhetorical frames commonly used by professional writers is in harrison bergeron lesson plans, newspapers that run feature articles and columnists. In 1985, flying home after a trip to Mexico, I sat next to Los Angeles Times columnist Jack Smith. He explained that in most of his articles, he connected the first and last sentences after taking readers on a journey of other ideas, a pattern that made writing a daily column less onerous.

Syndicated columnist William Safire often relies on history a single word as a framing device. In a 1994 article, he calls on tsunami, the Japanese word for a great wave caused by underwater seismic shock, to frame an article on the shock that caused the conservative wave of that year. His introduction connects the definition of tsunami with the main idea of his article: the majority of plans, voters shook up legislators to express their lack of faith in an ever-growing government. The column ends with a second mention of the tsunami, identifying it as a shock that does indeed change everything and United States' School Systems Essay, that leads to harrison exciting days politically, an analogy that reinforces his (but not everyone's) opinion. A writer can seduce a reader into considering relatively abstract ideas by United School Essay, creating a framing device that links these ideas to everyday images and experiences.

In another column, Safire decries the new disloyalty that seemingly affects our culture at every level of business and bergeron lesson plans, politics. He has his teeth into a large concept, but he introduces his thoughts about leadership a fickle public, fickle corporate world, and fickle government by making a down-to-earth confession: Over the years, Safire says, he has been a toothpaste hopper. He writes that the bergeron avuncular tones of Harry Von Zell got him to switch to long-forgotten Ipana from even more forgotten Kolynos. Since then, other new products have encouraged this lack of brand loyalty. Safire moves on absolute to take on Disloyalty with a capital D; he worries that we have become a disposable culture all too ready to relegate even people to the discard pile. Bergeron! In his concluding paragraph, he asks that we stop this worldwide devaluation of loyalty. He ends, however, with a mundane image echoing his opening. Pick a brand of toothpaste and stick with it.

This little idea connects to history the far more serious one, oddly enough offering a broader perspective. The smallness of his framing device may seem incongruous, but this very element awakens us to the exigency of plans, our everyday actions. Literary references also make effective framing devices. In our local newspaper, a letter to the editor from an angry professor responds to an editorial in which the leadership editorial writer is accusing the university teachers of salary whining. The professor puts to work Edgar Allen Poe's The Cask of plans, Amontillado as a literary framing device, quoting Poe's opening sentence as his opening sentence: The thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as best I could; but when he ventured upon insult I vowed revenge. The writer uses the types system words of Poe's narrator to convey his own indignation at being flagrantly wronged. The body of the letter details the professor's resentment at what he considers to be the editorial writer's insults, but the final sentence refers again to Poe's story: Ah, for a fresh batch of cement, a stack of bricks, and a good trowel, the very tools, readers of Poe will recognize, that the story's narrator uses to harrison bergeron work his revenge on Fortunato. By humorously framing hostile feelings, the professor gently emphasizes his point: Overworked and underpaid, he and history of country music, his colleagues do not appreciate editorials claiming otherwise. Many students feel, correctly enough, that they do not have the command of literary allusion that this writer demonstrates. However, almost all have an intimate knowledge of harrison bergeron, some folk and fairy tales that may serve them as they create framing devices. One student, writing about music her struggle with obesity, puts to use the question that opens Snow White: Mirror, mirror on the wall, who is the fairest of bergeron lesson plans, them all?

The student quickly explains that, in her world, fairest is changed to fattest. She further connects the device by School Essay, describing her despair each time she stands before that cruel mirror. After revealing her struggle and her growing awareness of others who, for various reasons, do not fit in, the harrison bergeron lesson plans paper ends with a new version of the States' Essay mirror question: Who is the healthiest of them all? While the framing device gives an added dimension of poignancy to the narrative, the newly recast, final question concludes it on an uplifting note. Personal Experience as a Framing Device. Personal experience can also provide a frame in which to set the discussion of a larger issue. Boston Globe columnist Ellen Goodman provides a personal experience to frame an opinion piece calling for harrison labels in clothing to Essay guarantee consumers that child labor has not produced newly purchased garments. Standing at a checkout counter, she looks at the various tags and harrison bergeron lesson plans, labels affixed to the problem of scarcity a pair of shorts she has decided to purchase. The labels tell her much: price, size, washing instructions, even country of origin. Left unasked is the harrison plans question Who has produced this pair of tennis shorts? As she ponders the origin of these shorts, she creates a transition from the frame to the article's purposeasking consumers to make a connection between what we wear and the people who make it.

Goodman concludes her argument by the problem of scarcity, referring once again to her own purchase, calling herself an uneasy consumer of one pair of tennis shorts who would like to initiate change by asking one simple question: How about labels for harrison bergeron lesson plans labor? Students often use personal experience narratives similar to Goodman's as a way into and out of papers on such topics as racism, the environment, or political and school concerns. By calling on an incident or event from his or her life, the writer adds an extra dimension to the topic as well as an authenticity. When the concluding sentence refers to this opening experience, the reader is on Antigone, left with a satisfying sense of closure. The paper projects a wholeness, a coming full circle, that essays with traditional, often ordinary conclusions sometimes lack. In a particularly effective paper on harrison bergeron the negative impact television violence can have on children, one of United States', my students begins with a description of harrison bergeron lesson plans, his family's extended Thanksgiving dinner. The student explains that the peacefulness he felt as the family members gathered to give thanks for all their blessings vanished once he entered the family room where his younger cousins were mobilized in front of the television for the Power Rangers program. After watching intensely physical confrontations, the normally docile three- to twelve-year-olds turned into the problem of scarcity, miniature fighting machines. They eagerly kicked and punched any interloper, forcing the narrator to leave and causing him to bergeron seriously question the Essay laissez faire child-rearing attitudes of the children's parents.

This incident acts as a segue that connects the family experience with his topic: the growing problem of harrison plans, children's viewing of television violence and United States' School Systems, possible solutions to this problem. The writer concludes by offering a plan for handling the situation at the next Thanksgiving dinner: I may not be the lesson plans most popular cousin for turning off the Power Rangers, but what is popular is not always right, and three types of economic, what is right is lesson plans, not always popular. I can live with not being popular. For many students, the personal experience that becomes the framing device for States' an essay triggers the harrison lesson piece's central idea, rather than the other way around. One student, writing about student/teacher relationships in laissez-faire leadership, elementary schools, describes a rather upsetting incident she witnessed during a week of observation. A crying second grade student who had been teased beyond endurance ran to his teacher's arms for comfort, only to be shoved away by the teacher. Lesson! This observation begins the student's essay and inspires the central idea of the history piece: when teachers touch students, they have reason to plans fear the consequences. The paper ends with the music writer once again referring to the incident of the spurned second-grader. She mentions how troubled she was at the time, but after doing research on the subject, she explains, I clearly understand her reasons for not offering comfort and for not hugging him back. When I first introduce the framing device lesson, I caution students against a couple of harrison bergeron plans, traps I have seen former students fall into system, when they use this technique.

Sometimes a framing device can take on a life of its own, becoming more developed than the harrison plans content. This I call the runaway frame. I recount a former student's essay that describes a supposedly distasteful fast-food job she held in one town while living in another. For her introduction and conclusion, she gives a hair-raising account of her forty-minute commute to work over black ice. Absolute Maxima And Minima! Although the purpose of her paper was to harrison plans dissuade readers from taking a position at the partic-ular restaurant where she worked, the overly long framing device was far more compelling. No reader would want to live down that hill after reading about the the problem of scarcity slippery road, the traffic, the delays, and the danger. There's another trap that students fall into. Bergeron! They do not make clear the relation between their framing device and the body of the paper. One student began and ended a paper on the Cuban missile crisis with quotes from Hamlet. To be or not to be, the paper begins, ending with the lines, whether `tis nobler in the mind to suffer the slings and how to find absolute and minima, arrows of outrageous fortune, or to harrison plans take arms against a sea of troubles, and by opposing end them . . . . One may imag-ine many connections between these words from Shakespeare and the events of the the problem Cuban missile crisis, but the writer did not articulate any of them. Harrison Plans! As we help students revise, we need to be on the lookout for the problem these connections that have not yet made it from the bergeron plans student's mind to his paper.

Keeping these caveats in mind, however, a carefully crafted frame can make satisfying metaphorical connections for the problem of scarcity both reader and writer, giving the bergeron lesson plans paper a deeper sense of laissez-faire leadership, meaning and a way into and out of the assignment that escapes the traditional pattern and quandary of old hat.

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coriolanus essay S teven Berkoff caius marcius berkoff. Laughter, Gender, and harrison plans, Death in Steven Berkoff#146;s Coriolanus. Copyright 2002 Ken Lauter. [Henry Irving] ran his theatre like a warrior. Steven Berkoff#146;s production of Shakepeare#146;s Coriolanus was the most penetrating rendering of a human soul I#146;ve ever seen on a stage. Designed, directed by, and starring Berkoff, it was stylized, spare, athletic, rich in mime and United States' School, ensemble choreography, joyfully anti-naturalistic? and evidently influenced by everything from Brecht to Japanese kabuki [02] . But beyond the elegant stage design [03] , superb supporting cast, and fine music, the real force of the play was generated by the organizing energy and bergeron plans, dramatic presence of the problem of scarcity, Berkoff himself? in a persona he has wryly labeled #147;the Berkoff beast.#148; That persona is impossible to convey fully in words alone, but we can approach it by focusing on his rendering of one of Shakespeare#146;s most troubling and eccentric characters.

Berkoff#146;s vision of the Roman hero and harrison lesson plans, traitor was grandly idiosyncratic. Here was a new Coriolanus? as a strutting, macho, campy yet thoroughly menacing Mussolini. Here was a man who? in on Antigone, spite of harrison lesson, immense ego, martial ruthlessness, abject (and even at times comical) submission to his mother? came across, finally, as a man of integrity and (surprisingly) real tenderness. Both Shakespeare and Berkoff know that Coriolanus would not and maxima, could not be politic. Harrison Bergeron Plans? He was a warrior? and nothing but a warrior. The ultimate question the play addresses, then, is laissez-faire, clear enough: what does being a warrior mean? And why has Berkoff been so fascinated by Coriolanus virtually throughout his career? [04]

1. The Berkovian Warrior. For Berkoff, such questions are synonymous with asking what it means to lesson plans be a man ? one living now, in a world of nuclear weapons (and disintegrating nuclear families), feminism, post-cold-war politics, and United States' Systems Essay, modernist/deconstructionist aesthetics. Berkoff suggests that someone who fights to maintain his personal integrity, honor and courage is still living #147;like a warrior.#148; The like, however , is crucial. If you take the term warrior too literally, Berkoff#146;s work will seem crude and harrison lesson, anachronistic; if you don#146;t take it as a measure of real things in the real world, you trivialize him. In Berkoff, the warrior is United States' School Systems, both real and harrison lesson, symbolic, material and spiritual, martial and psychological. Essay? And living like one is neither simple nor easy. Historically, of course, being a warrior has entailed standards of bergeron lesson, discipline, skill, loyalty, self sacrifice, and physical courage? all of which Berkoff affirms, not only in this production but also in the dramatized memoirs of his own mean-streets youth, East (1977) and of scarcity, West (1985). Harrison Bergeron Lesson? In the music former, which he subtitles #147;Elegy for the East End / and its energetic waste,#148; Berkoff remembers: #147;you would fight to the death to defend that particular lifestyle that was your own.#148; [05] And of #147;schtarker#148; hero Mike in bergeron, West, Berkoff says: #147;Mike#146;s truth is to live for simple principles and to put his courage where his mouth is. He defeats the Huxton monster [a gang leader] and will continue to types fight monsters so that others can rest safe in their beds.#148; Coriolanus fights the harrison bergeron lesson Volcian #147;monster#148; Aufidius in much the same spirit. Yet Berkoff recognizes that the tradition of martial valor has become obsolete and sentimental as a gauge of modern warfare [06] . Types Of Economic? And in spite of stage stylistics that are often extraordinarily athletic and a tendency for bergeron lesson his ensemble to resemble a street gang, Berkoff is never muddled in types of economic system, this theme? he#146;s neither war-monger nor macho sports fanatic.

In his autobiography and harrison bergeron lesson, elsewhere, he repeatedly expresses a revulsion for war [07] ? often vis-a-vis Britain#146;s invasion of the Falkland Islands [08] ? as well as an unmitigated contempt for of scarcity pub-haunting soccer thugs. It is certainly true that Berkoff productions are often marked by extreme violence, terror, and images of harrison, war. Yet when examined closely, these elements are as polemically #147;anti-war#148; as the on Antigone poetry of Wilfred Owen. Berkoff sees the mother-son reconciliation scene in Coriolanus as #147;one of the bergeron great anti-war scenes in drama.#148; [09] In fact, what he does in three system, this play is to transform #147;the warrior#148; into a metaphor for the state of the soul? and one of his subtexts is precisely Owen#146;s notion that the Roman adage dulce et decorum est pro patria mori [10] is a vicious deception, #147;the old lie.#148; Ironically, Berkoff exposes this lie by presenting us with a character who will not, who cannot, see it as such. Just how important to bergeron lesson Berkoff, then, is the concept of the warrior code? As noted in the epigram to this essay, Berkoff sees the great Nineteenth Century actor and producer Henry Irving as a kind of warrior.

Berkoff also calls Hamlet #147;a moral warrior,#148; and types of economic, #147;a strong virile human being. a soldier philosopher,#148; while finding #147;male bonding#148; between Hamlet and Horatio comparable to that between Coriolanus and his men. Harrison Bergeron? [11] With such intriguing clues in on Antigone, mind, I suggest that in Coriolanus Berkoff continues his pursuit of the theme of genuine maleness, grappling with the idea that for harrison bergeron lesson men as men, the fullest possible (and perhaps only honorable) life can come only by serving a demanding #147;warrior code,#148; a life without compromise or self-betrayal. But betrayal is, in fact, at on Antigone the heart of Shakespeare#146;s play. It is harrison bergeron, scrutinized in Coriolanus with great intensity, almost to of country music the point of ferocity? and is shown to pose a greater danger to the protagonist than the perils of war. Those he is trained for, those he accepts as part of lesson, his profession; but in matters of States', betrayal, this Roman warrior is a rank amateur? or more precisely, as I show later, a boy. The classical view of the play? that Coriolanus is a tragic hero who falls because of an inner flaw in bergeron, his character? is, if not entirely discarded, radically revised by the problem Berkoff. He recognizes that this Roman bull is a great dramatic challenge? a cold, sneering, #147;politically incorrect,#148; narrow-minded aristocrat. Wyndham Lewis calls him #147;the incarnation of violent snobbery.#148; [12] This actually gets it backwards, since Coriolanus worships merit, not class, but it catches the tone of the character pretty well. He certainly is, as D.A.

Traversi says: #147;possibly the most disconcerting and harrison bergeron lesson plans, incongruous of on Antigone, all Shakespeare#146;s heroes.#148; [13] Rather than ignore such defects, Berkoff actually heightens and revels in them? or rather, plows right through them. Instead of a conventionally noble hero with the aristocratic demeanor of, say, Laurence Olivier, Berkoff paints Coriolanus as a naked, homogeneous self, like a child or a saint? one who is also a loud, arrogant soldier. Lewis actually calls him #147;a cruel and harrison lesson, stupid child,#148; one whose mother has #147;coached and formed him into the madman he is.#148; [14] This is Essay on Antigone, reductive but, again, not far off the mark? and Coriolanus#146;s ferocious tantrums and lesson, petulance are played over three of economic, the top by Berkoff to great effect. But children and madmen cannot ultimately sustain great drama? so what redeems Coriolanus, what gives him texture and bergeron, interest, not to mention moral authority? That is the paradox of Berkoff#146;s production. First, Coriolanus is Essay on Antigone, never dissembling, never Machiavellian. The very idea of hypocritical or self-serving speech outrages and confuses him. He hates making speeches of any kind (particularly to those he has contempt for): #147;He would not flatter Neptune for his trident / Or Jove for#146;s power to thunder.#148; (III, i) In Coriolanus#146;s code, the only life for a true Roman is the challenge of harrison bergeron lesson, total self-sacrifice, to defend the state from its enemies, to fight to the death. For Coriolanus, the warrior motto of United States' School Essay, dulce et decorum est is bergeron plans, not a lie? it is a living truth.

Better a noble death than a cowardly life, always. Berkoff wants us to seriously consider the how to absolute possibility that Coriolanus is harrison lesson plans, noble? not by family name or good manners or political astuteness, but by his unflinching posture as a warrior. He says of his arch enemy Aufidius, #147;I sin in envying his nobility.#148; For this Roman general, conforming to the warrior#146;s code is nothing less than a kind of United School Essay, spiritual aspiration. Moreover, for him, Rome is harrison, its martial nobility? and if not that, nothing. Those who don#146;t measure up to this standard are parasites, enemies of the state. He loathes the lower classes, thinks them unworthy of a civic voice, and would even let them starve for their cowardice in battle. So when his own standing as a Roman is finally subverted by the Machiavellian tribunes [15] , Rome itself becomes #147;the enemy#148;? and Coriolanus can join his old enemies freely and on Antigone, #147;untraitorously#148; (in his own eyes) because the Volcians are still warriors. Harrison Plans? They have not betrayed the warrior#146;s high calling.

Once with the Volcians, Coriolanus certainly wants revenge on Rome, but we feel it is at least in part a just revenge. Berkoff therefore wins us over to of economic him almost against our will? not totally perhaps, but very strongly. [16] Whatever else we may think of Coriolanus, it is perfectly clear that the lesson plans knavish tribunes are right about him in one thing: he is United Essay, not fit for harrison bergeron lesson political leadership, except possibly as a dictator (hence the Mussolini costume) [17] . Everyone can see he is United States' Systems Essay, too egotistical, inflexible, or childish for office, but that is superficial. Berkoff#146;s daring performance convinces us that Coriolanus is bergeron lesson, unfit for politics precisely because he is too noble? if by noble we mean a man who is totally absorbed by his role . #147;Let me play/the man I am#148; is Coriolanus#146;s anthem. That is, let me be a soldier, a fighter, a killer if need be? but honor me for doing it by never asking me to find maxima curry favor from cowards or hypocrites for political gain. And yet this is the harrison plans man whose friends and family are relentlessly, insidiously urging him into political life! In the end, Coriolanus is betrayed, not by his flaws but by his virtues (#147;Rights by Essay rights founder, strengths by strengths do fail,#148; IV, vii), and not by his old enemy Tullus Aufidius, but by his #147;friends#148;? his mother, his wife, his fellow warrior Cominius, his old friend and mentor Menenius, the tribunes, and the gullible, abused plebeians? in short, by harrison bergeron lesson virtually the United Systems entire Roman state. Bergeron Plans? Such a sense of music, betrayal is a terribly exasperating vision for today#146;s liberal, democratic, submissive, corporate citizen and harrison bergeron plans, casual theatre goer. And worse, it might easily slide into a vision of of scarcity, macho martyrdom. The only thing that prevents that from bergeron happening is laughter.

2. United School? Berkovian Laughter. This production was full of the raw, audacious farce that Berkoff is so expert at? and harrison lesson, which evoked salty laughter almost from beginning to end. The laughter comes in many forms, some of which are Shakespeare#146;s usual pit-pleasing puns and history, gambols, others the brilliant physical comedy of mime and choreography. But the bergeron plans main thrust of the laughter, I submit, lies in the self-parody that Berkoff constructs around the very virtues he is States' School Systems Essay, celebrating? the prowess, honesty, crudeness, and even the terror of harrison lesson, warriors. Coriolanus may be a hellion, Berkoff asserts, but that doesn#146;t mean he can#146;t be riotously funny? mostly at his own expense. This view of the character has no basis in Shakespeare. His depiction of Coriolanus is a much more constrained, crisp, somber (and boring!) Roman than we saw on stage at the Mermaid. Shakespeare was no doubt fascinated by the man, a killing machine whose mother was clearly the source of his tiger-like ferocity; and there is also in the text a sense that Coriolanus was wronged by his fellow citizens and that they deserved some measure of the wrath he finally turns on them.

Still, I don#146;t think Shakespeare liked Coriolanus or wanted him to be liked. He is, in find absolute maxima, Shakespeare, more of a force of harrison bergeron lesson plans, nature than a man, a foil to his own lost humanity and dissolved loyalty to his nation. We need to Essay on Antigone remember that in Elizabethan England being a traitor was a matter of almost obscene perfidy. But Steven Berkoff likes Coriolanus? and wants us to like him. The miracle of the production is bergeron plans, that this ambition is on Antigone, realized? even though we also fear Coriolanus and laugh both with and at him. Harrison Lesson? Again, we like him primarily because, to adapt what Iago says (falsely) about himself, Coriolanus #147;is what he is#148;? a kick-ass soldier, a patriot, a good son, a hard, brave man who won#146;t suffer fools or cowards lightly.

Such a combination is nearly impossible to resist on stage (at least in the laughter-rich character which Berkoff created). The laughter redeems his crudity. It almost redeems his cruelty. It humanizes him, and finally, gives us the secret of how to maxima, his soul, illuminating Berkoff#146;s vision of what it means for a man to live like a warrior. What we see, ultimately, is that real warriors can laugh at themselves? even unto death. [18] Berkoff#146;s self-parodic laughter begins in the very first scene and flavors the rest of the play. Harrison Bergeron Lesson Plans? When Coriolanus gets the news that the Volcians are making war, he is openly delighted? because it offers him the States' Essay chance to fight the mighty Tullus Aufidius once again. #147;He is the lion/ I am proud to hunt,#148; (I,i) boasts Rome#146;s champion? with a fat grin. Shakespeare#146;s stately rhetoric of aristocratic honor in combat was totally undermined by Berkoff#146;s delivery of the Volcian general#146;s name. Harrison Bergeron? Between the three types system #147;Tullus#148; and harrison plans, #147;Aufidius,#148; Berkoff emitted a ringing wolf howl, accompanied by a limp-wristed shaking of his fingers. The Problem Of Scarcity? It was one of the most startling pieces of pure comedy in the production (and one that would be echoed later in a subtle and ironic way). Berkovian laughter is harrison bergeron, most often generated, however, by Coriolanus#146;s vituperative outbursts [19].

They are passionate, impolitic, and hysterically funny. Even his great renunciation scene, ending with the triumphant rejoinder to those who have just expelled him from Essay on Antigone his beloved Rome, was played for a laugh by Berkoff. This famous speech begins with concentrated loathing (#147;You common cry [pack] of curs, whose breath I hate / As reek o#146;th#146; rotten fens, whose love I prize / As the dead carcasses of unburied men#148;? III, iii). Bergeron? But Berkoff ended it with an ear-splitting, hyper-paused #147;I.

BANISH. YOU!#148; This put the rest of the ensemble on their heels, their eyes dazed full moons. It was hilarious and fearsome at United States' School the same time? something only an plans, actor with Berkoff#146;s brazen presence (and powerful lungs) could pull off. It#146;s a mistake, though, to consider these outbursts merely childish. They are rash, petulant and morally disgusting at absolute times (the citizens of Rome may have bad breath, but they also have legitimate, heart-breaking grievances, which Coriolanus spurns simply because they are not as brave as he is) [20] . But it is love, honor, and pride that animate the harrison bergeron plans general#146;s outbursts. And more importantly from a dramatic point of view, although his verbal explosions finally cost him his life, they were absolutely thrilling to see? which tells us how badly we crave making them ourselves. Those who can consistently live this way are (or so we dream) outrageously, unfathomably heroic? even when they are funny, and even in an age as cynical and despairing as ours. Berkoff writes:

I always like characters who are much larger than life and believe these are the people the on Antigone audience craves, that they may gain hope and harrison lesson plans, energy from their example to Essay on Antigone us. Audiences don#146;t want creatures who are the harrison plans mirror of their own ghastliness and pettiness. Systems? [21] Berkoff#146;s Coriolanus was pretty ghastly himself at times (e.g., when he cooly twisted an arrow out of the throat of an bergeron lesson, enemy soldier)? but he was never petty, and he radiated energy and hope right up to his dying breath (which Berkoff mimed brilliantly? for once with absolutely no laughter impinging on the scene, as I show later). Of Scarcity? It also should be noted that? in spite of the lesson plans fact that its Coriolanus was definitely a #147;gangsta#148; general? this production was kept free of even a grain of fascist chic or the worship of violence. This was accomplished, among other ways, by one of the history brilliant pieces of mime in harrison lesson, the production? a slow-motion epiphany in blue light of Roman and Volcian soldiers methodically murdering one another with knives, swords, spears, and garrote cords? always ambushed from behind, blind-sided, a kind of danse macabre, war as serial-assassination. This haunting, almost unbearable sequence (all Berkoff, of the problem of scarcity, course, not Shakespeare) was as devastating an harrison lesson, #147;anti-war#148; statement as it could be? quite a trick in a play whose protagonist was made so strangely endearing and grand precisely because he#146;s both a Rambo-like fighter and an impious comedian [22] . History Of Country Music? In any case, it#146;s absolutely clear that Berkoff was not engaging in harrison, any Nietzschean fantasies of the warrior as Obermann? the play#146;s insistent, raucous laughter is one guarantee of this.

Another guarantee was the production#146;s unique dramatization of gender. 3. Berkovian Gender-Bending. Gender images and inversions of them were perhaps the most important, original element in Essay, the production. Harrison? This is a subtle thing to convey. If you have seen Berkoff#146;s rampant virility on history music stage? and how suddenly and harrison bergeron, convincingly he can shift into a thoroughly feminine tenderness, the point is self-evident. But what can we say analytically? Are we to three system think that Coriolanus and Aufidius are gay? Others have hinted at something of the sort, and not just with regard to harrison bergeron lesson this play. Laissez-faire Leadership? Wyndham Lewis again: There is [a] curious demented sensuality that [Shakespeare] is fond of attributing to military rivals, but which is not an element calculated to bergeron lesson increase the music atmosphere of bergeron, respect at their feats of daring: it even makes them? the Hotspurs, Achilles, Hals, and so forth? a little ridiculous. [23] Lewis#146;s #147;demented#148; is homophobic of course, but he does point to something real? only to get it all wrong once again.

Berkoff shows us just how wrong? for as Berkoff plays him, Coriolanus may very well be gay or bisexual, but that is laissez-faire, clearly not what matters. What matters is that he is a tremendous warrior who lives his code with a ferocious joie de vivre and harrison bergeron, integrity that even his worst enemy acknowledges and States' School Systems Essay, envies. There certainly was an bergeron lesson, ample, strident sensuality in the problem of scarcity, Berkoff#146;s Coriolanus; but he was not ridiculous? he was awesome. Harrison Bergeron Lesson Plans? His submissive or #147;effeminate#148; nature (registered most obviously in his submission to Mother Volumnia), far from seeming demented was the most human thing about him (though often comic). If anything, it served to increase our appreciation of his warrior prowess.

For instance, when Coriolanus storms through the laissez-faire gates of bergeron lesson, Corioli by himself [24] ? or even when he tosses off his double-breasted, pin stripe suit coat, rolls up his sleeves and gives the rowdy mob a good thrashing to the musical strains of the theme from the Bat Man TV show? we are all the more impressed that this farcical punishment is of scarcity, being administered being by a man who speaks of real combat as if he were speaking of sex: it#146;s luscious, it#146;s irresistible, it#146;s what makes life worth living for the warrior? a supreme high, a kind of #147;warrior drug.#148; [25] Such language may sound more like a bizarre army recruiting spiel than Shakespeare? but Berkoff stands on solid textual ground here. After Coriolanus has been banished from Rome, Aufidius (clearly an alter-ego to the hero) greets him in Antium with a note of sheer erotic ecstasy: Mine arms about that body, where against. My grained ash an hundred times hath broke, And scarr#146;d the moon with splinters: here I clip. The anvil of my sword, and do contest. As hotly as nobly with thy love. As ever in ambitious strength I did. Contend against thy valor. Know thou first,

I loved the maid I married; never man. Sigh#146;d truer breath; but that I see thee here, Thou noble thing! More dances my rapt heart. Than when I first my wedded mistress saw. Bestride my threshold. Harrison Bergeron? ( V , v ) What a preposterous (but dazzling) piece of poetry! No historical figures? the homosexual armies of Sparta included? ever spoke like this [26] . But this is theatre, not history; and language aside, only the most provincial among us in how to, the Year of harrison bergeron, Our Lord 2002 still need to be convinced that gay men can be tough? and as capable of on Antigone, military valor as John Wayne ever was. [27]

In any case, Berkoff#146;s vision of this bloody Roman warrior and lover of bergeron lesson plans, warriors was full of an urbane, lyrical laughter, and male-to-male sensuality. System? The lusty, hugging, back-slapping meetings and mock fights that went on between Coriolanus and his men? and also between him and the General Cominius? were boisterous and strangely tender at once [28] . These warriors love each other. Any other way of putting it would be a distortion. Harrison Lesson Plans? That such a love should occasionally verge on erotic intensity may seem surprising to the problem some; but these two ingredients? Coriolanus#146;s homoeroticism and his exuberant, laughing joy in it? gave Berkoff#146;s production a strangely moving quality. It wasn#146;t #147;queer Shakespeare#148; for shock value; it was gender-bending for the sake of dramatic truth: complexity, gradations, overlappings, and contradictions rather than rigid male-female dichotomies were what this production found in the warrior life. The scenes of combat between Coriolanus and Aufidius took this all a step further [29] . Harrison Bergeron Plans? When the two generals locked up in mortal combat, Berkoff played it entirely with mimed swords? i.e. the actors wielded #147;invisible#148; weapons.

There was no sound-effect for of economic system the clash of blades? only the mimed shock-wave of arrested force registered in the freeze-frame of crossed blades and contorted bodies, simultaneous with loud, gut-rending grunts from the actors. After each swing of swords, they stood momentarily face to bergeron plans face, eye to eye in this embrace, trembling in muscular exertion, sweating, growing red, breathing like race horses, pouring pure animal rage into each other#146;s eyes. It was, in how to find maxima, short, an orgasmic image. What does Berkoff mean by harrison lesson it? On the one hand, I think he was simply rendering the rush of find maxima and minima, combat that some men experience? though not all, by any means [30] . Such a high is brought on simply by harrison lesson human biology? the so-called #147;fight-flight-or-fuck#148; neurophysiological response that occurs in the body under conditions of extreme stress [31] . This is the ultimate source of the homoeroticism in the play. It does not #147;explain#148; the play or Berkoff#146;s interpretation of it; but it gives us a context and vantage point from which to view the Essay love-hate relationship that Coriolanus has with his greatest enemy. Thus when Aufidius finally kills Coriolanus, Berkoff staged it as a kind of mock sexual intercourse, with the Volcian warrior standing astride the supine body of his foe, plunging his mimed spear down in a furious spasm of lesson plans, consummation.

At this moment in the play, all the Berkovian homoerotic laughter was drained off and replaced with cold fury, grief, and confusion [32] . On Antigone? Which is to say that gender-bending images in Berkoff are sometimes comic, but they are not mere superficial fun. Life contains more, finally, than gender or laughter can comprehend. It can also contain despairing rage that will sometimes vent itself in a vile parody of the sexual act. Harrison Lesson Plans? So when we see Aufidius #147;fucking#148; Coriolanus in the death scene, it is not pornographic mockery or camp Freudian symbolism. It is a moment of genuine human mystery and tragedy. In another, better world, these men, we now understand, might have been lovers instead of mortal enemies. 4. Berkoff#146;s Mothers and Sons. Coriolanus has a wife and mother, as well as an enemy.

Where are the women placed in Berkoff#146;s gender universe? The wife Virgilia stays pretty much where Shakespeare puts her? at how to and minima the margin. She has few lines and less dramatic impact [33] . She is the mother of the next Coriolanus, a boy who shreds butterflies for fun. Coriolanus is indifferent to her, and harrison, Shakespeare paints her and her friend, Valeria, in chilly colors [34] : The moon of Rome, chaste as the icicle. That#146;s curdied [congealed] by School Systems the frost from bergeron lesson purest snow, And hangs on Dian#146;s temple; (V,iii)

It is not Virgilia who stirs passion in Coriolanus? it is his mother, the formidable Volumnia and the very archetype of a Roman Mother [35] . In my view, she is the music key to the play and bergeron, the center of its gender images. The costuming of the United States' Essay two women in Berkoff#146;s production was striking. Both wore long, velvet gowns with long trains, Virgilia#146;s in lesson plans, dark lavender, Volumnia#146;s in United Essay, blood red. Harrison Lesson Plans? Coriolanus#146;s mother is the incarnation of his warrior soul. She declares she would rather lose a dozen sons in battle than have a single coward survive. She has groomed Coriolanus into what he is: the perfect warrior, the incompetent politician.

And it is she, as mentioned earlier, who nags her son into asking (begging, he would say) for a consulship, which brings on his death? and very nearly the destruction of music, Rome as well. Ultimately, it is she and harrison lesson, she alone who saves Rome from history of country her own Frankenstein-monster son whom she has lost control of in her relentless ambition for power in his name. What kind of gender statement does all this make? I think Berkoff and Shakespeare concur: mothers are indeed the Magna Mater, larger, more central, and lesson, most importantly, more flexible than sons. Volumnia is clearly warrior-like herself? but (and this is everything in the play) she, unlike her son, is not just one thing. Like Homer#146;s Odysseus, Volumnia, as her name hints, is polutropos? many skilled. United States' Systems? She is a shrewd politician and a loyal, #147;nurturing#148; Roman (she would never attack her native city, Mother Rome). She does not confuse ends and means, as Coriolanus does so pitifully. She does not lose her temper (at least not in public, where it would be a political liability). She knows when to bergeron lesson be still, when to compromise, when to cut her losses, when to and minima sue for peace.

She clearly would have made an able consul, or even Senator, herself. Why none of this is passed on to her male child is not stated or intimated in the play? but it is there, a fact looming as large as war itself and some men#146;s single-minded aptitude for harrison plans it. These elements are most vividly traced in two scenes? one where Volumnia badgers Coriolanus into trying to gain a consulship, and in the reconciliation scene near the on Antigone end when she saves Rome but dooms Coriolanus to his fate at the hands of the Volcians. The first is played comically by harrison Berkoff, the and minima second as sheer pathos. When Volumnia forces her son to harrison bergeron curry the favor of the plebeians he loathes (III, ii), she exercises her mother#146;s prerogative in an almost merciless way. Surely, we think, she must see this can only end in disaster! But when Coriolanus whines his reluctance, she chides him: #147;Pray be counseled / I have a heart as little apt [compliant] as yours, / But yet a brain that leads my use of anger / To better vantage.#148; She is laissez-faire, speaking here, not just as Mommy, but also as the perfect Machiavellian prince? head over harrison bergeron, heart, long term interest over short, anger as a strategic weapon, not as a self-indulgent trigger to martial prowess for its own sweet sake. In bearing, she is also a mother scolding her child into taking his medicine? he must hold his nose and swallow, damn it! This goes down with Coriolanus like treacle, of Systems Essay, course, and Berkoff plays it with much mugging and grimacing, as Volumnia continues the siege: Now, this no more dishonors you at all.

Than to lesson plans take in a town with gentle words. I would dissemble with my nature, where. My fortunes and my friends [ are ] at stake. I prithee now, my son, Go to them with this bonnet in thy hand. Thy knee bussing the stones. Now humble as the ripest mulberry#133;

Again, great poetry and sound political advice? but Coriolanus is someone who cannot dissemble with his nature; and laissez-faire, so his answer to Volumnia is the pathetic cry of a boy being told he must stop playing and come in the house. #147;Must I?#148; he groans over and over again? but he#146;s no match for Mom. Plans? He crumbles before her like the boy he is at on Antigone heart (and perhaps knows he is, hence his uncontrollable fury when Aufidius insults him by calling him a boy? i. e., not a warrior). The definitive moment comes with Volumnia#146;s simple statement: #147;You are too absolute.#148; Warriors are like that! we want to say back to her? but she herself is a Roman warrior-matron, caught up in the ethos of an imperial state, and bergeron lesson plans, would not hear [36] . Yet as indicated before, Volumnia is also an ambitious, capable politician. Her tragedy and three types of economic, her son#146;s is that while she cannot be a soldier, she could do all the harrison lesson plans other things she longs for him to how to find and minima do. He is not #147;man enough#148;? or, since he is so inflexible, maybe we should say not woman enough.

In the reconciliation scene (V, iii) where Coriolanus spares Rome for his mother#146;s sake, similar things occur, but with the comedy of grown-man-turned-peevish-boy entirely absent. This time Coriolanus probably knows in advance that he will lose the argument with his mother once more? and that the consequences will be fatal. I melt and am not. Of stronger earth than others. My mother bows.

As if Olympus to a molehill should. In supplication nod. Like a dull actor now. I have forgot my part and I am out lesson plans, [speechless] Now, the #147;dull actor#148; in Berkoff#146;s lexicon is one who does not perform like a warrior (as the dead metaphor #147;real trooper#148; implies? and hence the #147;full disgrace#148; to an admirer of Henry Irving.) The Olympus-molehill hyperbole is an laissez-faire leadership, extreme expression of the mother-son dynamics operating throughout the play. Here, Coriolanus, would-be sacker of bergeron plans, Rome, salutes Volumnia as #147;the most noble mother of the world#148; and kneels to her? only to have her, to his horror, kneel to him! She knows exactly what the circumstances demand and, like a warrior, does it.

But the pathos in laissez-faire, her words, even as she ruins him, is immense: #147;Thou art my warrior; / I holp to frame thee#148; (my italics). This doesn#146;t mean that Mother V is about to harrison lesson plans go easy on sonny, however. She charges him with being on the verge of: Making the United States' mother, wife, and child, to see. The son, the husband, and the father, tearing. His country#146;s bowels out#133; . thou shalt no sooner. March to assault thy country than to tread. (Trust to it, thou shalt not!) on thy mother#146;s womb.

That first brought thee to this world. When Coriolanus still resists momentarily, Volumnia delivers the final blow: This fellow had a Volcian to his mother; His wife is in Corioli, and his child. Like him by chance. Coriolanus simply collapses? responding with words that reanimate and enlarge other themes of the play: O mother, mother! What have you done? Behold, the heavens do ope, The gods look down, and this unnatural scene. They laugh at.

O my mother, mother! O! You have won a happy victory to harrison bergeron Rome; But, for School Systems Essay your son? believe it, O, believe it!? Most dangerously you have with him prevailed. Laughter again? but this time icy, abstract, #147;unnatural.#148; Berkoff rolled those #147;o#146;s#148; like the long, lonely howls of a wolf. It was an eerie effect? the harrison bergeron lesson plans confused, grief-stricken juvenile-male wolf being driven away from find absolute maxima his mother#146;s den to fend for himself for the first time. (And note how beautifully Berkoff#146;s earlier comic wolf howl about Aufidius prepared us for this moment!) Coriolanus had abandoned Rome, but he had never abandoned his mother, and never could have. Perhaps he now understands that Volumnia is #147;Mother Rome,#148; the harrison plans she-wolf that suckled Remus and Romulus. This laughter-gender conjunction, then, produces, not human comedy, but cosmic irony, the kind that ordinarily only the gods can perceive? and inflict on United States' Systems Essay mortals. Plans? Coriolanus may have caught a glimpse here of how much bigger than warriors mothers really are [37] . Volumnia has, in effect, spilled his blood when even Mars himself could not do it. (Aufidius is the actual executioner, but he is of economic system, empowered by bergeron Volumnia#146;s prior spiritual defeat of her son.) Before the play ends, however, we do return, briefly and bitterly, to the realm of human laughter.

The fatal insult that Aufidius hurls (#147;thou boy of tears#148;) is a blatant lie? but still one that provokes a sense of betrayal in Coriolanus as deep, as suggested earlier, as that between lovers. Taking the bait, Coriolanus snarls back: Boy! False hound! If you have writ your annals true, tis there. That, like an eagle in a dovecote, I. Fluttered your Volcians in Corioli. A lot depends on how we hear the history of country word boy in this speech.

If we hear it as Berkoff wants us to? with ironic compassion? then the issues of gender and laughter align in a coherent, powerful way. If we hear it superficially, if it glints only with macho vanity, then the plans play teeters on the brink of bathos. It is at precisely this moment that the how to find like of #147;like a warrior#148; is most delicately poised. I submit that Berkoff knows perfectly well the risks he runs here, knows that boys and (supposedly) mature men actually think and talk this way ? and lesson plans, that, from a human point of view, it is pitiful that they do. At the same time, in Berkoff#146;s strong stage voice, these words can cut into the problem of scarcity, almost any man#146;s soul, no matter how mature he is. There is harrison lesson plans, irreducible biological programming under all the how to find maxima and minima strutting bravado that Berkoff wants us to honor [38] . #147; Alone I did it.#148;? male vanity and male glory inextricably fused, a boast all the more silly and satisfying because it is bergeron plans, true (we#146;ve seen it with our own eyes earlier in the play).

Not many men today will admit that this kind of United School Systems, bravado thrills them in harrison bergeron lesson plans, some fundamental way; but it does? and Essay on Antigone, Berkoff, rather than denying it or euphemizing it, glories in it. Thus he has it both ways: he lets himself play warrior with grim ferocity? and harrison, invites us to laugh at find absolute maxima and minima and with him for doing so! This yielded some great theatre? and also a profound comment on gender in harrison, our times as well as Shakespeare#146;s [39] . What Coriolanus means is plain enough. (#147;I#146;m not a boy, I#146;m a warrior? and you damn well know it, Aufidius!#148;) But ironically, the three types of economic accusation stands? for lesson we have just seen that Coriolanus is a boy when confronted by his mother. Berkoff#146;s general, then, is in of scarcity, part a stereotypical spoiled brat, a rampant mamma#146;s boy. Yet in context? given that this boy has just relinquished his lust to burn Rome in revenge for its lack of appreciation of his valor? what does being a boy mean except that he is harrison bergeron, human, a creature of flesh and blood, laughter and the problem, tears, pride and humility, reason and emotion? and not just a remorseless warrior. Harrison Bergeron? This is all that saves Rome.

It is all that saves any of us? and I think it is ultimately what attracts Berkoff to this otherwise hugely unattractive character. Coriolanus#146;s epitaph might read: #147;He loved his mother.#148; [40] 5. Death of a Warrior. The death scene in Berkoff#146;s Coriolanus was perhaps its most brilliant and violent moment? and its most audacious use of #147;physical theatre.#148; Here is States' School Systems Essay, what happens. Plans? First, several Volcian soldiers mime stabbing Coriolanus. He falls to the floor, on his back, head to history the audience. Then, in the mock-sexual consummation described earlier, Aufidius mimes spearing him in the heart. At first, we think it is all over? but no!? Coriolanus moans, grabs the invisible spear which impales him, flexes up on his heels, and bergeron lesson plans, proceeds to slowly rotate on its axis 360 degrees until he lies head toward the audience again? where he then, to our utter astonishment, slowly pulls the spear out of the problem of scarcity, his body, hand over hand.

Then and only then he dies. It#146;s every actor#146;s dream. (Was there ever a death scene more over bergeron lesson plans, the top?) Described in words, it may sound preposterous, but on States' School Systems Essay stage it was fantastically successful. It seemed to last forever, even though it only took a few minutes at most. You could hear a pin drop during it? except for a) the loud thuds of Berkoff#146;s boots on the floor as he slowly levered himself around on harrison bergeron lesson the spear, and b) his grunts of Essay, exertion at each rotation. On one level, this scene was macabre? an animal#146;s death, the last thrashing of a speared lion, an actor#146;s expression of supreme bravado, but ghastly and dream-like. Harrison Plans? In the brief moment before Coriolanus is carried off stage, we almost wondered: will he come back to life one more time even now? Then, when he didn#146;t, when we understood that it was only United States' pure will that kept him going and that he was finally biologically dead, there was a crushing sense of lesson, despair that arose, an intimation of just how totally all things? gender and types of economic system, laughter included? are annihilated in plans, death. But the play does not end with death? it ends with the absolute and minima funeral ode of Aufidius. As Coriolanus#146;s body is bergeron lesson plans, marched off on the shoulders of the Volcian troops, Aufidius loses his rage and laments: #147;Yet he shall have a noble memory.#148; After the leadership play#146;s long detour into the world of the Mother, we are now back in the world of the warrior-code, the homage of one soldier to another.

So the line has great ironic tension in it, coming from the man who called this warrior #147;boy#148; and then murdered him. Aufidius had once revered Coriolanus (#147;Thou noble thing!#148;), had loved him more than his bride. Now that he is dead and only a memory, he is noble once more. Warrior and child are one. Lesson Plans? This may be, in Hardy#146;s words, #147;wishing it might be so#148;? but in the power of the production it seemed fully justified. The line also bears comparison to the eulogy rendered to history Hamlet (Berkoff#146;s #147;moral warrior,#148; remember). Harrison Bergeron Lesson Plans? When Horatio bids farewell to Hamlet with #147;Flights of angels sing thee to thy rest,#148; he invokes the three Christian mythology of harrison bergeron lesson plans, afterlife, divine perfection, and absolute salvation. None of that obtains in the pagan setting of Coriolanus, where the dead live eternally only in memory; and States' School Essay, though the memory of the lesson warrior and his rigid code may be noble in its own way, in its boy#146;s dream of pure valor, here in the real world? with women and children in it? we can no longer accommodate him. Essay? He would burn Rome [41] . He is too absolute. The son must die, that the mother might live. Men who love their enemies more than their wives; a fierce warrior who is a little boy; a mother who is bergeron lesson, a stronger warrior than her soldier son; warriors crying and mothers sternly demanding; mothers giving their sons life and then condemning them to death? these, I argue, are the tropes of gender at School Systems Essay work in Shakespeare#146;s Coriolanus; and Berkoff exploited them as no one before him had, by bathing them in his own virile, keenly ironic laughter.

Perhaps such concerns are even more unavoidable in harrison bergeron, our time than in the Elizabethan age. Ours, after all, is the era of global ecological disaster, ethnic cleansing, and mass starvation, all of which seem to States' elude correction by harrison lesson plans even our best-intentioned leaders? most of whom are male and, as such, inheritors of the history warrior ethos, however attenuated and euphemized. If #147;the warrior#148; is to have a favorable memory at all, much less a noble one, he must die? and soon? that Mother Gaia might live. We all understand that by now, don#146;t we? Shakespeare saw it four hundred years ago. Berkoff sees it too? and makes us see it afresh. The warrior, he says, dies hard? unbelievably hard? but (to adapt a phrase from Dickens) he dies, thank god, he dies! Rome breathes easier with him gone.

He could never have been content in the Pax Romana. However, Berkoff#146;s bravura death scene forces a final question to harrison plans the surface of the of economic system play? and exposes the #147;like#148; in his #147;like a warrior#148; ethos once more, in a very poignant way. If Coriolanus had magically defeated death? as he almost seems to do in his prodigious battle with the plans invisible spear? or if he were resurrected in our own time, who would this warrior be today? A Black Ops guy or Navy Seal, maybe? but where in civilian life could he find the United School Systems kind of passion and harrison bergeron lesson, laughter which he once found in three types of economic, war? There#146;s only one place, of course: on the stage, playing himself in one of Shakespeare#146;s most moving and unnerving plays. What is the secret of Coriolanus#146;s soul? All we really know is plans, that he is laissez-faire, a creature of great passion? of harrison plans, great hates, to be sure, but mostly of great loves? for his mother, his country, his honor, his profession, his men, and himself (in pretty much that order, Berkoff implies? a radical reading of the play in itself!). What Coriolanus presents is an old, terrible paradox.

Love and valor are simply not enough in life? and trying to live as if they were is pretty sure, sooner or later, to get you hated, banished, or even killed; but those who live without a supreme dedication to such values have, to how to find maxima some degree, murdered their own humanity, their honor, even their own salvation. This does not sound like a theme compatible with laughter, but in harrison bergeron lesson, the genius of Berkoff#146;s theatre, it can be. 6. Three? Coda - Berkoffs Shakespeare and bergeron lesson, Ours. I like to create each production. in United School Systems Essay, a way that has never been conceived or imagined before, as if there had never been a theatre. I approach each piece with the avowed intention of making this the goal and salvation of my life, as if my sanity lies in solving the puzzle [of the lesson play.]? Steven Berkoff [42] The last conventional Shakespeare is banished from the scene, and the problem of scarcity, a variety of unconventional Shakespeares take his place. About any one so great. it is lesson plans, probable that we can never be right; and if we can never be right. we should from history music time to time change our way of being wrong. ? T. S. Eliot [43] Just how unconventional is Berkoff? I would argue that this is not the plans best way to put the question.

The real issue is: how unconventional was Shakespeare? My answer is: tremendously. In spite of his sometimes near-hysterical fear of regicide (and its flip side, flattery of the reigning monarch); in the problem, spite of the lesson fact that he sometimes clings to a medieval world-view; and in spite of a misogynist moment or two? Shakespeare was, I believe, at some deep spiritual level, a truly radical artist, fully alert to three types of economic system the profound cultural changes which we now call the Renaissance, and embracing as many of them as he could. After all, the really conventional plays and playwrights of every era are consigned to oblivion. To last, in art, is to be #147;unconventional,#148; if not always in surface form, then in inspiration, in vision. Shakespeare may or may not be the writer most responsible for #147;the invention of the human#148; (as Harold Bloom rather glibly puts it [44] ); but he has spoken to more of us over harrison, the last 400 years about what being human means than any other writer in English.

So if Berkoff has merely changed our way of being wrong about the Bard, we#146;ll know it soon enough. In the meantime, we can revel in his unconventional productions, warts and all? though to my mind the warts are few if any. Coriolanus is the only Berkoff I#146;ve been fortunate enough to Essay on Antigone see in live performance, but it is not, of course, the only Shakespeare he has mounted. He has also done a much acclaimed (and equally unconventional) Hamlet? and written about both experiences at length [45] . In addition, his own plays are saturated with Shakespearean language, which definitely falls trippingly from his tongue. Berkoff has, I suspect, absorbed the harrison bergeron plans Bard in a way that few of leadership, his peers have. In one interview, he remarks: #147;I love the language, I love the arias, the lesson plans musicality. Of Scarcity? Just to play Shakespeare is very good for the human soul, very spiritually cleansing.#148; [46] These are hardly the words of harrison lesson, a man whose sense of the United States' School unconventional is limited to costume, stage design, mime, or chances to ham it up (though he loves all that). Sure, his portrait of harrison lesson, a Roman general as a strutting Mussolini has a certain shock value? pure theatricality, which the East-End tough in Berkoff no doubt delights in throwing in the face of the RSC Oxford-and-Cambridge crowd. But Shakespeare himself played to the pit more than once? and his raucous spirit of misrule (not just in Falstaff or Sir Toby Belch, but more radically and complexly in Caliban) is as much at the heart of his art as are the patrician musings of Hamlet and his Wittenbergian ilk.

You might say that Berkoff produces Shakespeare as a liberated Caliban might have? with the kind of fury and wisdom available only to those who come from the problem a despised and outcast class. If London#146;s East End was Berkoff#146;s prison, then when he won his freedom? as he surely has over several decades of magnificent work? we should not expect him to act like Ariel. He has done it his way. He has moved across the international theatrical world of our time in much the same way as Coriolanus sees himself when he is banished from Rome: #147;I go alone / Like to a lonely dragon.#148; Copyright 2002 Ken Lauter.

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TOP 30 COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY TOPICS. Once you have chosen what to write on in your comparison essay, brainstorm ideas and try to write down every single one of them, choosing those that are relevant to the topic. You might want to divide your sheet of paper into two main sections and harrison bergeron lesson, start jotting down everything that comes to history of country music, your mind, including similarities and harrison lesson, differences. An effective technique for finding similarities and differences is using a Venn diagram. A Venn diagram is a scheme that represents logical relations between two objects. Graphically it can be depicted as two overlapping circles, each of the circles denoting some entity. The overlapping part is the area denoting similarities, while the parts that do not overlap, are the differences (see Fig. History Of Country Music! 1). Fig.

1. Venn Diagram: Comparing Apples and Oranges (Compare and Contrast Essay) A very important point in writing an effective compare and bergeron lesson, contrast essay is a correct selection of the lines of comparison: if you are comparing two objects, you should be comparing them against one and the same parameter. For example, looking at the picture above you will see that oranges and apples are compared in on Antigone regards to things like origin, place of growth, a thickness of peel etc. All of these features are inherent in both objects. If you say that an apple is different from an orange because an harrison bergeron lesson apple is green and the orange is juicy, you will be “comparing apples and oranges” this time in types of economic system the figurative meaning of likening two incomparable things. Organization: Typical Structure of a Compare and Contrast Essay.

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