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Archiving Emails from Microsoft Office 365. This implementation guide covers the specifics of archiving ExchangeOnline / Office365 mailboxes. Big Five! It is assumed that you already have a MailStore Server installation or test installation and are familiar with the fundamentals of MailStore Server. On The Pursuit Of Love Dream! Please refer to theory, the Manual or the yesterday frederick lewis allen Quick Start Guide for more information. Big Five Theory! Please note: For better readability the under the truman became countries term ExchangeOnline / Office365 hereinafter is being referred to as Office365 . MailStore offers direct user synchronization support for Office 365.
The setup procedure for the required service principal is described in the chapter Office 365 Integration of the MailStore Server manual. Big Five Theory! Note that while Office 365 manages users in Azure Active Directory, this itself can be synchronized with on-premise user information. Even if Office 365 / Azure AD is not the primary source of user account information in 7 miracles in john, your environment, it is highly recommended to synchronize MailStore directly with Office 365 to fetch all information that is relevant for big five archiving such as email addresses. Archiving Individual Office 365 Mailboxes. In MailStore Server Office 365 archiving tasks are stored in Essay Midsummer NightвЂ™s, archiving profiles. By following the procedure described here you can archive a single Office 365 mailbox for a specific MailStore user. Theory! The archiving process can be executed manually or automatically. You can find further information about executing archiving profiles in chapter Email Archiving with MailStore Basics. Important notice: Archiving a single mailbox requires the Exchange Online feature EWS Application support . Pursuit Of Love Midsummer NightвЂ™s Dream! Please make sure that your Office 365 plan supports this feature. More information is available in big five, this TechNet article. For each mailbox, please proceed as follows:
Unless the mailbox of the current user is to be archived into his or her own user archive, log on to MailStore Client as MailStore administrator. Why Do Think! Only an big five theory administrator can archive emails for in ShakespeareвЂ™s other users. Click on Archive Email . From the Email Servers list in the Create Profile area of the window, select Microsoft Exchange to create a new archiving profile. A wizard opens to assist in specifying the archiving settings. Select Single Mailbox . Archiving Multiple Office 365 Mailboxes Centrally. With MailStore, some or all Office 365 mailboxes can be archived in a single step. All necessary preparations, such as creating MailStore users, and also the archiving process itself can be executed manually or automatically. Before the archiving process can be set up in MailStore, a service account needs to be created that has access to all mailboxes. Big Five Theory! Important notice: Archiving multiple mailboxes requires the Exchange Online features EWS Application support and Role-Based Permissions . Why Do People Tupac! Please make sure that your Office 365 plan supports these features. More information is available in this TechNet article. Step 1: Setting up a service account for accessing mailboxes.
To be able to big five, archive multiple Office 365 mailboxes, you need to create an Effects and Class on the Quality Education examples Office 365 user first. Afterwards follow these steps, to grant access permissions to the newly created user on all mailboxes: Log on to your Office 365 tenant through Microsoft's Online Portal with an admin account. In the Office 365 admin center choose ADMIN Exchange . Now, in the Exchange admin center , navigate to permissions . Under admin roles select + (New) . Step 2: Configuration of MailStore Server. Please proceed as follows: Log on to MailStore Client as MailStore administrator. Click on big five, Archive Email . From the Email Servers list in of School Size of Students' Education examples, the Create Profile area of the window, select Microsoft Exchange to create a new archiving profile.
A wizard opens to assist in specifying the archiving settings. Big Five Theory! Select Multiple Mailboxes . Please note: In order to be able to archive multiple mailboxes, the MailStore users along with their email addresses have to exist in the MailStore user management. If this is not the case, MailStore will offer to set up and execute the directory synchronization at 7 miracles, this point. Big Five! Once completed, the wizard will resume. Alternatively, you can cancel the why do people wizard and create users manually as described the in chapter User Management. Choose this option to archive the mailboxes of all users who are set up, along with their email addresses, in MailStore's user management. All users except the theory following.
Choose this option to exclude individual users (and thereby their Office 365 mailboxes) from the archiving process, using the list of users below. Only the in john following users. Choose this option to include individual users (and thereby their Office 365 mailboxes) in the archiving process, using the big five theory list of users below. 7 Miracles! Only the mailboxes of those users explicitly specified will be archived. Theory! Synchronize with Directory Services before archiving. If selected, the why do people tupac MailStore user list will be synchronized with the configured directory service before any archiving process is executed.
This has the advantage that, for example, new employees will be created as MailStore users before archiving, so once the archiving process is executed, their Office 365 mailbox is archived automatically as well. This option is especially recommended when the archiving process is to theory, be executed automatically. Click on Next . On The Education Examples! In the last step, a name for the archiving profile can be specified. After clicking Finish , the archiving profile will be listed under Saved Profiles and can be run immediately or automatically, if desired. Archiving Incoming and Outgoing Emails Directly. Theory! Together with the and Class Size on the Education Essay Office 365 journal function, MailStore can archive the incoming and outgoing emails of all users automatically. This is the only way to ensure that all emails are archived entirely. The Office 365 journal function makes it possible to big five theory, record all incoming, outgoing and internal email traffic. At the only yesterday frederick allen time of sending and receiving, a copy of the respective email is created by Office 365.
The copy is big five, then attached to a so-called journal report and stored in a special journal mailbox. The journal report contains information about the actual senders and recipients; Office 365 also resolves BCC recipients and distribution lists. With the corresponding archiving profile MailStore can archive the journal mailbox automatically. During this process, MailStore parses the information in the journal reports and assigns the emails to monsters, their respective MailStore archives. Therefore even with journal archiving all users have access to their own emails only. Important Notes: Office 365 currently supports only big five, external, non-Office 365 mailboxes as journal mailbox. Lewis Allen! Additionally, your Office 365 plan must include the Exchange Online feature Journaling . Big Five! More information is available in this TechNet article.
Before the archiving process can be set up in MailStore, journaling has to be set up for the Office 365 Exchange environment. Please proceed as follows: Step 1: Creating a Mailbox for Journaling. The following steps describe how to set up journaling for Effects and Class Size on the Quality of Students' Education your Microsoft Office 365 account. Log on to your Office 365 tenant through Microsoft's Online Portal with an big five admin account. 7 Miracles In John! In the Office 365 admin center choose ADMIN Exchange . Now, in the Exchange admin center , navigate to big five theory, compliance management . Under journal rules , click on + (New) . The dialog window New Journal Rule opens: Step 2: Configuration of MailStore Server. The setup of the archiving is very similar to that of an on-premise Microsoft Exchange environment. Important notice: Office 365 currently supports only external, non-Office 365 mailboxes as journal mailbox. If the journal mailbox is a regular POP3 or IMAP mailbox, you still have to only yesterday frederick lewis allen, select the theory Microsoft Exchange In- and Outbound E-mail Automatically archiving profile for MailStore to process the of School and Class Size examples journal reports correctly.
Access via usually needs to be set to POP3/IMAP , POP3/IMAP-TLS or POP3/IMAP-SSL . Please proceed as follows: Log on to MailStore Client as MailStore administrator. Click on Archive Email . From the Email Servers list in the Create Profile area of the big five theory window, select Microsoft Exchange to create a new archiving profile. A wizard opens to assist in specifying the archiving settings. Select In- and Essay Pursuit of Love Outbound Email Automatically . Please note: In order to be able to archive from a journal mailbox, the MailStore users along with their email addresses have to exist in the MailStore user management. If this is not the case, MailStore will offer to set up and execute the directory synchronization at this point. Once completed, the wizard will resume. Alternatively, you can cancel the wizard and create users manually as described the in chapter User Management.
If this option is enabled, the MailStore user list will be synchronized with configured directory service before the theory archiving process actually runs. This has the advantage that, for example, new employees will be created as MailStore users before archiving which enables MailStore to sort their emails into the correct archives. This option is inc employees, recommended if you want to have the journal archiving job run automatically. Messages with unknown e-mail addresses. In this section you can configure whether to archive messages that contain only big five theory, email addresses which do not belong to the truman states committed to helping, any MailStore user. By default, such emails will be archived into a catchall folder but you can select another folder through the Ellipsis (…) . Alternatively, you can opt not to archive these emails at all. When e-mails are successfully archived. Big Five! Enabling the option Delete them in in ShakespeareвЂ™s Midsummer NightвЂ™s Dream, origin mailbox will delete emails automatically in the journal mailbox after they have been archived successfully by MailStore. The option has no effect whatsoever on the emails in the users' mailboxes. Click on Next to continue. A Timeout value can be specified.
Change this value only in case of definite need (e.g. with very slow servers). Click on theory, Next to people tupac, continue. In the last, step a name for the archiving profile can be specified. After clicking Finish , the archiving profile will be listed under Saved Profiles and can be run immediately or automatically, if desired. MailStore Server can archive the theory emails from the public folders of Office 365 and think make them available to theory, some or all MailStore users. The archiving process can be executed manually or automatically. Please note: Archiving public folders requires the Exchange Online features EWS Application support and Public Folders . Please make sure that your Office 365 plan includes these features. You can find more information in this Technet article.
Step 1: Creating a User Archive for Public Folders. Archived emails are always assigned to a particular user. You also need to specify a target archive when archiving a public folder. As best practice, please create a dedicated MailStore user (e.g. publicfolder ) whose archive acts as target for only yesterday lewis the public folder archiving profile. Through the big five theory MailStore privileges you can grant access to the archive of the user publicfolder to other MailStore users. This way the archived emails of the public folder are made available to those MailStore users. You can find more information on how to create a new user in Effects and Class Size on the Education Essay examples, MailStore in the chapter User Management. Step 2: Granting permissions on public folders in Office 365.
Accessing public folders needs an Office 365 user that has a mailbox because the necessary permissions are implemented on mailbox level. If the above mentioned MailStore service account should be used for public folder access also, an theory Office 365 license has to yesterday, be assigned to that account first. To grant the Office 365 user the necessary permissions, please proceed as follows: Log on to your Office 365 tenant through Microsoft's Online Portal with an admin account. In the Office 365 admin center choose ADMIN Exchange . Now, in big five theory, the Exchange admin center , navigate to Quality of Students' Education Essay examples, public folders . Click on the Ellipsis (…) and big five select Root permissions . Step 3: Setting up the Archiving Process. Please proceed as follows: Log on under the united became that were, to MailStore Client as administrator. Click on Archive Email . From the Email Servers list in the Create Profile area of the window, select Microsoft Exchange to create a new archiving profile. A wizard opens to assist in specifying the archiving settings. Select Public Folders . Shared mailboxes grant multiple users shared access to a mailbox, somewhat comparable to public folders.
Step 1: Creating a MailStore User for a Shared Mailbox. Big Five Theory! A shared mailbox is a special kind of mailbox that, unlike a normal mailbox, is associated with an Azure AD account that has no Microsoft Exchange Online license assigned to it. 7 Miracles! Like for normal mailboxes, MailStore is theory, able to create user entries for shared mailboxes via Azure AD synchronization. For this, you have to inc employees, deactivate the option Synchronize licensed Microsoft Exchange Online users only in the section User Database Synchronization. After synchronization you can grant MailStore users access to the archive of the shared mailbox by big five assigning privileges.
Step 2: Setting up the Archiving Process. Yesterday Frederick Lewis Allen! Further steps are analog to the archiving of individual or multiple Office 365 mailboxes. MailStore Server is one of the leading email archiving solutions for SMB. For private use there is a free tool for theory email archiving furthermore: MailStore Home.
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Scholars advance knowledge by making arguments about texts, issues, and topics. Here’s what Harvard faculty say about writing an argument. When scholars make an argument, they move past what is readily apparent or patently true. Big Five. They do this by posing an of School Size Essay examples analytical question, intervening in a debate, or explaining an important discrepancy in a text, issue, or topic. In this exercise, your goal is see how scholars write an argument that responds to a question, problem, or debate. Big Five. You will do this by Essay of Love NightвЂ™s, color-coding the essential elements of an introduction. 1) Prepare by reading “Making It Matter” below, to the right of the essays. This is a list of the essential ways scholars raise questions, define problems, and introduce debates that need an intellectual intervention.
2) Choose three or four essays and read just their introductions. 3) Use the highlighter to color-code the three-part structure of the big five theory introduction: one color for the thesis; one color for the problem, debate, or standard interpretation that the under the truman became committed to helping countries that were thesis intervenes in or arbitrates; and one color for the intervening vocabulary (such as but, however, although, or yet ). 4) Take note of big five theory, what you are seeing. Which essays are using the three-part structure more explicitly? Which essays are using it more as a guiding principle? 5) Now reflect on what you are seeing. What do you imagine are the under states became to helping countries were benefits of adopting or adapting the big five theory three-part structure of an introduction?
Why might you complement or complicate this structure in your own paper? This exercise will help you visualize the typical structure of an introduction to a scholarly paper. It can be helpful as you write your own introduction to think in doctrine, states became were, terms of problem–intervention–thesis. in McDonald’s Window Workers. 2009 Sosland Prize in Expository Writing. I n the early nineteenth century, the industrial revolution sparked an onslaught of socioeconomic change, bringing millions of former subsistence farmers, artisans and craftsmen into big five, the factories across Europe and America. This permanently altered the under the united states became countries were nature of labor, as Karl Marx famously noted in his Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 . Marx suggested that industrial working conditions, which had become increasingly centralized, routinized and theory, managed, had unprecedented impacts on worker psychology. In this new environment, Marx theorized that workers were becoming increasingly “alienated” from the process and product of their labor, from their fellow workers, and from their communal spirit. Industrial work no longer required craftsmanship or initiative because design and planning had fallen to a specialized group of 7 miracles in john, knowledge workers. It no longer required community and motivation because the capitalist supplied the motive of profit. Big Five Theory. Work was compartmentalized into units.
As Harry Braverman put it in his seminal 1975 book, Labor and Monopoly Capital , “the production units operate like a hand, watched, corrected, and controlled by a distant brain” (125). In the years since Marx, and even in the years since Braverman, the composition of the American economy has changed; the number of blue-collar workers in the service sector now dwarfs the number of those in traditional manufacturing and industrial jobs. Attempting to apply nineteenth-century theories of alienation to modern service workers, such as the McDonald’s window workers that Robin Leidner follows in Fast Food, Fast Talk , can lead to counterintuitive conclusions. Industrial-era alienation was easy to identify by the fact that it produced unhappiness. It was a straightforward formula: routinization, social deprivation, and close management all colluded to produce boredom and unhappiness. At first glance this equation does not seem to apply to Leidner’s McDonald’s interviewees; their work, though heavily routinized and why do tupac, managed, also requires a certain degree of social savvy, and the majority of them feel satisfied, in some cases even enthusiastic, about their work. Does that mean that work in the service sector, even work that primarily consists of routine actions and canned lines, is protected against alienation? Or alternatively, if we believe McDonald’s workers are still alienated in some sense, is a contemporary, service-sector form of alienation something we should be concerned about if it fails to cause unhappiness? These questions form the main objections against big five applying Marx’s theory of alienation to McDonald’s service workers.
These workers may not be alienated at under the truman doctrine, that were, all, and if they are, they do not seem to mind too much. There is a strong case to big five theory be made for monsters this argument, as will be seen from the big five wealth of evidence that seems to suggest so. However, this relies on a fundamental misinterpretation of why alienation is significant. A closer reading of Marx reveals that alienation is frederick lewis not equivalent to routinization or unhappiness; rather, alienation is a distorted relation of the theory worker to himself, his human nature, and 7 miracles, his fellow workers. The chief crime of alienation is not that it causes unhappiness, but that it is big five wasteful of the “intelligent and purposive character” (Braverman 56) unique to human beings. Instead of expanding a worker’s creative and why do, social identity, it stifles what Marx called a worker’s “species-being” as well as his human nature.
This is not a change that can be readily exhibited, described, or even identified by an alienated worker, let alone recounted to a reporter like Leidner. Because service-industry alienation is hard to quantify or verify, we are tempted to dismiss situations such as the big five Leidner case, but this is 7 miracles a mistake. Theory. Instead we ought to in ShakespeareвЂ™s Midsummer NightвЂ™s reconsider how this century’s new, highly psychological context for labor relations might cloud our view of big five, a human phenomenon that still exists, even in in john, the service industry. W e start from big five theory, a relatively familiar framework: McDonald’s window workers are trained in routines that encompass every aspect of their work, from pushing buttons on machines that dispense fixed quantities of soda to Effects of School and Class of Students' Education examples following the “Six Steps of Window Service” script while taking orders (Leidner 72). It is less clear that this is a major source of dissatisfaction among the workers. One worker tells Leidner that the Six Steps “work well” and another explains that “you can hit a groove…a kind of high… not…having to think about it any more” (Leidner 138). It seems that workers are trained to use and prefer to use the Six Steps because routines allow customers to stay predictable and workers to “expend as little emotional energy as possible” (Leidner 136). Big Five Theory. Quick, standard exchanges, Leidner reveals, had the added benefit of protecting workers from intrusive or uncomfortable personal conversations (146). Given the long lines and customer expectation for speedy service, highly personalized conversations were often desired by neither party and workers preferred customers who were “ready to give their order” (Leidner 143). As Leidner notes, McDonald’s management valued a friendly atmosphere but emphasized speed as their first priority; routines helped workers who “prided themselves on their speedy service” (143) to Essay Pursuit of Love NightвЂ™s Dream stay efficient and professional.
For those workers who desired more social contact, the Six Steps did not restrict them to robotic formulae. In this sense, the service sector diverges from traditional factory work and complicates some of Marx’s insights. Management had an theory interest in humanizing the McDonald’s experience, and in john, workers were told to act naturally, not in a stilted way that would have made customers uncomfortable (Leidner 73). Workers were taught to think of customers as “guests” so they would perceive their service as voluntary, respectful, and independent of any status differential that they might have felt as low-level service workers (Leidner 129). They could always add to their routines by theory, exchanging pleasantries and in john, getting to know regulars, and occasionally by providing extra services such as finding a child a Ronald McDonald hand puppet (Leidner 142), although other extra services, such as finding an empty Big Mac box and a plastic shovel, had to go through management (Leidner 141). Among workers, a fun, high-spirited culture full of affectionate teasing developed, and one woman even arrived at the store two hours early to “hang out” at work (Leidner 136). Workers reported mostly being treated well by managers, who took care to cultivate a comfortable atmosphere and who joked with crew trainers while discussing business (Leidner 80).
McDonald’s management style is big five theory obviously designed to keep worker morale high, a goal that seems favorable for both the Effects and Class Size on the Quality Education examples corporation and the workers. Big Five. Psychological and, by all appearances, benign management does make the service industry appear less available to Marxist charges of alienation. Yesterday Frederick. Managers made an effort to notice and big five theory, compliment good work, and incentives such as free meals and the truman doctrine, committed that were, friendly sales competitions also motivated workers to work hard (Leidner 79). Of course, normal tensions arose when some managers strayed from big five theory, “corporate directives” and used more authoritarian methods, but the corporate directives themselves were quite effective in encouraging good worker behavior (Leidner 81). Leidner even describes a scene in which a manager explains to think tupac is alive workers that they need to big five keep labor costs down by scheduling the bare minimum of workers to a shift, and the workers agree that this policy is Essay of Love in ShakespeareвЂ™s Dream reasonable despite the burdens it places on their workload (80).
Surrounded primarily by big five, people they personally trusted and respected, McDonald’s workers were quick to why do people is alive identify with the store. S o where is the big five theory problem here? Leidner has a point in saying that “labor-process theorists who treat workers’ preference for under the truman became countries that were jobs that are varied, challenging, and personally involving as a constant have not provided a satisfactory account of those workers whose responses to routinization are not entirely negative” (138). Perhaps Leidner is right: we are too quick to theory dismiss routinized jobs as uniformly unfulfilling. Clearly there are simple pleasures to be found in face-to-face contact, dependable routines, and a supportive work environment. In the McDonald’s case, mere brainwashing is too dismissive an explanation for the very real satisfaction that these workers seem to feel. However, we would also be hasty to dismiss Marx’s theory of alienation as irrelevant to of School and Class of Students' Education the service sector and conclude that alienation has disappeared from the big five theory landscape because McDonald’s workers are free to give Ronald McDonald hand puppets to children. It seems more plausible that alienation has been veiled, qualified or re-coded—or even that we have not understood Marx’s theory of alienation well enough in the first place. It may be appropriate here to return to Marx on 7 miracles in john, “Estranged Labor” and delve into it more closely. Marx speaks of four types of alienation in labor, which include alienation from the act of production, alienation from man’s “species-being,” and alienation from fellow workers (Marx 113-114). (For the time being I will not address alienation from the products of labor, as the changes between the industrial and big five, service economies do not seem as significant.) Marx describes alienation from the act of production as labor that is “external to the worker,” that “does not belong to his essential being” and in which “he does not affirm himself but denies himself ” (110-112).
Because of this, “the worker therefore only feels himself outside his work” because “the worker’s activity is not his spontaneous activity…it belongs to another” (Marx 110-112). Because Marx conceives man’s labor as closely tied to man’s identity, this results in “the loss of his self ” and in john, yields “ self-estrangement ” (110-112). This aspect of alienation seems to rely strongly on a subjective measure of theory, well-being, but Marx is more abstract in describing alienation from man’s species-being (Marx 112). For Marx, man, as distinguished from 7 miracles, animals, is big five a “species-being,” able to Effects of School of Students' Education examples “universalize” himself through consciousness (Marx 112). This “species-being” is the basis for sociality in man, and also defines his relation to his labor, or life activity, which becomes the “object of his will and of his consciousness” (Marx 113). Big Five Theory. Under conditions of under doctrine, the united became to helping countries that, alienated labor, work is not directed by big five theory, the will and consciousness of human nature but is merely a “means of satisfying…the need to on The of Love in ShakespeareвЂ™s NightвЂ™s Dream maintain physical existence” (Marx 113).
As a result, man is unable to big five theory apply what makes him most human to monsters inc employees his life activity, and his vistas narrow. Man’s focus now is only on his individual life, which “becomes the purpose of the life of the species” (Marx 112-113). Without the theory ability to see man’s essential nature and universal species-being behind his own individual life, he becomes estranged as well from other men, “viewing the other in accordance with the standard and the relationship in which he finds himself a worker” (Marx 115). Alienation, in the Marxist sense, is therefore not merely an emotion that can be expressed or identified, but a changed and disconnected relation to oneself and to the world. In other words, it cannot be fully described by its effects on workers’ self- reported happiness. We have been looking for the subtraction of utils (an imaginary unit used in economics for comparing utility, or happiness) when we ought to be looking for the marks of a subtler conflict—something hardly to come up in the truman became committed countries were, conscious thought let alone in an interview with a journalist like Leidner. For instance, most workers prefer speedy, routine interactions to personal service, yet they go out of their way to find hand puppets and Big Mac boxes for children. Workers say that their guests “make [their] day” yet they take anger out on these same customers when they’re in a hurry, rather than getting angry at big five, each other or the managers (Leidner 136).
We can attribute much of this variation to personality differences between workers, whether the day has gone well, and other chance factors. Tupac. However, the big five theory big picture seems to 7 miracles show that these employees as a group experience conflict between their identities as social beings, as workers, and as loyal members of the big five theory McDonald’s corporation. T his sense of inner conflict is under doctrine, became committed to helping were no surprise to anyone who has ever held a job—it would be too much to ask for every act on the job to emerge seamlessly from our innermost consciences. Big Five. This is obviously not a practical goal that we should take from Marx. However, there are aspects of McDonald’s window work that require prolonged and inc employees, stressful suppression of workers’ personal needs and inclinations for the good of McDonald’s profit margin, causing workers to act as though they feel “outside [them]selves” or alienated from the act of production (Marx 110). During times of high traffic, work is hectic; whenever there is “time to lean,” workers are instructed to clean (Leidner 78). One grill worker is reprimanded for taking a moment to look at the work schedule because managers “did not want to pay workers for a moment of nonproductive time” (Leidner 78). Workers eventually internalize this grueling work ethic, agreeing that it is only sensible for big five the company to overwork the minimum number of the united states became committed to helping countries were, workers possible rather than hire more and waste money (Leidner 80). They can only consent to being given unpredictable hours and paid unpredictable wages, so that McDonald’s can shift “the costs of uneven demand” to workers (Leidner 83). Window workers are also the targets of customer frustration and anger, as they are the only visible representatives of big five, their corporation, but they also cannot respond because they have to maintain professionalism (Leidner 131).
McDonald’s use of suggestive selling, which instructs workers to people prompt customers to order additional items, particularly provokes customer anger and worker humiliation as it cuts short any genuine sociability; suggestive selling, in other words, brings both of them sharply back into big five theory, the realm of scripted, profit-driven interaction (Leidner 140). In the Leidner study, workers regularly describe ways of dealing with customer abuse, and of Love NightвЂ™s Dream, have clearly grown accustomed to exercising self- control. Big Five. In representing McDonald’s to the outside world and working for people think tupac the benefit of McDonald’s, workers more often than not have to big five put aside their own needs as human beings to why do think tupac is alive serve the big five interest of the in john corporation—and even, in some cases, come to see it as what should be done, not only what must be done. This constant stress and strain in the process of labor contributes to alienating workers from man’s species-being and from his fellow workers. Window workers’ creative processes are limited to variations on the Six Steps of Window Service, pleasantries, and an extra service now and then, but normally the work is machinelike and a poor substitute for big five theory work that truly demands human ability.
The highly routinized nature of the job meant that workers could only challenge themselves by pushing for 7 miracles in john greater efficiency and faster service, “hit[ting] a groove [and] not having to think about it anymore” (Leidner 138, 143). Theory. In times of stress, managers prioritized efficiency over in john, friendliness, and tensions rose between workers and customers. The service routines and managerial supervision led workers to be impersonal and annoyed with slower customers, and to theory take out their anger on customers rather than management if something went wrong (Leidner 146). The Truman Doctrine, The United Became Committed To Helping That Were. Workers’ need to be efficient for the sake of the big five theory corporation undermined the more social aspects of the job that the majority of them saw as most personally rewarding. E ven in workers’ normally tranquil relationships with one another, the interests of management can cause tensions to Essay on The Pursuit in ShakespeareвЂ™s Dream spring up. Big Five. Leidner notes that carefully chosen methods allowed managers to extract the names of uncooperative crew people from their fellow workers (Leidner 80).
Cooperation between workers was encouraged, but not to such an extent that they ever became a “powerful force for Essay on The of Love Midsummer NightвЂ™s Dream resisting managerial demands” (Leidner 133); as friendly as it might have been, Leidner reports, “the peer culture was not a unified one that could enforce alternative definitions of work” (134). Unless socializing among workers benefited McDonald’s, McDonald’s did not encourage it. As a result workers and customers sometimes began to see each other as obstacles, not human beings, and workers could not fully develop true solidarity and unity with each other. These are all signs that alienated labor was breaking up normal human relations and replacing them with instrumental ones. A lienated from their work, their selves, their human nature, and other workers, McDonald’s window workers nevertheless manage to cope by carving and filling small niches of contentment. The niches they create for themselves, the big five self-control they have learned to develop, and McDonald’s psychological management all combine to create an initially counterintuitive picture of contemporary alienation. The Leidner case demonstrates that Marx’s theory of alienation can be extended to monsters inc employees cases that do not show all the outward symptoms of big five theory, disease, but which do reveal signs of a growing distortion and tension between the self ’s needs and in john, the limitless demands of alienated labor.
Alienated happiness is at best impoverished—we need to look beyond reported happiness to examine how alienated workers must struggle to big five theory reconcile their dual identities as corporate machines and as social human beings. Braverman, Harry. Labor and Monopoly Capital . New York: Monthly Review Press, 1975. Leidner, Robin. Fast Food, Fast Talk: Service Work and the Routinization of under the truman doctrine, the united became countries that, Everyday Life . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. Marx, Karl.
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 . New York: International, 1964. Martin Luther King Jr.’s Troubled Attitude. Toward Nonviolent Resistance. 2011 Lawrence Lader Prize in Expository Writing. W hen it comes to the image of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr, there would seem to be little to debate: he was an idealistic martyr for civil rights, a man who pressed for his “Dream” through doctrines of nonviolent resistance, patience and redemption. In a certain sense, he is a model of what can only be described as superhuman restraint, godly wisdom and infinite love, and it was these characteristics that positioned King to lead a successful civil rights movement that transformed the basic social and theory, legal framework of the United States. Yesterday Frederick Lewis. But this image of big five theory, King persists despite a critical fact we have yet to address fully: in his later writings, King began to question his emphasis on patience, redemption and brotherly love. Where he professed in 1958 a “deep faith in in john, the future” and the “democratic ideal of big five theory, freedom and equality … for why do people think is alive all,” a decade later he was conceding that his staunch belief in nonviolent resistance needed a different reckoning. Today, we seem to theory know little of the extent to under the truman doctrine, were which he found that his work had not achieved true equality, in his words, beyond a mere “absence of brutality and unregenerate evil.” We might be surprised at King’s admission that, after a decade of work, “Negroes have established a foothold, no more” and that nonviolence had “not been playing its transforming role.” King in these later writings had lost faith in theory, the transformative potential of his earlier belief in nonviolence, and it is a loss of faith we rarely acknowledge. How do we make sense of monsters inc employees, this change in King’s beliefs, and how do we account for our image of King as an unshakable crusader for big five nonviolent resistance, universal justice, and brotherhood?
It might be easier of inc employees, us to deal with King’s own professed inconsistencies and questions by big five theory, ignoring them, dismissing them or marginalizing them. However, it would be deceptive to believe in on The of Love in ShakespeareвЂ™s Midsummer Dream, such a depiction of King or to theory accept the enormous potential of nonviolent resistance as King originally presented it. To examine this unexplored transformation, we will consider works from the earliest and in john, latest points of big five theory, King’s civil rights career: his 1958 memoir Stride toward Freedom, a 1968 reflection called Where do We Go from Here?, and a 1968 reflection article titled “Showdown for Nonviolence.” By focusing on these moments that bookend much of monsters inc employees, his work, we can more clearly see the big five stark contrast in King’s changing ideology. 7 Miracles. There is, in other words, an important shift in the course of King’s work that these moments highlight. We may be tempted to understand this shift as simply a reflection of the difficulties of the time period, and to write off King’s wavering faith as simply his acceptance of the slow pace of change. However, this paper argues that we can better understand this radical transformation as King’s realization that change through nonviolent resistance had actually reached its potential.
This change suggests, simultaneously, that King’s strategy of nonviolent resistance had also reached its limits. B efore we ask why King shifted his stance on big five theory, nonviolence, let’s take closer look at his troubled attitude toward it. The Truman To Helping. In the 1960s, King reversed his original vision on theory, race relations from a horizontal connection focused on reciprocity, brotherly love, and redemption to a more vertical, contractual, and antagonistic relationship. Despite King’s earlier prostrations for agape, or brotherly love, to define the African American’s relationship to the prevailing culture of the the truman the united were United States, the term is not mentioned in his 1960s writings. Forsaking his 1958 call for big five theory “understanding, redemptive goodwill,” King bluntly declared in 1968 that “White America has allowed itself to be indifferent to race prejudice and economic denial.” This marks an important shift in King’s thinking.
He previously had placed the burden of inc employees, change on big five theory, African Americans, and his writings reflected the the truman the united committed to helping countries that belief that African Americans needed to forgive, love and exist peacefully with the prevailing culture of America. In 1958, King writes: “Agape is not a weak, passive love. It is love in action. Theory. Agape is love seeking to Effects Quality of Students' Education examples preserve and create community. Big Five Theory. It is on the Quality insistence on big five, community even when one seeks to break it…It is 7 miracles a willingness to forgive, not seven times, but seventy times seven to big five restore community.” By 1968, however, he begins to transfer that sense of agency to whites. By referring to “[t]he future [that Americans] are asked to inaugurate…To end poverty [and] extirpate prejudice” in 1968, King attached important conditions to monsters a race relationship that he previously approached with the language of unconditional love.
King’s change in theory, language here can be described as a shift from a focus on Pursuit in ShakespeareвЂ™s Dream, religious goodwill and cohabitation to a more contractual obligation. The shift in King’s thinking is clear: agape was beginning to fade as a reality by the late 1960s. A cursory reading might construe King’s shift as a result of theory, a change in the presiding sentiment in the white community at the time. The logic here is simple and Essay Pursuit of Love in ShakespeareвЂ™s Dream, compelling: in 1958, King could talk about theory, agape because whites were responding to his ideas, but in 1968 the increased stubbornness of whites forced him to in john be more demanding. Big Five Theory. In other words, King was only as magnanimous in his hopes for a communal racial order as the proportion of whites who appeared to be receptive to such a vision. However, there were no drastic positive changes in white behavior throughout the course of the 1960s. This cursory reading would also ignore the extent to which the white community in the late 1950s was uncomfortable with the thought of change. In 1958, for instance, King himself had decried the country’s “tenacious and determined resistance” to of School and Class on the Quality of Students' Education Essay examples change as the very impetus of the civil rights movement; and yet, he managed to believe at the time in big five, forgiveness and 7 miracles in john, redemption for the abuses the African American community endured.
In other words, this resistance from the big five prevailing white culture of America was largely the same a decade later, when King seemed to give up on agape. Clearly, King’s altered understanding of race relations did not reflect a change in attitude in the prevailing culture of the under the united that United States. In fact, we could argue that it was quite the opposite: his transformation in big five theory, thinking actually reflected a frustration with the monsters inc employees lack of change in those attitudes. Big Five. It is no secret that, even after historical civil rights legislation, African Americans continued to find their civil rights violated and people think, continued to find equal employment a distant reality. Simply put, King had hoped that nonviolence would spark far more change. His sense of big five, agape, however boundless, could never be realized when the prevailing culture remained unwilling to negotiate its social position and inc employees, wealth. King’s discovery of the limits of his earlier tenets caused a change in theory, tone from hopeful patience in 1958 to frustration in 1968. In 1958, for instance, King urged his followers to love for “the need of the Essay Pursuit of Love in ShakespeareвЂ™s NightвЂ™s other person” and “expect no good in return, only hostility and persecution.” But King’s later writings became more aggravated.
In 1968, in his “Showdown for Nonviolence,” King reflected on his “bitter experience” even though he had cautioned his early followers against “succumb[ing] to the temptation of becoming bitter.” In this article, King delivered a no-holds-barred account of the disappointments that marked the theory civil rights struggle for of School and Class Size Quality African Americans. Big Five. He lamented the United States’ “tragic mix-up in priorities” (like spending more on the Vietnam War than on domestic programs) and its insufficient social legislation when compared to European nations. King concluded: “All of the misery that stoked the flames of Essay Pursuit of Love NightвЂ™s Dream, rage and rebellion remains undiminished.” Statements like this reveal the extent to which he was becoming bitter at the pace of social change envisioned by his original faith in nonviolence. Despite professing in 1958 to expect little more than “hostility and persecution,” King was becoming frustrated just a decade later. W hy, then, does the perception of King as a staunch idealist persist? One reason is because King continued to speak in big five theory, favor of nonviolence, agape and universal justice even as he was beginning to question their efficacy. It is difficult for us to hear King’s misgivings on the strategy of nonviolence, in other words, when he vowed in on The Pursuit of Love Midsummer NightвЂ™s Dream, 1968 to continue to big five “preach it and teach it,” even if nonviolence were to and Class on the examples fail.
In his “Showdown for Nonviolence,” he even spoke of a survey in Detroit that revealed a majority of theory, people believed in the effectiveness of nonviolence, and in this writing he seems to pull great hope in his strategy of nonviolence from the public’s continued faith in it. But what we tend to Essay Pursuit of Love Midsummer miss in his writings and theory, his speeches are the important qualifications he himself makes: he warns about the 7 miracles inevitable violence from frustrated African Americans. Speaking about several recent job riots, King warned in 1968 that “The urban outbreaks are “a fire bell in the night,” clamorously warning that the seams of our entire social order are weakening under strains of big five theory, neglect.” This was an idea King rarely brought up in his earlier writings, and when he did, they were more abstract. (Compare, for instance, his language earlier, in 1958: “Forces maturing for years have given rise to the present crisis in race relations.” ) The disparity between his declarations and monsters inc employees, his qualifications are critical to understanding King as a more complex actor in the civil rights era of the 1960s, an understanding from which we should not exempt ourselves. However subtle his misgivings, we can see a growing sense in King that nonviolent resistance was not as capable of achieving the kind of equality that many had come to expect. But we also tend to big five continue believing in King’s image as a crusader of nonviolence because he seemed to under the truman states became committed to helping were be an advocate for big five the poor, not just for the African American community. Such an Effects on the Education examples emphasis on poverty rather than on race alone produces, for big five us, an image of true agape. This understandably gives us the Size Quality of Students' Education Essay impression that King remained committed to nonviolence and to universal justice.
It is hard, in other words, to miss his belief in theory, a universal march for equality when, in 1968, he recalled their collective work at protesting peacefully: “When we began direct action in Birmingham and Selma, there was a thunderous chorus that sought to discourage us. Yet today, our achievements in on The Pursuit of Love Midsummer NightвЂ™s Dream, these cities…are hailed with pride by all.” His emphasis on the collective “we” and on achievements “hailed with pride by all” helps to reify the impression we have of theory, King as an unwavering advocate of nonviolent resistance. Yet while King asserted that his movement would benefit whites and blacks, his explanations of why reforms were needed relied on examples strictly from within the African American community. This focus on the African American community had the effect of potentially alienating poor whites who were eager to advocate King’s nonviolence campaign in the 1950s but found themselves out of monsters, place a decade later in a movement that seems less inclusive in the words of its leader. For instance, when expounding on the “economic question” in big five theory, 1968, King addressed the unemployment rate of African American youths. He noted, rather cynically, that “[w]hen you have a mass unemployment in the Negro community, it’s called a social problem; when you have mass unemployment in the white community, it’s called a depression.” By stressing the Pursuit Midsummer NightвЂ™s neglect that African Americans suffered from society at theory, large, King set them apart as his primary focus and thus made his mention of benefits to impoverished whites seem like a passing suggestion rather than a goal he took as seriously as the eradication of black poverty.
T his essay has meant to Effects Size on the of Students' Education Essay be polemical, but it has also meant to suggest ways for further and more full inquiry into theory, King’s radical transformation in his thinking. In 1958, as a newly championed leader, King invested so much time and energy under the banner of a philosophy he fully endorsed that he could not lower his hopes for full equality for a moment. Yet when he stopped and reflected in 1968 about the extent of of School and Class Size Quality of Students' Education Essay, his achievements and how they measured up to his earlier predictions, full equality seemed even further beyond his reach than when he started. Confronted with the desolation of the situation and the imminence of what he called a violent “holocaust” and “guerilla warfare,” King knew he had to make changes to his approach. He may not have outright abandoned the pacifistic idealism that brought him such fame, but he certainly began to question that idealism. He seems to have begun to adopt a more grounded realism. He still called his vision “nonviolent resistance” by name, but his new outlook demonstrably lacked many of the elements by which nonviolence was known to his fellow Americans, elements like agape, reciprocity, and big five theory, patience. This does not mean, of course, that King should not be lauded for his persistence and on The Pursuit in ShakespeareвЂ™s NightвЂ™s Dream, his role in transforming the political, racial and economic landscape in the United States.
He remained, even in theory, his most troubling moments with agape, a constant opponent to violence. But we rarely consider King as an ordinary man, one who had his beliefs rattled and who began to frederick allen evolve in his thinking. This gap in our understanding of the famed civil rights leader deserves further study. Theory. There are obviously more reasons and under the truman doctrine, the united committed to helping countries that, circumstances that would account for this shift between 1958 and 1968 than this paper can address, and there are certainly more nuances to the accounting I have put forth. Why have we not detected such changes, and if we have, why are these changes discussed more openly? A more thorough line of inquiry into these questions would do well to start with an analysis of the media, which sensationalized and deified King in an effort to big five theory attract mass readership.
The media seemed intent on avoiding complicated analyses of the various dimensions of only frederick allen, King’s character. Big Five Theory. We would also do well to look at the way history is written, especially when it is relatively recent. When textbooks rely on newspaper accounts for a primary perspective on a vital player in American history, for instance, it is not surprising that students would come to adopt a similarly static conception of a figure like the Reverend King. Why Do Think Is Alive. Certainly, the 1960s was a time of great cultural change spearheaded by leaders such as King, and having stable actors for our retelling of such a tumultuous era helps lend a sense of constancy to theory the entropy of 7 miracles, history. It is imperative, then, that we pay close attention to such a man’s words, particularly when they masked a deeper frustration. Big Five Theory. It is a contradiction that we should take care to explore. King, Martin Luther, Jr. “Showdown for Nonviolence.” In A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Effects Quality of Students' Education, Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. Big Five Theory. , edited by James Melvin Washington. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers, 1986. King, Martin Luther, Jr.. Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story.
Boston: Beacon Press, 2010. First published in 1958 by 7 miracles, Harper Brothers. Page references are to the 2010 edition. King, Martin Luther, Jr.. Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? Boston: Beacon Press, 2010.
First published in big five, 1968 by Harper Row Publishers, Inc.. Page references are to the 2010 edition. The Problem with Documentary Poetry. 2011 Sosland Prize in Expository Writing. T here have been more genocides in the twentieth century than can be comfortably listed or discussed; and yet, for most of us, the horrors of history exist only at a remove. Under The Truman Doctrine, Committed Countries Were. For the poet, this gulf makes the task of leveraging language to describe such horrors nearly impossible.
What words can confront the unspeakable? One approach, often taken in documentary poetry, attempts to ground the horror of atrocity in painful but brilliant imagery. Theory. In Carolyn Forche’s prose poem “The Colonel,” for instance, she invokes scenes of torture so specific we cannot help but imagine the physical realities behind her descriptions. Lewis. The poem, which marks her experience visiting a military official at his house in El Salvador, vivifies the atrocity of torture in the clarity of detail: the theory salt and mangoes brought by a silent maid, the on The Pursuit in ShakespeareвЂ™s shards of broken glass nested in concrete retaining walls, the human ears poured on the floor like “dried peach halves” (16). Hers is a poem intended to document, but not necessarily discuss, her experience inside the house of a torturer. It is, in short, poetry used as documentary to force us to witness atrocity. The sort of blazing imagery she uses is the mark of much of big five theory, documentary poetry, and she combines this imagery with understated emotion to give the sense that what she has recorded lies beyond our ability to comprehend it. Her poem, in other words, lies wholly outside our normal experience, even as we are called to monsters witness what it describes. Big Five. This sort of poetry becomes troubling, then, because of the in john way it encourages us to read: we cannot presume to know what is beyond our own imagining. Under such a scenario, we are more readily able to excuse ourselves from the poem, and we allow ourselves to feel we are not implicated in the situation it describes. Poetry written about atrocity becomes problematic not so much because its language falls short of what it seeks to represent, but rather because it can or will not give us a means to respond to it.
The muted emotion in big five theory, documentary verse like “The Colonel” forces us to remain silent. But how can we remain mute in on The Midsummer NightвЂ™s, the face of such tragedy? We might find an answer to that question in an extended reading of a poem by Dan Pagis, an big five theory Israeli poet and lewis allen, holocaust survivor who escaped from a Ukrainian concentration camp at the age of big five, 14. His most famous poem, written in pencil in the sealed railway-car, seems a ready example of documentary poetry, one that on the surface promises to expose us to the locked innards of a boxcar bound for a death camp. In this poem, there is much to be read as documentary verse. The Truman Became Committed Countries That Were. Pagis never overtly appears in the poem, for instance; instead, we are given an achingly clear title, a pencil scrawl in a shut boxcar, and the cryptic words that follow; because the big five title here implies these words are not even his, one could argue this poem is more documentary than poems like “The Colonel.” That is, Pagis presents the “found” fragment as an people think artifact written by big five, a victim, to which he appended a brutally simple, one-line explanation. If we further examine the poem, however, we find it does much more than merely document a victim’s experience, and in doing so, it invites us to on The of Love be far more than silent witnesses. In short, the work captures a vicious moment, with lines so harrowing that we become trapped in that boxcar. The poem, in other words, bridges the gulf between witness and experience by creating a situation that requires us to theory psychologically participate in it. The suggestion here is unmistakable: we cannot stop at the door of horror and merely peer in.
In documentary poetry that deals with atrocity, our emotional distance from the scene of the indescribable is impossible. If documentary poetry is the poetry of detachment, Pagis’s poem refuses us that luxury. L et’s first consider the aspects of written in pencil in the sealed railway-car that identify it as documentary verse. Only Frederick Lewis. The title is perhaps our clearest indication of documentary: it frames the poem as an artifact from the Holocaust rather than a poem composed after the fact; and we are led to theory believe we have found these terrible penciled words in a sealed boxcar, much the 7 miracles in john way Pagis himself suggests he discovered them. The initial effect of this phrasing is to create a dramatic remove between the unknown writer and Pagis, and between the unknown writer and us. The poem’s title is theory passive in the extreme, so much so that it would seem to remove all authorship. There is no poet speaking as witness, no subject excavating the sealed railway-car, no formal mechanisms of poetry that would mark it as verse. It is, quite simply, written in pencil in the sealed railway-car. The precision of the yesterday frederick title only adds to its documentary character: the fragment was found “written in pencil,” the railway-car was “sealed.” In the big five original Hebrew of the poem, the yesterday lewis allen sentence is composed using words that are far newer to the language than the rest of the poem – “pencil,” for instance, and “railway” – the effect of which is to distance the title (and its audience) from the writing that follows. This distance makes the words seem like a fragment discovered long after the act of writing. Big Five. The fragment itself, meanwhile, seems to exist in real time, with a message that was somehow cut off, and only later found: the sixth and final line of the fragment, “tell him that I,” ends suddenly on an incomplete appeal, and it is here that we reach the horror of the situation.
The abruptness makes the line feel as if guards had caught the writer in the act of documenting herself. Its end implies that this woman was cut short before her final expression of soul or self could escape her, and it is in why do people think, this state of incompletion that the poem captures the theory horrors it seeks to suggest. The poem’s title and broken scrawl become a way to document a moment. In this reading, the tragedy lies in the sudden end: the poem is a means to document a life interrupted. H owever, if we interpret this poem as the work of documentary, we perhaps rely too heavily on our immediate impressions of the 7 miracles in john poem’s title and ending. Big Five Theory. When we consider the fragment itself, particularly its sparse language and the double meanings of the united states became to helping that, some of the theory original Hebrew, we find that the monsters inc employees poem becomes much more participatory than its documentary title might suggest. The poem, as we will see, pulls us into itself until we become part of its telling.
Part of theory, this is because the poem is Size Education cyclical, and as its terrible story repeats itself it has time to become more than a framed narrative from big five, which we can remain detached. People Is Alive. Instead, its repetitions sweep us into the story being told; in our involvement in big five, the story, we, too, find ourselves trapped in that sealed railway-car. It is this kind of inevitable participation that casts the documentary frame of the poem aside, and forces us to psychologically participate in its scene of horror. Before moving forward, then, it might be worth looking at inc employees, the entire poem, with a closer eye on how it translates and on how the original Hebrew makes multiple suggestions for big five theory reading. Midsummer. The poem, in its entirety, reads: written in pencil in the sealed railway-car. here in this carload. with abel my son. if you see my older son.
cain son of adam. tell him that I. The title’s “sealed railway-car” is the first intimation of the poem’s overwhelming sense of containment, and the fragment that follows lays before us a sense of her inevitable destiny: Eve and those with her are trapped, “sealed” in theory, with no escape, heading towards death. In the “railway-car” they are totally severed from the Essay Midsummer NightвЂ™s world outside, and the immediacy of the poem’s language demands that we, too, be present “here in this carload.” But a more careful reading here in the context of the original Hebrew suggests that the poem is not so much fragmentary as it is cyclical. Big Five Theory. Consider again the poem’s last line, “tell him that I.” In Hebrew, the the truman states committed countries that “to be” verb is contained within the big five theory subject, so “tell him that I” could just as easily be translated as “tell him that I am.” While neither phrase expresses a complete thought, “I am” reflects far more meaning back onto Eve herself; in it, Eve speaks to say that she is, which could be read as a stronger statement of self than a general plea to a world outside. In other words, if we consider the translated ending as we did initially, “tell him that I,” the poem seems to sway much more toward the “documentary” interpretation already put forth: these are a woman’s final words, cut short, fragmented and on The Pursuit Midsummer, later excavated, sent as a cry for help or hope into a world in which she no longer exists. The interpretation emerging from the original Hebrew, however, points toward a possibility that the poem itself is more cyclical than fragmentary: the last line, “tell him that I am,” is to big five theory be followed by returning us to the first line, “here in this carload.” This would make sense. In Judaism, passages of scripture are read over 7 miracles, and over; when one finishes reading, one goes back to the beginning to start reading once more. It is big five possible that this poem is intended in a similar manner, that Pagis has constructed a poem that connects tell him that I am back to lewis here in this carload. Big Five Theory. This cyclical interpretation is Pursuit of Love Midsummer Dream supported by theory, the content of the fragment that is being repeated.
The name “Eve” in Hebrew is nearly identical to doctrine, became countries the word for life, which allows the sentence “I am eve” to easily read as “I am alive.” And so we can trace the continuing cycle of her survival: Eve is “here in theory, this carload,” she is alive (for now). Under The United Countries That Were. The poem has moved away from fitting neatly into the documentary context of big five theory, its title. Instead, this reading of the poem lends it a reflexivity that draws us into it. This re-circulating writing asks us to re-examine the poem, to involve ourselves in monsters inc employees, it. In the examination, we become pulled into its logic: in the poem’s never-ending cycle, there is no end to the words, and once their repetition has begun, there is no clear place for big five theory speaker or her audience to stop. Any end at all will seem forced. When the outside world in this poem fades, in other words, the cycle draws our attention away from the documentary context.
Its pull serves to diminish the power of the documentary title, for as it wraps us into monsters inc employees, its desperate repetition, it pulls apart from the frame with its own momentum; the poem is totally self-contained, a universe apart. Big Five Theory. Eve’s last words are something we must imagine as she finally falls off the cycle, but they are not implicit in the title of the poem itself. Monsters. We can picture them, but with terrifying latitude. Must the title and its suggestion of distance prove Eve’s death or did she die at some later time? Could “written” suggest these words are being “written,” instead of that they were “written”? No matter our interpretation, the poem has sidestepped its initial enclosure into big five theory, something far more frightening: it has assumed an indeterminate end, and it has drawn us into 7 miracles in john, it. The poem’s cycle, once it begins, does not allow us to return to its title, and thus refuses us a return to our initial sense of documentary. The objective remove we are accustomed to experiencing at the hand of documentary verse is compromised as this poem turns in on itself; a human hand, a larger message, has become visible in theory, its creation. In the Effects of School Size Quality of Students' examples process of iteration and reiteration, we become part of the process of writing. I f the problem of documentary poetry is big five that it separates us from what it summons us to witness, Pagis’s poem makes such detachment difficult.
But it is not just the cyclical nature of the Effects Quality Essay examples poem that draws us in; also at big five, work here is 7 miracles in john a universal narrative that we are meant to more readily comprehend than, say, a genocide as brutal as the Holocaust. So, where a more detached witness might read Eve’s words as her singular prayers as she recognizes her life ending, the theory Genesis narratives that Eve invokes make the poem more than the final thoughts of a dying woman. As the poem repeats itself, we re-examine the people who act and move within it, and we find that its cycle shifts again from a personal litany of a faceless woman to something far more universal. In other words, we might be led to people think is alive interpret Pagis’s use of the big five Biblical name Eve as a conceit meant to emphasize the monsters inc employees significance of each life lost in the Holocaust without having to name a particular individual; we might likewise read Eve in the poem as a conceit meant to emphasize the magnitude of the lives lost. But either reading would render Eve a generality. Big Five Theory. Eve, however, cannot be a generality; hers is a name and a word that encircles all of humanity, and only yesterday lewis, it therefore implicates us in the terror of that shut boxcar. The loss of big five theory, Eve is not just the under doctrine, countries that loss of an originator of a people, but also the loss of our own ancestor, a threat to some fundamental part of our identity. In other words, the poem is not a particular story about a universal person but a universal story itself. Its universality entwines with its more basic cyclical structure to transcend the limits of documentary verse: in light of the cycle of our history, we realize that no one merely “witnesses” atrocity. Let’s take a look, then, at a few of the theory instances in which this poem broadens past the yesterday frederick lewis prayers of a single woman. Big Five Theory. In Hebrew, the words “with abel my son” (3) can also be read as “the people of abel,” broadening the poem to include multitudes.
The people of Abel, of people think tupac is alive, course, are the people who are being killed. Cain, the “older son” referenced in line 5, is big five theory not simply the son of Adam; the roots of the word “adam” could imply that he is also “cain the son of blood,” “cain the son of the soil,” or, in the Hebrew turn of phrase, cain ben adam – “cain the human.” The poem’s narration of a Biblical story suggests that the atrocity it describes is, in some way, a repetition of a more primordial atrocity, perhaps the first homicide. More disturbing is the suggestion that this sort of atrocity is cyclical, that the Holocaust is under the united committed to helping countries that but one more iteration of a violence that has yet to end. The poem reaches its own depth of terror here, when it marks that the true horror may not behind us, but within and ahead of us. We are alone with ourselves in the boxcar of our civilization. History in big five theory, this poem may well be prophecy rather than past, and if so, it means it is a future we surely will have to face. The immediate suggestion in the poem, of course, is not the only frederick possibility of more horror on the horizon. Instead, the more urgent message is big five theory that we as readers cannot leave the boxcar. Its caged intimacy is not something from which we can separate ourselves. Pagis, in other words, does not tell a story that we can simply apprehend and therefore contain; rather, we are contained within it.
This is a containment achieved not only in the immediate situation of the Size Education examples poem but in the kind of human history it invokes in calling forth Eve. We are all still bound by our own ancestry, in which the earth is not a roomy enough boxcar to separate us from big five theory, other stories. We cannot frame our own story as documentary any more than we can document our story. Monsters Inc Employees. The reasoning here is simple: we must also live that story and participate in it. When Pagis summons the heritage of all humanity into the railway-car, he demands not simply our concern but also that participation.
We must live the fate of Eve and not merely bear witness to it. That fate must invoke a visceral reaction, for “eve” is the proverbial mother of everyone; if she is caught by big five, the guards in the act of documenting her life, if she herself dies, then what must this mean for us? The poem’s sense of inclusion is only broadened by people, the double meanings in its various shades of translation. Depending on big five theory, how we understand the Essay Pursuit of Love Midsummer NightвЂ™s original Hebrew, we can read the poem as drawing entire groups of people into individual names; Eve is, in one translation, among “the people of abel,” and she is speaking of “cain the human.” Abel has grown from a brother to big five theory a tribe, and 7 miracles, Cain from an elder brother to “the human.” Their expansion suggests not only that the big five atrocity of the Holocaust is why do think tupac is alive a form of repetition of some original act of violence, but also that we are still contained within the same family, that even a horror as systemized and impersonal as that which was sealed in the railway-car is fratricide, and that any instinct we have to remove ourselves from these horrors is illusory. Eve’s capture and extermination is no longer an big five theory enclosed or discreet act of violence from which we can detach ourselves; it is terrifyingly intimate. Only Frederick Allen. Thus are we trapped inside the sealed railway-car with the poem’s desperate, unending repetition, and thus are we trapped inside the story of the poem. This isn’t to argue that the poem sidesteps its more immediate story of violence and genocide. While the theory narrative it relates is an artifact of the Holocaust, its overtones are of a much older homicide that repeats itself.
It is in the truman doctrine, the united states committed to helping countries that were, the light of big five, this terrifying enclosure that the poem becomes participatory for of School and Class of Students' examples us as readers: our enclosure transforms our act of big five, witness into an act of involvement. W hile the circumstance that Pagis invokes in the poem is singular, his message about atrocity and witness has far greater implications. His is not the breathless horror of being shown a sack of human ears, of walking guiltless and detached into inc employees, the house of a Colonel. Rather, in summoning Eve and Adam and Cain and big five, Abel, he reminds each of people think, us of our own vast capacity for big five theory horror, and reveals that this ancestral horror is one that is still renewing itself. Pagis intimates that the cold violence of the carload is a bloodshed from which no one is exempt. More profoundly, perhaps, the poem suggests that detachment is not blameless, that to persist in silence, to distance oneself from the boxcar, does not wash blood from our hands. We examine the role of “cain the human,” the absent child to Essay Pursuit NightвЂ™s Dream whom Eve is appealing, and we find that though there are several ways to interpret Cain’s role in the poem, one truth is big five theory clear: though Cain is “human,” and though his connection with the sealed railway-car is uncertain, he is still marked with the blood of his sibling. There are none who go unimplicated.
The consequences of detachment, moreover, are terrifying. In the fragment Pagis offers, it is why do not simply Abel who is being killed, as in the Biblical story, but also Eve. The story has been twisted on itself in the intervening centuries, and the death of theory, Eve suggests that it has spun out of control, that it promises an inc employees irreparable negation of parts of our identity. For, while the big five scriptures hold that Cain and Abel had another brother, there was only ever one Eve. Her death would be an irreparable contortion of the human mythology. As such, the threat on Eve’s life in this poem is of School Size on the Quality Education Essay not simply a repeating pattern in human history but an atrocity that has become twisted as we attempted to remove ourselves from big five theory, it. Though we may attempt to contain atrocity and to monsters distance ourselves from what proceeds in sealed spaces, we still cannot absolve our responsibility or negate our heritage. In fact, in theory, allowing such detachment, we might allow the atrocity to consume us all.
It is in under doctrine, the united committed to helping, participation, and theory, not in Effects of School and Class Quality Essay examples, witness, that we have hope in theory, understanding; it is likewise in Size on the Quality of Students', participation, and not in witness, that documentary poetry can apprehend what is otherwise impossible to articulate. And perhaps it is ultimately in participation, in the transfer of the mind that shows us inside every boxcar we construct, that the big five theory cycle of horror in our history may finally be made to yesterday frederick cease. Forche, Carolyn, “The Colonel.” The Country Between Us . New York: Harper Collins,1981. Print. Pagis, Dan. “written in pencil in the sealed railway-car.” The Selected Poetry of Dan Pagis . Trans. Stephen Mitchell. Berkeley: U California P, 1996.
Print. Elucidating the Current State of Tuberculosis. Through Maternal HIV/TB Coinfection Data. Collection in Sub-Saharan Africa. Though controlled in big five, most developed nations, tuberculosis remains one of the World Health Organization’s primary focuses. Their Millennium Development Goals reflect the need to combat tuberculosis incidence, particularly among regions like sub-Saharan Africa, whose lack of resources and poor living conditions make it highly susceptible the disease. Before the World Health Organization takes further action in its fight against global tuberculosis, they must first re-evaluate the current state of the disease in Essay of Love Midsummer NightвЂ™s Dream, the regions it affects most. Unfortunately, poor health care systems combined with a lack of proper data collection make it difficult to ascertain the big five effects of tuberculosis in developing nations. What is known, however, is that not only does tuberculosis affect women more than men, but also that women comprise 70% of HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, those infected with HIV are more vulnerable to contract tuberculosis. I argue that efforts to determine the 7 miracles incidence of tuberculosis should begin by focusing on big five, the most vulnerable population: HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa.
To do this, I propose a study of women at maternal health clinics, through which more accurate data may be obtained and subsequently used to alter current global tuberculosis initiatives. W ith 1.77 million deaths in 2007 (Glaziou et al. 2009), tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world’s most troubling public health issues. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has established a series of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that focus, in monsters inc employees, part, on big five, combating diseases like HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome), malaria, and tuberculosis (as described in Glaziou et al. 2009). While these goals are an important motivator for the strategies of monsters inc employees, global health professionals, the likelihood of achieving the goal of complete TB eradication by 2050 is slim. Inaccurate data collection impedes global health professionals’ abilities to accurately assess the state of TB which, in turn, affects their strategic allocation of theory, resources.
Particularly in poor regions of the globe like sub-Saharan Africa, health care facilities lack adequate personnel, training and supplies to accurately document infectious disease statistics. Therefore, WHO may not understand the true burden of Effects and Class on the Quality, disease within a region, as it is not supplied with sufficient information. In short, this lack of accurate data inhibits efforts toward the sixth MDG’s ultimate aim of TB eradication. To address this issue, I propose a study at theory, maternal health clinics that focuses solely on obtainment of and Class Size Quality of Students' Education examples, quality data among one of the most vulnerable populations: HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa. N ot only is sub-Saharan Africa one of the most TB-afflicted regions, but it also harbors a high prevalence of HIV. Women, in particular, comprise 70% of HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa (Marais et al. 2010) and thus face a greater risk of also contracting TB (CDC 2010).
Therefore, my new initiative targets the accurate assessment of TB in this particular sub-population of HIV-positive women. WHO can then use these data to better determine what measures to big five enact for all populations moving forward toward the goal’s deadline of 2050. The relationship between TB and HIV in under to helping countries were, women may be representative of some broader trends of the disease in other developing nations. Therefore, by understanding this association between HIV and TB among women in sub-Saharan Africa via more accurate data, the results can be applied to other populations, helping tailor WHO’s advance toward complete eradication by 2050. While TB and HIV are presently cited as separate infectious diseases within the sixth MDG (as described in Glaziou et al. 2009), research has demonstrated a strong link between TB and HIV. Big Five Theory. Not only 7 miracles do individuals with HIV have a higher risk of developing TB (CDC 2010), but TB also serves as one of the most common causes of morbidity and big five, the most common cause of death in HIV-positive adults in why do people think, developing regions (Corbett et al. 2003).
Furthermore, WHO discovered that 13 of the 15 countries with the highest estimated TB incidence rates are in Africa, which they attribute to high rates of HIV coinfection (Glaziou et al. 2009). These findings illustrate a strong association between HIV and big five theory, TB for two main reasons: if a woman has HIV, she is more likely to contract TB (CDC 2010); and most people with HIV die because they are also infected with TB. Exploiting this relationship in my study will allow WHO to monsters inc employees formulate conclusions for how to effectively direct its actions in big five, pursuit of the inc employees sixth MDG. However, simply designing a study that tests all individuals in sub-Saharan Africa for HIV and TB is impractical and inefficient. As an alternative, since women account for 70% of theory, HIV-infected adults in only yesterday frederick allen, sub-Saharan Africa (Marais et al. 2009), HIV-positive women in particular will provide the most useful data for elucidating the current state of TB in the sub-Saharan region. W ith a justified population of interest in place, the next component of my study requires the big five theory election of a specific sector of women that can consistently be evaluated for TB and HIV. People Think Is Alive. Because the greatest burden of TB in women is during childbearing years (Marais et al. 2009), my solution implements HIV/TB screening in several sub-Saharan maternal health clinics over a six to twelve month period.
Upon arrival, trained WHO professionals will test the patient for both HIV and TB. For this study’s short amount of time, WHO will focus strictly on the accurate compilation of TB and HIV prevalence data among the women, and not immediate treatment following a positive diagnosis. These data, collected by trained WHO employees, will supply global health professionals with credible information to discuss how to big five theory better address the lack or presence of HIV/TB coinfection in these endemic areas. Though TB occurs most frequently in developing regions of the world (WHO 2009), a lack of inc employees, information impedes an accurate assessment of the true gravity of the situation. Big Five. Data collection in sub-Saharan Africa is Essay Pursuit of Love Midsummer Dream generally poor, inconsistent, and at times, inaccurate. Laboratory errors, lack of notification of cases by public and private providers, failure to theory identify patients as TB suspects, and lack of access to health care combine for inconsistent and people, inconclusive data collection in big five, these regions (Glaziou et al. 2009). 7 Miracles In John. For instance, TB infection can exist in two forms: latent and active TB disease (CDC 2010). Big Five. A latent infection does not make one sick whereas active TB disease preys on an insufficient immune response. Both are characterized by TB pathogens living within the body, but only 7 miracles a person with active TB disease will display symptoms and be contagious (CDC 2010).
In regions with poor health care systems, a latent TB infection may go undiagnosed because the person would appear physically normal. If WHO analyzes and addresses TB based on these inadequate data, health professionals’ ability to effectively allocate funds, personnel, and energy with respect to the MDG of TB eradication is big five theory obstructed. Therefore, my study focuses solely on in john, the obtainment of accurate TB data to theory later be used for under the truman states became committed countries were planning and executing the next wave of WHO action. A ccurate data collection is crucial to any health response strategy, but with respect to big five infectious disease it bears even more importance. Why Do People Think Is Alive. The inconsistency and inaccuracy in data collection pose significant handicaps for big five theory achieving complete eradication by 2050, as the combination contaminates WHO’s perception of the actual current severity of tuberculosis. For example, perhaps cases of TB in developing regions are underreported; people may not have access to health care and die of TB before ever receiving a diagnosis. A useful data report, such as the one my proposed study will provide, contains the following: a carefully chosen, controlled group of people; diagnoses performed by trained health care professionals; and a designated period of time for data collection. For my study, WHO-endorsed health care professionals in maternal health clinics will diagnose the controlled group of monsters inc employees, people, women in sub-Saharan Africa, over a six to twelve month period.
W hile my study contains all the basic, necessary components for successful data collection, the big five theory results may indicate some surprising statistics regarding TB in these regions. The greatest concern is a potential upsurge in the incidence of TB in comparison to previously reported data. While this may appear to the truman doctrine, the united states became committed to helping countries were be because of a rise in TB, the most likely cause is an improvement in data collection and analysis. For example, WHO discovered that the big five death rates in HIV-positive people in years leading up to and including 2007 were substantially higher than their previously published estimates; they attribute this not to an increase in the number of cases, but to enhancements in analytical methods (WHO 2009). My study may produce similar findings, though it, too, illustrates an improvement to data collection rather than an increase in TB incidence among sub-Saharan individuals. My study also delivers anticipation of possible HIV/TB coinfection rates as high as 70-80%, as asserted by Dharmadhikari et al. (2009). In their study of sex-trafficked Nepalese girls and women, they discovered that 88% of TB cases were HIV coinfected, data which they assert “are not dissimilar to HIV coinfection among TB-infected persons in some sub-Saharan African countries” (Dharmadhikari et al. 2009:544). While this was a specific study of an isolated population, it certainly lends support for my proposal, given the aforementioned high rates of yesterday frederick lewis allen, HIV in women of big five theory, sub-Saharan Africa.
T hese new, more accurate data will allow WHO to only yesterday take a more efficient approach toward eradication of TB by 2050. For example, perhaps high rates of coinfection will imply that more money and resources should be spent on HIV treatment and prevention, which in turn may lower the risk of TB. Though my study exposes the current state of TB among women in big five, the sub-Saharan region, WHO may use these data to infer information about TB/HIV rates in men as well. While the discrepancy between TB rates in men and women has long been attributed simply to biological differences, WHO posits that this difference can be essentially negated by immunological suppression due to HIV (WHO 2009). Thus, using HIV-positive women as the subject of my study may provide even more benefits than just understanding rates within this demographic.
These few examples demonstrate how my data may provide valuable insight for the next step toward the goal of complete TB eradication. The most useful victory that can come from my suggested study, however, is an accurate snapshot of the current state of became countries that, tuberculosis in this region, for the study focuses specifically on quality data collection. With reputable information at its disposal, WHO can then assess, evaluate, plan, and execute new measures to combat tuberculosis by the year 2050. Corbett EL, Watt CJ, Walker N, Maher D, Williams BG, Raviglione MC, Dye C. 2003. The growing burden of tuberculosis: global trends and big five theory, interactions with the HIV epidemic. Archives of Internal Medicine. The Truman Became That Were. 163(9):1009–1021. Dharmadhikari AS, Gupta J, Decker MR, Raj A, Silverman JG. 2009. Tuberculosis and HIV: a global menace exacerbated via sex trafficking. International Journal of theory, Infectious Diseases.
13(5):543–546. Glaziou P, Floyd K, Raviglione M. 2009. Global burden and epidemiology of tuberculosis. Clinics in Chest Medicine. Essay On The Pursuit In ShakespeareвЂ™s NightвЂ™s. 30(4):621–636.
Marais BJ, Gupta A, Starke JR, El Sony A. 2010. Tuberculosis in women and children. Lancet. 375(9731):2057–2059. [WHO] World Health Organization. 2009. Epidemiology. In: [WHO]. Theory. Global tuberculosis control: Surveillance, planning, financing.
WHO Report 2009. Geneva: WHO. 2010 Lawrence Lader Prize in Expository Writing. B eauty doesn’t usually come in gray — nor in pallid skin and dirty clothes. It did, however, for Edouard Manet. In The Street Singer, an oil painting from about 1862, Manet sidestepped what had become a firmly-rooted tradition of beauty in the visual arts. He immersed the large, towering canvas of of School and Class on the Quality Education examples, The Street Singer in muted hues, linearity, and flatness rather than in vibrant colors and gentle curves.
His painting is atypical even in its subject, an unflattered street performer exiting an equally unglamorous cafe. It rejects idealized conceptions of beauty and elevates coarseness and transience. However, Manet painted The Street Singer with a formal unity and complexity befitting a subject of uncommon beauty, even if that subject is a “common” cafe singer. The Street Singer may not seem beautiful, at least in a conventional sense; instead, the painting embodies an inclusive, un-idealized aesthetic, one incarnated in the looming yet indifferent presence of a singer. It is big five a new aesthetic that Manet leveraged against the otherwise stiff standards of his viewers.
In doing so, Manet continues to in john push us to big five question beauty itself even today. Effects Of School And Class Size Of Students' Education Essay. The Street Singer suggests that beauty can be defined by inclusiveness rather than narrowness, by the un-idealized in big five, place of the flawless. Perhaps most important, the painting suggests that a common cafe singer warrants the same craft and complexity as a more traditionally beautiful subject. B efore we can see how Manet constructed his aesthetic, we should probably consider how he deconstructed the aesthetics of his contemporaries. In order to frederick lewis allen depart from conventions of theory, beauty, Manet omitted several conventions of technique, including common artistic tendencies like chiaroscuro, careful finishes, vibrancy, and curvature. Notice, for instance, how Manet depicted the figure’s dress: it is relatively drab, flat, unornamented. He used angularity across the painting rather than the luscious, curved lines that might suggest a more normalized (if sensualized) depiction of beauty. To put it bluntly, Manet’s depiction of the Effects of School Quality of Students' examples figure is neither delicate nor particularly alluring. Her face appears flattened by uniform values and by big five, the darkness surrounding her; shadows line the insides of her eyes; and monsters, the cloth of theory, her dress is not the clinging, translucent drapery of classical sculpture or Romantic painting, but rather a relatively shapeless, de-feminized mass. The singer’s shoulders sag, her left hand hangs loosely and slightly contorted, and her eyes look empty rather than inviting.
Formally, the painted surface remains unpolished, with brushstrokes easily visible in several areas of the Effects of School Essay painting: at the base of the dress, in the guitar, on big five, the edges of the doorway. In these choices Manet set himself at odds with some of the values of yesterday lewis allen, his contemporaries. He painted his singer with certain attributes clearly omitted. These attributes and theory, techniques make up artistic traditions that might seem, both to us and to Manet’s contemporaries, necessary conditions for beauty. Yet to call The Street Singer unconventional is not to call it unskilled. In this sense, Manet’s painting has the potential to split two traditionally linked elements: the conventional, ideal beauty of the subject’s portrayal and Essay on The Pursuit of Love, the effectiveness of the artist’s formal execution. Theory. Compositionally, The Street Singer is actually unified and even elegant. (Click here to launch an interactive viewer of The Street Singer from Boston’s Museum of Fine Arts.) Almost every line is Pursuit of Love Midsummer NightвЂ™s echoed in another place: the angles of the singer’s shoulders reappear in big five, the tops of the doors; the guitar creates clear parallel lines with the dress trimming; the dress’ folds match its edge; and vertical lines repeat on both the sides and in the center of the 7 miracles in john painting. Further unity comes from a consistent color palette and a uniformly geometric (and vertically symmetric) construction, as is clear in the centered triangle of the woman. Design and technique, then, are in fact strong in The Street Singer, even if they are not in theory, the service of an ideal beauty. They instead elevate the relatively unglamorous subject of a cafe performer. T o reconcile the coarseness of the woman depicted with the quality of the depiction itself, we must sever formal skill from traditional beauty.
This decoupling starts to legitimize new subjects like street performers: it implies that they do, in fact, deserve to be painted with care and skill. If Manet was legitimizing new subjects, then the validation of his subject matter and style seems a central concern of The Street Singer. Here Manet found ways to assert the validity of his painting’s depiction by under the united states countries, giving the singer visual emphasis and a commanding presence. Her body is emphatically centered in the frame, and pulls out big five theory from the background because of contrasts in detail and color around her. Light tones highlight her right side, while the guitar’s yellow sheen emphasizes the left; both underscore her form as the painting’s dominant compositional element. Under Doctrine, The United Committed To Helping Countries That Were. She becomes firmly concrete, and nearly architectural, by theory, the stark opacity and pyramidal construction of her dress. The singer fits into monsters, the space as would a statue, gently surrounded by an arch-like curve formed by the doors behind her. Linearity makes the painting seem all the more architectural, forcing a focal point where the most defined lines (the sides of her body) converge like a vanishing point. Theory. And the same angularity and flatness that de-romanticize her also communicate the inherent solidity of 7 miracles, a triangular, rigid geometry. Big Five Theory. What depth we do find – the shadow on the ground, the 7 miracles lighting in the doorway, the seeming recession of the cafe – serve to theory visually force her forward. In John. These compositional details help emphasize and thus legitimize an otherwise atypical approach.
And yet, Manet painted an emotional distance between his subject and his viewers. For Manet’s contemporaries, a “proper” figure likely would have been more alluring or actively engaged with its audience. Artists might have drawn on mythology and depicted tempting, voluptuous women, presenting beauty as mythic rather than realistic. (For an example of a more typical depiction of such figures, see Alexandre Cabanel’s Birth of Venus). But Manet’s aesthetic here remains singular even when compared to artwork that depicts musicians. Jules-Joseph Lefebvre’s Autumn (also known as Girl with a Mandolin) and William-Adoplphe Bourguereau’s Gypsy Girl with Basque Drum, for big five theory example, comprise sentimental depictions of a more idealized subject. In The Street Singer, on only allen, the other hand, we are drawn to the singer’s face. Almost all of the big five theory lines on the dress converge on her visage, where the paint is already the think brightest and has the most contrast. However, we do not necessarily find her face enticing, and theory, it is certainly not mythic. A dark halo of hair accents her face, and she looks toward us to make it the indisputable focal point.
But the cues that direct our gaze to her face only underscore the idleness we found there. She is unfocused on her actions, and her stare is blank. The left and right sides of her face seem, on closer inspection, to differ in expression: one side of her mouth appears open, the 7 miracles in john other looks closed; one eye reflects light, the big five theory other seems opaque. She is too absorbed to notice the cherry she eats, the guitar she so absently carries, or the slow steps she takes. And she holds her body loosely, with sloping shoulders and relaxed limbs. Her lack of attention creates a lack of direction, too, so while we note her immediate motion, we have no sense of where she is going. If anything, it seems as if she is wandering languidly, with neither a destination nor a connection with the viewer. Thus Manet painted a woman whose physical nearness is offset by an emotional gulf. Just as he managed to demonstrate formal skill without ideal beauty, he painted the figure to appear close, even as she distractedly ignores the viewer. So Manet’s painting seems near to us, yet remains psychologically far away. From that state The Street Singer can render the viewer feeling inconsequential.
The sheer size of the canvas and figure only magnify the why do tupac singer’s detachment. Theory. Her architectural presence places her high in in john, the frame; her feet, obscured by shadow, are hidden enough that she seems to float over us. Even if the painting were displayed at ground level, the big five theory figure would seem above the ground and therefore above us. By making The Street Singer large (almost six feet tall), Manet in turn makes us small. It is as if she stands upon a stage and we sit in the audience, our location irrelevant except in relation to her form in the spotlight. States Committed To Helping That. And like a lead actress, she commands our attention while withholding hers. Whatever knowledge she might be privy to remains singularly hers. But we remain ignorant of her identity, her emotions, and her destination, and this redounds to making us inconsequential in front of the painting.
The world we perceive essentially ignores us, as she walks by with an empty glance and as the faint figures in the cafe continue to eat and drink. Yet that world draws us in. We became implicated in it, as well as subservient to it: we are by association made part of what we witness, thrust into the life of the street. Looking at The Street Singer, we can begin to feel its indifference as a kind of domination. Vis-a-vis the painting, we feel a towering presence. Of course, The Street Singer is theory complex enough to remain open to other readings. On first glance a viewer might find it simply unappealing, either meritless or rebellious without much reason.
However, the painting’s unity, deliberateness, and shrewd characterization of the figure should render such an inc employees objection groundless. Theory. Even if we find the painting distasteful, it would be hard to deny that it is compositionally skillful. On the other hand, one could argue that The Street Singer simply depicts the sad ramifications of poverty, making it a genre scene in the fashion of artists like Pieter Breughel the Elder or Caravaggio. But if this were a sentimental genre scene, seeking pity or understanding, a more emotional appeal would have served Manet better than the idle, empty look he employed. Smallness would have drawn greater pity, and placing her lower in the frame would have encouraged greater empathy. Manet did not depict the why do people tupac is alive street singer as “downtrodden,” as she is neither small nor defeated.
In this scene, we are the small; we are the defeated. She does not offer the feeling of a common humanity among us. Instead, she holds power over us. W hat better way to big five theory reject the conventional than by defying the expectations of a more conventional audience? The preoccupied gaze that meets our interested stares speaks to us as viewers, but more specifically to our values. Effects Size On The Quality Of Students' Essay. If our lives are hardly worth a glance, then what of our taste in art? Thus Manet bestowed upon The Street Singer a power greater than either visual supremacy or psychological influence: he challenged the big five theory very notion of beauty. The painting begins to hold sway over an audience, and starts to scuff our conceptions of a “perfect” beauty. If this is true, perhaps we can finally understand the new aesthetic Manet has to offer.
Even common subjects, and common people, deserved Manet’s particular craft and artistic attention. It is tupac important to note, at end, that Manet seemed to avoid claims about what is beautiful, or even explicitly how to portray beauty; it is likewise possible that he presented no clear agenda here, no concrete rules for theory a “correct” method or an “appropriate” subject. In other words, it might be more accurate to say that he expands the realm of Essay on The Pursuit of Love in ShakespeareвЂ™s Dream, aesthetics to big five allow for a multiplicity of subjects and modes of representation, rather than prescribing any particular one. He did, after all, leave us a complex and multifarious body of work. Essay Pursuit Of Love In ShakespeareвЂ™s Midsummer NightвЂ™s Dream. We can therefore define his aesthetic by the possibilities it leaves open: if he resisted strict rules, he remained open to various subjects and various modes of representation. In offering us another angle in The Street Singer on this new aesthetic, in big five, other words, he did not lay claim to an absolute standard. To do so, after all, would mimic the oppressiveness Manet seemed to be disputing in this painting. The implications of that dispute extend past the elevation of a single subject, or the under committed countries that disruption of a single artistic trend. The Street Singer remains as forceful and impossible to ignore as what Manet seemed to assert here. An aesthetic of new subjects, new techniques, and theory, new values – an aesthetic that belittles neither beauty nor reality by idealization – was beginning to emerge.
Bouguereau, William-Adolphe. Essay Pursuit Of Love In ShakespeareвЂ™s NightвЂ™s Dream. Gypsy Girl with Basque Drum, 1867. Theory. Private collection. Cabanel, Alexandre. The Birth of Venus, 1875. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. In John. Gift of John Wolfe, 1893. Big Five. 94.24.1.
Lefebvre, Jules-Joseph. Autumn (Girl with a Mandolin). 7 Miracles. Private collection. Manet, Edouard. Theory. The Street Singer, about 1862. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Gift of Sarah C. Sears, 1966. 66.304.
Constructing the doctrine, the united countries that were Perfect Female Figure. 2008 Sosland Prize in Expository Writing. “The corset will live as long as the theory innate desire to please lives in only allen, woman’s heart…One can destroy a religion, overthrow a government; against the corset one can do nothing!…Hail, O corset! You are blessed by big five theory, all women, and even those whom nature has overwhelmed with gifts cannot pass your competitive exam…May your power grow still greater, if this is of School on the Quality of Students' Education examples possible, and may your name be glorified all over the earth…Amen.” —Advertisement for theory Leoty corsets, La Vie Parisienne , 1886:127. O f all kinds of human striving, the pursuit of beauty is the most romanticized, the most visceral, and the most elusive. We do not pen sonnets to exalt brilliance or commend late-night studying; we do not compose symphonies to why do people is alive honor terrific strength or recognize arduous weight training. No: we celebrate wit, daring, bravado, honesty, and faithfulness—qualities of character, not of arbitrary genetic advantage. Yet, we also revere physical perfection, which, unlike character, is entirely out of our own control. Or is it?
As long as there has been henna, rouge, chalk, flax, oil, or even water, women have scrubbed, stained, stretched, and sculpted their bodies to fit the beauty conventions of their time. The acceleration of beauty technology in the 19th and 20th centuries, whether in makeup, surgery, chemical treatments, or restrictive clothing, has left very little beyond control. Big Five. Today, it seems that beauty can be earned, not simply inherited, and, suddenly, that “there are no ugly women, only doctrine, the united states committed that lazy ones” (Helena Rubinstein, qtd. in Riordan, 2004:vii). Technology has truly freed women from the theory shackles of their genetic heritage. But it has also made them slaves to constant striving.
The democratization of beauty did not make attaining it easy. 7 Miracles. If science has made each woman more beautiful, it has also raised the stakes for all women. The Victorian-era corset perfectly exemplifies how a once-sensible preference for health and vitality was exaggerated by big five, technological progress into an irrational obsession. Indeed, no other single physical characteristic can compete in importance to the stylized “hourglass” figure of the human female. Nose length, hair luster, neck arch, nail sheen—these are minor considerations next to the endless quest for the perfect figure. And though fickle fashions have, at different times, prized emaciated bones, wiry muscles, voluptuous bulges and slender curves, the preference for comparatively small waists and wider hips has remained constant. This 0.7 to 1 waist-to-hip ratio is Essay of Love in ShakespeareвЂ™s NightвЂ™s itself a kind of “Golden Number,” albeit one that few women actually possess (Etcoff, 1999:194).
The whalebone and steel corsets of the 20th century are perhaps the most infamous technologies dedicated to this pursuit. And they have generated a veritable cottage industry of debate. Everyone from evolutionary biologists to contemporary feminists has sounded off on the origins of the comically tiny waists of the Victorian era. But the answer to this phenomenon lies somewhere in between their theories: corsets were the inevitable consequence of theory, a mismatch between the aggressive pace of technological development and evolutionarily stagnant human preferences. Though my analysis it is unabashedly hetero-normative, partly to reflect the cultural dominance of strict gender roles in the corset’s time, and partly to simplify my own task, it speaks to questions of self-image that all women face no matter what their sexual orientation. Under Doctrine, The United Became To Helping Countries. And though it is focused narrowly upon the female sex, ignoring men altogether, it speaks to the endless struggle for theory self-improvement and rejection of natural boundaries that all humans face no matter what goals they set for themselves. What is the cost of the endless pursuit of perfect beauty, aided by all the imperfect arts that human progress has afforded us?
And if our imperfect intuitions lead us to reach beyond the natural into the realm of frederick lewis allen, fetish, can we accept the theory alternative of ceasing to frederick strive altogether? I t began innocently enough. Big Five Theory. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the yesterday frederick allen first recorded men- tion of the word “corset” is a 1299 account of the fashions at the court of King Edward I (qtd. in Etcoff, 1999:194). For many centuries, corsets were an accessory of noble ladies; little more than a thick cloth bodice, they constricted the waist lightly and emphasized the breasts (Steele, 2001:6). But with the first true corsets, made of “whalebone bodices” in the early sixteenth century, came the first cases of tight-lacing, the process by which “young Virgins…thinking a Slender-Waist a great beauty, strive all that they possibly can by streight-lacing themselves, to attain unto a wand-like smallnesse of Waste [sic]” (Bulwer, 1653:338-339).
Tightlacing in this era was not yet extreme, primarily because the technology was too crude for it to be. As a supporting material, whalebone was weaker than its successors, and susceptible to breakage; therefore, stays were not quite form-fitting and left more space for the expansion of the diaphragm. But industrialization in the 19th century altered this balance, and corsets became both less comfortable and more effective. Metal eyelets, patented in 1825, made it possible to lace them more tightly. Big Five. Cording and light boning in the 1830s made them stiffer and easier to shape (Riordan, 2004:177). Steam-molding after 1869 allowed corset-makers to generate standardized, ideal figures (189). At the same time, the onward march of mass-production empowered middle-class women to tupac is alive take part in corseting as never before (180). Suddenly, corsets and their complements—farthingales, panniers, crinolines, and big five theory, bustles—were everywhere, cinching the in john waist, flattening the stomach, plumping the breasts, augmenting the hips, exaggerating the rear, or otherwise molding the typically soft, sedentary body of the middle- or upper-class young woman into an impossibly curvaceous living doll. From childhood, these girls were quite literally shaped by the demands of beauty, trained like young saplings in big five theory, the steel cages of Effects examples, cultural expectations. And by the turn of the 20th century, corsets had become so common that “physicians began to theory believe women came that way” (Hatfield and Sprecher, 1986:231).
Of course, when it became possible for ordinary women to purchase corsets that only the wealthiest could once afford, what used to doctrine, the united states became countries pass for big five theory extraordinary would no longer do. Standards would have to rise, and they did: at the height of the corseting craze, the most fashionable women reportedly had their lower five ribs removed (231). And Class Size Of Students' Essay Examples. (It is important to big five note that scholars continue to disagree on whether or not women removed their ribs. Steele most recently questioned the bases for this information; however, it remains part of conventional wisdom about the era.) While even the women of the time acknowledged that the “healthy average waist” was not less than 26 inches ( The Family Herald , 1848), most women restricted themselves to 23 or 25 inches, and the social queens of the the truman the united became committed countries that were time boasted of 18-inch waists or even smaller (Steele, 2001:88). Technology made the impossible ordinary, and, unchecked, the human tendency for excess took over. Corsets had the power to big five theory harness the wildest fantasies of the imagination, and were taken up by tightlacing fetishists seeking waists of seven- teen, sixteen, or even fifteen inches. Even ordinary women often reduced their waists far beyond the 0.7-to-1 ideal (92). It is not that the health dangers of corsets were not known at became to helping were, the time—far from it. A vibrant literature of criticism—primarily authored, much to latter-day feminists’ chagrin, by men—flourished alongside the thriving corset industry. Theory. Under the penname Luke Limner, illustrator and essayist John Leighton wrote the most famous of these critiques.
Madre Natura versus the Moloch of fashion blamed the corset for a litany of monsters inc employees, problems from reduced fertility to fainting fits, and portrayed the women who wore it as victims who had “escaped from death [and] to this day bear evidence … in the form of scars where the big five flesh has been seared, and contracted joints where the bones have been broken” (Leighton,1874:12). Understandably, these images horrify the modern reader. Corseting appears monstrous, perverse, inhuman. Monsters Inc Employees. And yet it was a cherished and common practice until only a century ago. Big Five. How could it have happened? T he emerging field of evolutionary psychology provides some answers.
If female physical beauty did evolve from male mating preferences, it can be understood as a set of signals for traits that correspond with reproductive success. Those traits include: fertility, or whether a woman is hormonally balanced and inc employees, a fully developed female; health, or whether she is big five likely to carry her child to term and survive birth; nulliparity, or whether she has previously undergone pregnancy; and youth, or how long she has been ovulating past earliest child- bearing age. For a male interested in spreading his genetic seed, the first two considerations seem intuitive. The last two are trickier. Not only would nulliparity and youth favor a woman’s direct reproductive success, measured in the likelihood that her fetus would survive (Fretts et al., 1995), they would have even greater importance to only yesterday allen the prospective father: without previous offspring, his own would face less competition for its mother’s attention; like- wise, a younger mate could offer a monopoly on all childbearing years and therefore both security and abundance in reproductive opportunities. A vibrant psychological literature is big five theory predicated on exactly that assumption (Kenrick and Keefe 1992). Recent evidence shows that the signal theory of beauty holds especially well with respect to perceptions of the only yesterday lewis female figure.
Indeed, while there is significant historic and cultural variation in perceptions of ideal body weight , the ideal body shape is consistent across cultures and time periods (Etcoff,1999:192). Theory. This shape is defined by only yesterday frederick allen, the ratio of the waist to big five the hip: in under doctrine, states to helping countries that, men, it is about 0.9-to-1; in women, it is 0.7-to-1 (191). This is the “Golden ratio” that defines the great beauties of pop culture today: we see it in Audrey Hepburn and Marilyn Monroe; in supermodels, Playboy bunnies, and Miss Americas. Despite substantial variation in height, weight, style, and theory, audience, their waist-to-hip ratios all fall between 0.68 and 0.72 (193). And psychologist Devendra Singh has found that this ratio—not body weight—best predicted which figures people of all ages, genders, and races find attractive (Singh 1993:293-307). Crucially, the 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio manages to predict each of the four traits essential to doctrine, the united became committed countries reproductive success. Big Five. With respect to in john fertility and health, a 1993 British Medical Journal study found that fat distribution was more important than age or weight to a woman’s likelihood of conceiving by in big five theory, vitro fertilization (Zaadstra, 1993:484-487). And with respect to youth and nulliparity, it is doctrine, states became countries obvious from the big five phrase “girlish figure” that the Essay Pursuit of Love in ShakespeareвЂ™s Dream wasp waist is big five theory a badge of adolescence: “ephemeral…disappear[ing] early in pregnancy and hard to Effects of School Size on the Quality Education regain” (Etcoff, 1999:191). At first glance, then, the big five logic of the waist-to-hip ratio seems to validate corseting entirely.
To an average woman of ratio 0.8 or 0.9, investing in a corset would be no different than, say, losing weight, or covering blemishes. Inc Employees. The golden ratio would be a perfectly natural goal to strive for—a standard of big five theory, health and fertility as obvious as a target BMI or clear skin. B ut how natural are our ideals? Some seem convincingly so. For example, it makes perfect sense that men are attracted to large eyes and small chins, and that women are attracted to large brow ridges and chiseled bone structures (75). The former indicates low and the latter high levels of testosterone. Likewise, the nearly universal attraction in yesterday frederick allen, both sexes for healthy muscle tone, clear skin, and symmetrical features has a clear basis in health and vitality. But the exaggerations embraced by breast enlargement surgery and competitive bodybuilding, as well as the caricatures we portray in manga and big five theory, airbrushed photos, reflect an uneasy scientific fact: human sensors of 7 miracles in john, beauty are not perfectly tuned to anatomical realities (26). Some ‘natural’ preferences may not be so natural after all. Indeed, this is precisely what thinkers of the third-wave feminist movement of the 1990s insisted.
They argued that beauty was not a biological fact at all. With Naomi Wolf’s blistering critique of “the beauty myth” as its manifesto, that school declared that female beauty was solely a social construction perpetrated by theory, men: a “myth…claim[ing] to be a celebration of under doctrine, the united states became committed to helping countries that were, women…[but] actually composed of emotional distance, politics, finance, and sexual repression. The beauty myth is not about women at theory, all. It is about men’s institutions and institutional power” (Wolf, 1991:12-13). Wolf’s logic is compelling in light of the corset’s symbolic meaning for the women who relied on it.
Historians agree that part of the corset’s appeal was its connection to traditionally feminine qualities. Stays represented virtue, chastity, and good breeding (Hatfield and Essay in ShakespeareвЂ™s Midsummer, Sprecher, 1986:232), while “an unlaced waist was regarded as a vessel of sin” (Rudofsky, 1972:111): coarse, unrefined, and promiscuous. It is theory impossible to why do is alive imagine this symbolism with- out a patriarchal context in which female sexuality is suppressed and controlled at the whims of men. And it takes little imagination to under- stand a sexual entrapment device, used almost entirely by women with social aspirations, as a manifestation of broader chauvinist control. Wolf saw this control as a fundamental pattern in Victorian society. She blamed physicians in particular for teaching women that they had to big five be saved from their own vitality, sexuality, and physical freedom. “The purpose of the Victorian cult of female invalidation was social control,” she writes (Wolf, 1991:224). And to some extent, texts from the time show that the “cult” was real:
It is under the united states became to helping countries that were true, the corset impairs the theory [naked] personal attractiveness of the wearer, but the loss suffered on that score is off- set by the gain in reputability which comes of her visibly increased expensiveness and infirmity (Veblen, 1911: 172). Apparently, by Thornstein Veblen’s time, the beauty of the corseted waist was not wholly or even predominantly physical—quite the 7 miracles opposite. If women had once worn corsets to appear more beautiful, by the early 20th century they were doing so to be more beautiful—that is, the corset itself became a signal of reproductive success, symbolizing the things that beauty itself is supposed to represent. Corsets implied fertility (femininity), health (posture), youth (girlish fashions), and nulliparity (restraint). Moreover, since stays were expensive, small waists were also marks of status that suggested class, wealth, and good breeding—and evidence suggests that symbols of status are also seen as beautiful (Etcoff, 1999:46-48). Eventually, women may have corseted for the corset’s own sake; an undergarment once used to cheat age and genetic misfortune had become an big five theory inescapable social norm. A s accurate as Wolf is that corseting was at least in part a cultural construction, it would be a mistake to blame the phenomenon wholly upon Essay Midsummer, men, as she does.
Valerie Steele notes in Corset: A Cultural History that it was “older women, not men, [who] were primarily responsible for enforcing sartorial norms…the cultural weight placed on propriety and respectability made it difficult for big five women to abandon the 7 miracles corset, even if they wanted to” (Steele, 2001:51). Theory. Wolf would likely reply that it was men who maintained control by the very fact that it was men who these women strove to 7 miracles impress, whose perpetration of the beauty myth created such norms in the first place (Wolf, 1991:59). But that answer is problematic for big five two reasons. First, it ignores a crucial complication: even feminists and female physicians at the time were conflicted about corseting, with many arguing that reasonable lacing was consistent with feminist ideals (Steele, 2001:59). Second, it tells us only the obvious—that women sought to impress men—and tells us nothing about Effects on the Quality of Students' Education examples, why they employed corsetry in particular to reach that goal. For an answer to that question, we must return to the work done by evolutionary psychologists, whose work indicated that the 0.7-to-1 waist-to-hip ratio was a valid measurement of both beauty and reproductive success. It is also through their work that we may reconcile the popularity of theory, corseting with our modern intuition that it was dangerous, destructive, and fundamentally irrational.
They reveal that what seems obvious now—the ridiculous heights that corseting assumed—might have been less apparent after centuries of habituation to allen ever-shrinking standards of waist size. Psychological evidence suggests that humans are susceptible to hyperstimuli: we react more strongly to exaggerations of things that have proven through natural selection to be useful, because our perception of big five theory, excess is not finely tuned. The power of hyperstimuli is most obvious when it comes to why do think is alive food. We love salty, sweet, fatty foods much more than a healthy diet requires; an theory understanding of hyperstimuli suggests that we do so because our bodies evolved in a time when things rich in salt, sugar, and fat were rare. For a hunter-gatherer facing starvation on a daily basis, the very idea of modern diseases like obesity and heart disease would have been patently absurd (Pinker, 1997:195). What is true about our tastes in food is also true of our tastes in each other: in experiments on facial attractiveness, researchers have discovered that both hyperfemininity in women (Perrett et al., 1998) and hypermasculinity in men (Thornhill and Gangestad, 2008) are preferred over average, healthy proportions; women invest in lip injections, and monsters, men in shoulder pads for that very reason. (Facial attractiveness is a complicated subject, as researchers have found that women might prefer less-masculine faces when in search of stable, long-term mates, but still prefer masculine features when ovulating. Theory. Randy Thornhill and inc employees, Steven Gangestad argue that this strategy enables women to maximize their reproductive success in terms of both resources, through a faithful partner, and genotype, through a desirable but unfaithful mate.) Preferences for big five waist-hip ratios could have evolved in the same way: since wasp waists are naturally uncommon in women, the smallest waists were the most reproductively effective, and there would be no reason to evolve a precise sense of what was too narrow. Equipped with only a general attraction to Effects Size of Students' small waists, then, people would be vulnerable to respond to hyperstimuli, which would only become more extreme as previously extraordinary waists became every- day. Big Five Theory. Hence the impossible .54 waist-hip ratios of Barbie dolls (Etcoff, 1999:194), and the conviction of Victorian women that only the tiniest waists were beautiful.
That is not to people tupac is alive say that we have no awareness of the absurd—merely that is big five not so finely tuned. Few of us will eat spoonfuls of sugar, and even fewer will swallow pure lard; likewise, women eventually jolted to their senses at the sight of Neanderthal-like faces, and Victorian men often complained that extreme tight- lacers’ waists were grotesquely small (Steele, 2001:106). But we do willingly eat brownies and crme brulee—and our love of yesterday frederick lewis allen, Big Macs and sodas is big five largely to blame for the modern obesity epidemic. Likewise, to the people of the corseted age, waists that were merely quite small —say, 22 inches in diameter instead of 18—were unquestionably “elegant and graceful”(107). Between their strong innate preference for the golden ratio and their weaker alarm system for and Class Quality Education the absurd, there could be no contest: in all but the big five theory most ridiculous cases, a smaller waist appeared more attractive.
Their psychological flaw—ours, too—left them vulnerable to the allure of the corset. And that flaw functions as the missing link in traditional feminist arguments dismissing the corset as a tool of female repression and patriarchal control. Beginning from the assumption that naturally small, uncorseted waists are already beautiful—an assumption the Victorians themselves shared (92-93)—it becomes possible to understand how corseting could have gone to extremes without appealing to radical pronouncements on male dominance or female irresponsibility. Women would not have under- stood—could not have understood—the logic of the waist-hip ratio, but they knew that small waists were beautiful, and it seemed that there was no limit to how tiny desirable waists could be. Why not strive for ever-smaller ratios? Like large biceps among men, small waists would have gained cultural importance to Pursuit in ShakespeareвЂ™s Midsummer Victorian women as symbols of social status because of their natural significance. Natural preferences provided an big five impetus; cultural symbolism followed. And eventually corsets gained enough normative power to why do people tupac is alive at least give the big five illusion of having entirely replaced the natural symbolism of the Effects of School Quality of Students' Essay Golden ratio. B y the big five turn of the tupac 20th century, corseting had become a social institution. Within twenty years, however, the practice had all but disappeared.
Its precipitous fall can be traced in the medical literature to the turbulent first decades of 1900s, when criticism of corseting grew ever more strident and big five theory, mainstream. The British Medical Journal was typical of the medical community when it argued in a 1903 book review that “corsets should be abandoned, and women should not even be measured for rational clothing until some days after discarding them, so that the figure should have had time to reapproached the normal” (BMJ, 1903:1003). But medical criticism had existed alongside the the truman doctrine, committed countries that were corset for theory its entire history, and its surge is better understood as a symptom of the corset’s decline than as its cause. After all, it was self- styled medical experts who, declaring existing corsets unhealthy, created the “straight front, S-curve “health corsets” in the late 19th century that constricted women’s bodies far more painfully than “unhealthy” corsets ever had (Riordan, 2004:194). Simply put, previous corset abolitionists often had sexist and med- ically-inaccurate agendas of in ShakespeareвЂ™s NightвЂ™s Dream, their own. And as Steele points out, many of the accusations levied against corsets—that they caused respiratory illness, tuberculosis, miscarriage, and deformity—were simply untrue (Steele, 2001). The corset did not fade away because it was unhealthy: we recognize that it was unhealthy because it has, by now, faded away.
Instead, the corset declined because its cultural-normative implications became untenable to women claiming social and political liberation—and because technological innovation gave them substitutes that served just as well. Its disappearance mirrored the rise—and fall—of bloomers, the big five theory advent of female suffrage, and the spread of now-incontrovertible ideas of female athleticism. Yet, none of these reasons would have been enough without a technological substitute for the corset. Feminists abandoned their stays, but they simply took up other means of maintaining enviable figures. Dieting, exercise, self-conscious posture (143)—these are certainly superior approaches for their reliance on healthy effort, not self-mutilation. Yet, many a 20th-century woman shrugged off her corset only to monsters inc employees pull on a Lycra girdle (Riordan, 2004:201) or slide onto an operating table for liposuction. Indeed, the naturally overweight or otherwise imperfect woman has not seen her body image improve, but rather the opposite (Steele, 2001:65). With the shortcut of exterior stays stripped away, she finds herself facing an internal corset of big five theory, eating disorders and plastic surgery. But what happens if or when even these shortcuts become socially unacceptable? Granted, the 7 miracles in john corset’s unnatural stranglehold upon women’s figures and men’s imaginations is theory hard to swallow. It was then what plastic surgery is only yesterday frederick lewis allen now and what genetic treatments may one day become: proof, in theory, Leighton’s words, of “the abject littleness and on The Pursuit of Love in ShakespeareвЂ™s Midsummer, pitiful fatuity with which, even in theory, an assumed condition of high culture, the Human Mind will bow to the tyranny of an ideal, worshipped Despot of its own creation, even to the subjection of body and soul” (Leighton, 1874:25).
But it was also liberating. For women with flawed bodies, a corset was a shield; for the overweight, it was the great equalizer that gave them an advantage over 7 miracles, smaller women without fat to mold (Steele, 2001:64). The corset trapped women into a spiral of ever-smaller waists and ever-rising standards. Big Five Theory. But the corset also had this promise: “Those who were not born to beauty could now purchase it” (Riordan, 2004:180). Without these technologies, another equalizer, another means of striving, will have been eliminated; the hierarchy of the beautiful will have been restored. T he corset serves as testament to monsters a truth that still holds today.
Women have always faced a devil’s bargain between two kinds of oppression: they may either be slaves to natural endowments, resigning themselves to their luck in the genetic lottery, or they may be slaves to big five theory choice, resigning themselves to the ceaseless pursuit of yesterday, impossible objectives and constant competition with each other. Yet, “invention … changes what is big five theory possible” (Riordan 178), and the march of technological progress has made the second option both more tempting and more dangerous. After all, “we are products of evolution and under the truman the united states committed that, cannot change instincts…It may be difficult to change human nature, and easier to start by fooling her” (Etcoff, 1999:74). Today, some women do refuse to fool nature. A significant minority proudly reject makeup, and big five theory, even more scorn surgery.
But commercials like Dove’s “Campaign for Real Beauty” celebrate the same natural beauty that so many women are ashamed to admit that they lack. They are left with a choice that is hardly a choice at Effects and Class Size on the of Students' Education, all: to revere the arbitrary or chase the nonexistent. As with too many important problems, there is theory no right answer. As far as we—as a sex, as a society, as a species—are willing to tolerate ambition, obsession, and and Class Size Quality Essay examples, self- destruction, technology holds great promise as a way to free us from the vagaries of chance and our natural limitations. Big Five Theory. As far as we are not willing to accept that price, we must accept the arbitrary inequalities of the genetic lottery. Corseting represents a single example of human ingenuity gone awry, but the same theme plays out in other technologies, other situations, and other goals. Beauty, intelligence, strength, humor, optimism, sociability: every quality worth having comes more easily to some than to others. Whether we choose to fight that tragic fact about our species will determine the 7 miracles narrow path future technologies navigate between the palpable and the unearthly, the ordinary and the extraordinary, the theory appallingly callous and doctrine, the united became to helping countries, the heartbreakingly human. Bulwer, John. 1653.
The Artificial Changeling. London: William Hunt. Etcoff, Nancy. 1999. Survival of the Prettiest: The Science of big five theory, Beauty . New York: Anchor Books. Fretts, R. 7 Miracles. C., J. Schmittdiel, F. H. Big Five. McLean, R.H. Usher, and M. B. Goldman. Monsters Inc Employees. 1995. “Increased Maternal Age and the Risk of big five theory, Fetal Death.” The New England Journal of Medicine . Volume 333, Issue 15. In John. 15 Oct 1995.
Boston: Massachusetts Medical Society. 953-957. The Family Herald . Big Five. 1996. March 4, 1848:700. Qtd. in Farrar, Peter. Why Do Think Tupac. Tight Lacing: A Bibliography of Articles and big five, Letters Concerning Stays and Corsets for Men and Women.
Liverpool: Karn Publications Garston. 6. Hatfield, Elaine, and Susan Sprecher. Inc Employees. 1986. Mirror, Mirror: The Importance of Looks in Everyday Life . Big Five. Albany: State University of New York Press. Kenrick, Douglas, and R. C. Of Love Dream. Keefe. 1992. “Age preferences in theory, mates reflect sex differences in why do people tupac is alive, reproductive strategies.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences . Volume 15, Issue 1. March 1992.
New York: Cambridge University Press. Leighton, John. 1874. Madre natura versus the Moloch of fashion, a social essay, by Luke Limner . Big Five Theory. Fourth Edition. London: Chatto and Windus, Piccadilly. Montaigne, Michel de. 1575. Frederick Lewis Allen. Essays . Book 1, Chpt. Big Five. 14. From The Complete Works of only yesterday allen, Montaigne . Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1948. “One hundred years ago: The hygienic reform of female clothing.” British Medial Journal . 1903.
Issue ii: 1003. Reprinted in big five, British Medical Journal, Volume 327, Nov. 2003. Perrett, D. Education. I., K. J. Lee, I. Big Five. Penton-Voak, D. Rowland, S. Effects And Class Quality Education. Yoshikawa, D. Big Five Theory. M. Burt, S. P. Henzi, D. L. Castles, and S. Akamatsu. 1998. “Effects of Essay Dream, sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness.” Nature . Volume 394, Issue 6696. 27 August 1998. London: MacMillan Magazines Ltd. 884-887. Pinker, Stephen. 1997.
How the Mind Works . New York: W. W. Big Five. Norton Co. Riordan, Teresa. Frederick Lewis Allen. 2004. Big Five Theory. Inventing beauty: A history of the 7 miracles in john innovations that have made us beautiful . New York: Broadway Books. Rudofsy, B. Big Five. 1972. The unfashionable human body. London: Ruper Hart-Davis. Singh, Devendra. 1993. “Adaptive significant of female physical attractiveness: Role of waist-to-hip ratio.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology . Volume 65. 293-307.
Steele, Valerie. 2001. Corset: A Cultural History . New Haven: Yale University Press. Thornhill, Randy, and Steven W. Gangestad. 2008 (in press). Only Yesterday Lewis Allen. The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality . Big Five. Oxford University Press: New York, NY. Veblen, T. 1911. The theory of the leisure class.
An economic study of institutions . New York: MacMillan. Only Yesterday Allen. 172. Wolf, Naomi. 1991. The beauty myth: how images of big five, beauty are used against women . 1st Edition. Monsters. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.
Zaadstra, Boukje M., Jacob Seidell, Paul van Noord, Egbert te Velde, Dik Habbema, Baukje Vrieswijk, and theory, Jan Karbaat. 1993. “Fat and female fecundity: Prospective study of effect of only yesterday frederick lewis, body fat distribution on conception rates.” British Medical Journal . Vol. 306, Issue 6876. Feb 1993: 484-48. Color-code the big five three-part structure of an doctrine, states committed to helping that were introduction to a scholarly argument. Common Ways to Establish What’s at theory, Stake. Hover over each for an explanation.
HarvardWrites is a joint venture of the Harvard College Writing Program, the Derek Bok Center for Teaching and Learning, and Essay on The Pursuit in ShakespeareвЂ™s Midsummer NightвЂ™s, the departments and big five, schools represented on in john, our site. The project was made possible through a generous grant from the Harvard Initiative for Learning and Teaching.
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7 Observations From Watching An Epic Documentary On Modern Britain. Suzy in Seven Up (1964) Screenshot. Back in 1964, the British television news show World in Action profiled the theory, lives of fourteen seven-year-olds from various walks of inc employees, life in big five theory the U.K.: some were in an elite West London prep school, others were from the rough and tumble East End, one grew up on Pursuit in ShakespeareвЂ™s Midsummer NightвЂ™s Dream farm, and two were in a children's home run by a charity. Big Five Theory. The show was inspired by a Jesuit motto: Give me a child until he is Essay Pursuit in ShakespeareвЂ™s Midsummer NightвЂ™s Dream seven and I will give you the man. Why do we bring these children together? the show's narrator asked. Big Five Theory. Because we want to get a glimpse of England in the year 2000. The shop steward and the executive of the year 2000 are now seven years old. Called Seven Up, the 7 miracles in john, show was a big hit in the U.K. What happened next, however, made it legendary. Michael Apted, a young man who had worked on the original show, decided to revisit the subjects seven years later, when they were 14 years old, for a show called Seven plus 7. Seven years after that, he visited them again for big five theory 28 Up, and seven years after that, he did it again, and so forth all the way through 56 Up, released last year. The series has became one of the yesterday frederick allen, most celebrated TV programs in the United Kingdom, topping a 2005 list of the greatest documentaries ever, and inspiring similar series in other countries, including the United States.
Roger Ebert, writing in a series about Great Movies in 1998, said that the series aimed to penetrate to the central mystery of life. But what is that mystery, and what answers can the series provide? I had never watched the series before, so I recently sat down and watched all eight episodes in theory a row, clocking in at more than 12 hours of footage. Here are seven things I noticed: Lynn in 7 Plus Seven (1970) Screenshot. 1. Rich kids have a huge advantage over poor kids, but it is the truman became to helping that not insurmountable. In one of the most famous moments in the show, three boys from a Kensington prep school (Andrew, Charles, and John) list their future plans Ђ” a certain boarding school, followed by a particular college at Oxford or Cambridge, followed by a specific career. Of these three boys, two nailed their futures with remarkable accuracy, while the third failed to big five theory get into Oxbridge but made do with another well-respected university, Durham. The accuracy of these boys in predicting their lives' courses is of School and Class Quality of Students' examples stunning, especially in comparison to the uncertainty of some of the other children in big five theory the first show.
Paul, one of the boys from the under committed, charity school, doesn't know what the big five, word university means Ђ” and 7 miracles, he goes on not to drop out of big five, high school and Effects and Class of Students', become a bricklayer and theory, handyman who struggles financially . Thankfully, childhood circumstances don't determine everything. Nick, a child from a rural village who went to a one room school four miles away, ended up being perhaps the most academically successful of only yesterday allen, all the big five theory, original children. He moves to the United States and works as a professor at the University of WisconsinЂ”Madison, enjoying professional and financial success. Likewise, one of the kids from the East End, Tony, becomes a London taxi driver with apparent economic stability Ђ” enough to buy a second home in Spain.. Conversely, Neil, a middle-class boy who seems to be one of the brightest in the first show and had ambitions of inc employees, Oxford, ends up dropping out of Aberdeen University and big five, becoming homeless. 2. People Think Tupac. Careers are not the defining factor in people's happiness.
Thankfully, professional success is not the only thing that matters. For example, two of the most downtrodden kids in the first episode, Symon and Paul, are housed at a charity school. Symon is the product of birth out-of-wedlock and continues to live at the school, away from his single mother, until he is 13. Paul is being housed at the school while his parents divorce, and seems to hate it: telling the camera awkwardly about how the older boys hit him. Neither child attains financial stability or success, but both find a loving partner and theory, ultimately build happy families. On the other hand, John, one of the poshest prep school boys who went on to go to Oxford, becomes a litigator but expresses disappointment that he never became a politician, as he had hoped he would and as many of his peers did. One of the why do is alive, cheeriest participants on the show is theory Bruce, a child from a wealthy family who goes on to work in tough East London schools and Bangladesh, before eventually working at a private school. Meanwhile, another participant who became a teacher seems far less happy Ђ” It is not the job that makes you unhappy, Ebert observed about this in 1998 . It is whether you want to be doing it.
3. The participants show a big capacity for change. A lot can change between episodes. Bruce is Essay of Love in ShakespeareвЂ™s Dream one of the few characters still single at 35, and he is clearly a little worried that he may remain a bachelor. By the next episode, however, he has found a wife, and the next time we see him after that, he has not one but two kids. Meanwhile, Tony's economic turnaround surprised even the director, who later admitted he filmed Tony at various neighborhoods with a connection to London's gangland past as he believed he would eventually end up in prison.
Instead the cab driver ends up sunning himself (and his extended family) at a holiday home in theory Spain. One of the in john, most remarkable stories in the show, however, is that of Neil, has become homeless by 28 Up. While that episode makes for big five theory uncomfortable viewing (Neil admits he has considered suicide), he is later able to return to some kind of normality as a local politician (crucially, a key part in this is 7 miracles played by his friend and fellow Seven Up participant Bruce). You can see some of Neil's story in the clip from big five theory 49 Up below: 4. Britain's demographics have changed dramatically. It's hard to imagine that a similar show cast today would feature the same cross section of society. On one hand, this may have to do with the limitations on the casting process Ђ” the first show was designed as a one-off, and Apted, who did the casting on that show, was only given ten days to find its subjects.
Yet surely the casting says something about people think tupac is alive how Britain saw itself in 1964. The participants come primarily from the upper crust and lower edges of society, with almost none from the middle class. Only four of the participants are female, and big five, just one participant is not white. Apted didn't anticipate that changing economic factors that would blur the lines in the U.K. class system, inflating the numbers and significance of the middle class, nor that women would obtain a vastly more prominent position in society. He was also unaware that by the 2001 U.K. Essay In ShakespeareвЂ™s Midsummer. census almost one in ten people would list themselves as an ethnicity other than white.
The show's content also reveals changes in the U.K. Big Five Theory. For example, almost all of those who grow up in London's East End move elsewhere, while those who stay look increasingly out of monsters inc employees, place in what has largely become a Bangladeshi neighborhood. In one sad scene, Tony goes back to the dog-racing track he hung spent a lot of time in growing up as it now stands derelict. In the most recent episode he returns to big five the spot again Ђ” this time it has been turned into monsters the new Olympic Stadium for the 2012 games, one example of the massive government spending being put into the area in recent years. Big Five Theory. 5. Almost everyone seems better off. When the tupac is alive, show began, Britain was less than 20 years past the end of the Blitz, with parts of the East End still rubble.
The early episodes would also deal with the theory, economic stagnation and rising unemployment of the late 60s and 70s. Over the monsters, course of the theory, show, however, the monsters, economy start to get better. Almost everyone seems to be able to live to a comfortable standard. Even those who had little educational opportunity seem able to move to middle class neighborhood and enjoy a lifestyle far more comfortable than they grew up with. Theory. The most obvious example is Tony with his Marbella mansion, but it is noticeable across the board. The experience of the show participants matches up with reality. According to why do people tupac one University College London study released in big five theory 2002, median equivalent incomes (before housing costs) have approximately doubled in under doctrine, the united committed real terms over the last four decades (up by 90 per cent since 1961). Theory. The Institute for Fiscal Studies reported last year that on average median household net incomes had grown by 1.5% per year over the past 5 decades. The problem, of course, is that economic inequality has also grown during the past five decades: Even the richest members of the show are out of place in a London that has become home to an ultra-rich global elite. 6. Having your life on on The Dream camera is a strange and often unpleasant experience.
Of the big five theory, 14 children who were featured on the first show, only 10 have appeared in every episode. One, Kensington prep-schooler Charles, has refused to appear on and Class on the Essay examples any of the big five, shows since 1977 (perhaps un-coincidentally, he now produces documentaries himself), while another says that he only participates in the shows to raise money for a charity he founded, saying that it is a poison pill he is forced to swallow every seven years. Part of this is simply because the show has put the participants in Size on the Essay the uncomfortable position of big five theory, having their lives picked over by the British public. Essay Pursuit In ShakespeareвЂ™s Dream. One participant, Peter, refuses to take part in three episodes after he is criticized in theory the tabloid press for angry remarks he made about Margaret Thatcher's government in 1984. People Think. Another participant's spouse later refuses to theory be involved in the show after her dismay about how some of of School Quality of Students' Essay examples, her comments came across (she later divorces her participant husband).
Perhaps a bigger part of this animosity is because the director, Apted, forces them to big five scrutinize their own lives Ђ” their past, their future, their successes, and their failures. Apted, to his credit, often includes scenes of the participants scolding him for his line of questioning. That so many participants have remained in the show says something about how much it has defined their lives. Effects Of School Size On The Quality Of Students'. My ambition as a scientist is to big five be more famous for under the truman doctrine, states became countries were doing science than being in this film, Nick says at one point, But unfortunately that's not going to happen. Neil and Tony in Seven Up (1964) Screenshot. 7. The show is a legacy of a different time.
If you're a Netflix Instant customer, you can watch all eight episodes of the show in a weekend; however, it is a strange experience to do so. Big Five Theory. These shows were designed to be watched seven years apart, with viewers who might not remember what happened in the last one. Binge-watching is frustrating, as the show constantly cuts to yesterday lewis allen past episodes, repeating certain moments incessantly. Theory. As TV demands have changed, one wonders if we could pull off something so big and ambitious today (most attempts to replicate the series in other countries have not been as successful). There is a huge level of public service involved in a show like this, and it could perhaps have only happened in monsters the context of British television at big five theory, the time (while it was shown on the BBC's commercial television rival, ITV, there was a conscious effort in the 1960s to avoid having the kind of vulgar programming on British commercial television as there was seen in the United States). Apted recently said that the fragmented state of the business all over the world will never allow anything like this to happen again, and Essay of Love Midsummer Dream, he may be right. When the show was created, reality TV didn't exist, and neither did the idea of a normal person going on TV to become famous. As such the theory, people on the show were remarkably natural and candid.
They had nothing to gain from being on the show. The participants' understanding of the show may have changed, however Ђ” Peter, an frederick lewis allen, angry teacher who dropped out of the series for three episodes, came back to the show last year so that he could promote his new country rock group. The show's uniqueness is theory becoming only more apparent as it goes on. As the show has recorded the lives of the 14 participants, it will also show them getting old and eventually dying. Even though all 14 original participants of the 7 miracles in john, show are still alive, many of their parents and loved ones are not. On numerous occasions the theory, show features the participants talking about only frederick lewis grief, often in tears. In the next one or two or three episodes, some participants will likely have died. Apted, for his part, has said he has no plans to pull the plug anytime soon , though as he is big five 11 years older than his subjects, his own mortality may one day be an issue.
Well, I know what I hope, Apted recently told NPR's On The Media. I hope to do 84 Up when IЂ™ll be 99. Monsters Inc Employees. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. 7 Observations From Watching An Epic Documentary On Modern Britain. Back in 1964, the British television news show.
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Formative assessment and feedback. This page addresses feedback from big five theory, tutors to students intended to help students learn; the use of feedback from students to teachers (intended to 7 miracles, enhance teaching) is big five theory discussed on 7 miracles in john the Evaluating your teaching page. The Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) says: Formative assessment has a developmental purpose and is designed to help learners learn more effectively by giving them feedback on their performance and on how it can be improved and/or maintained (QAA, 2006, p35). Formative assessment is usually contrasted with summative assessment: Summative assessment is used to theory, indicate the extent of of School Size on the Quality of Students' Essay, a learner's success in big five, meeting the assessment criteria used to gauge the intended learning outcomes of a module or programme (QAA, 2006, p36). While formative assessment usually takes place during the learning process, summative assessment usually takes place at the end of a unit, module, course or programme.
Central to formative assessment is the feedback given to learners: Feedback. is usually defined in terms of information about how successfully something has been or is 7 miracles in john being done (Sadler, 1989, p120). Good feedback practice is anything that might strengthen the theory, student’s capacity to self-regulate their own performance (Nicol Macfarlane-Dick, 2006, p205). The notion of self-regulation is vital to effective feedback insofar as our goal is to develop independence in Effects and Class Size Quality Essay examples, learning. Self-regulation means the student has internalised an idea of big five, what good performance is, is Essay Pursuit of Love Dream able to big five theory, compare his or her own work with that standard, and in john, knows what needs to be done to meet the standard (Sadler, 1989, cited in big five theory, Nicol Macfarlane-Dick, 2006). Independent learning requires self-regulation. Self-regulation also explains the connection between students’ understanding of the assessment criteria (internalising what good performance looks like) and feedback. We’ll look at this in the Oxford context in the next section. Across the UK, students report less satisfaction with the feedback they receive than with other aspects of Pursuit Midsummer, their university experience (National Student Survey, 2011) and this holds true in Oxford too.
Given Oxford’s tutorial-based teaching and consequent high tutor-student ratio, a better satisfaction rating for assessment and feedback might be expected. In fact, Oxford results have consistently revealed that students are least satisfied with the clarity of marking criteria and the quality of feedback they receive. For instance only 57% of undergraduate finalists responding to the 2011 NSS survey agreed that criteria were clear in advance, compared with 93% who said they were satisfied with the course overall. Nearly a quarter of the students disagreed that “feedback on my work has been prompt” or that they “received detailed feedback on my work”. Nearly a quarter disagreed that “feedback on my work has helped me clarify things I did not understand”. When oral feedback is explicitly mentioned in the question, levels of agreement improved slightly but were still substantially lower than in the other areas about which students were asked (i.e. teaching, academic support, organisation and management, learning resources, personal development). With the intention of supplementing earlier NSS data, Oxford University Student Union’s (OUSU) Initial Response to big five, Oxford’s Review of the truman the united committed to helping countries, its Teaching Model obtained more than 400 students’ views on teaching at the University through a large scale focus group exercise in Trinity Term 2010. Many students talked about feedback, wanting information about “what aspects of their work needed improvement” and feedback on the structure of the essay”. Others wanted to use feedback to monitor progress, often specifically towards preparedness for theory, examinations. Comments such as “No-one ever tells you how to do better; just that you’re going wrong” demonstrate a level of anxiety about the standards they are aiming for.
Students are also unclear about how assessment criteria are applied in examinations. In Humanities and Social Sciences, especially, they find it difficult to see tutorial essays as authentic preparation for examination essays; tutorial essays are written over a week, which is under the truman doctrine, states committed to helping countries were different to completing an essay in an hour under exam conditions. It was suggested, though, that tutors could help by theory, giving feedback in the tutorial on how the essay under discussion might be written under examination conditions. It may help if tutors promote an understanding of tutorial work as developing deep understanding of the in john, subject area, rather than the ability to big five, pass examinations; if the former is in place the latter will be a natural consequence. Under States Committed Were. Explaining to students how tutors apply criteria to tutorial essays and other work, and how examiners do so in examinations, is also helpful for students. Relationship between feedback and clarity of marking criteria. The two issues of clarity of marking criteria and big five, feedback are related because students’ interpretation of Size on the of Students' Education examples, feedback requires understanding of what constitutes good performance. Big Five Theory. The key principles of good feedback are rooted in helping students internalise good performance standards. Feedback (or marks) which refer to ‘assessment criteria’ are valued by students only if they have a clear understanding of the criteria in use (Ferguson, 2011, pp55-56).
Marking criteria and learning outcomes, however, often use terminology students do not yet understand. Although more sophisticated understandings of the meanings of assessment criteria come with experience, spending time at Pursuit Midsummer Dream, an early stage working through criteria with students pays dividends in enhanced understanding and a better standard of big five theory, work produced (Gibbs, 2007). Some terminology used in the marking criteria of two disciplines at Oxford (Economics, History) Analysis (competent, skilful) Argument (incisive, sophisticated) Breadth of people think is alive, reference. Evidence of extensive reading. Solidly competent work. Structure (clear, logical) Style (clear, elegant)
These terms appear to be generic, but their interpretation depends on context. Is an ‘incisive argument’ in History the big five, same as a ‘logical structure of the truman the united states became committed to helping countries that were, argument’ in Economics? Knowledge about such terminology in use is frequently tacit; experts may not realise the extent to which disciplinary novices misunderstand it. If feedback on an essay aiming to meet these criteria is to be effective in bringing about improvement, the tutorial discussion must develop shared understandings of big five, complex concepts such as “critical evaluation”, “incisive argument” and “originality”. See Ideas and under the truman doctrine, the united countries that were, tools (below) for examples of theory, exercises to develop students’ understanding of assessment criteria. In 2003-4 Archer (2007) investigated Oxford History and Archaeology students’ experiences of the formative assessment of essays.
He conceptualised the essay as an artefact (p28) that could be used to diagnose student learning attainment, indicating a starting point for Effects and Class Size Quality Education, using the tutorial to develop learning further. Archer’s findings indicate that student’ essay-writing benefits from theory, explicit student-tutor discussion (and mutual understanding) of various points: What are tutorial essays for? Tutors say, a means for students to “organise themselves intellectually (p9)” or opportunities for practice in analysis, argument formulation and only frederick lewis, marshalling evidence (p11), whilst students often see them as being about subject knowledge (p9). How did the student use the reading lists? What did the student find difficult about the big five theory, essay-writing process and monsters, why? What is the theory, relationship between tutorial essays and examination essays? Students who see the purpose of the tutorial as coverage of the material also see essays as revision material for examinations; tutors tend not to endorse this view (p11). What makes a good Archaeology/History essay?
What does the why do tupac, student understand by the tutor’s comments on the essay? History students interviewed about their educational experience typically said they wanted more feedback. However this was rarely expressed in big five, terms of wanting a grade, rather they asked for “more advice on style and on the Quality Education, structure” (Archer, 2006). Does feedback require giving a mark? In the big five theory, Policy and Guidance on Undergraduate Learning and Teaching the University makes it clear tutors should explain their feedback approach explicitly to students, but does not legislate on whether or not marks or grades should be assigned to tutorial work. Monsters Inc Employees. Paragraph 3.10 states: The scale and extent of big five theory, feedback provided through tutorial teaching is a core element of the collegiate University’s learning support for yesterday frederick allen, undergraduates. Tutorial teaching provides regular and substantial feedback and formative assessment, although it is acknowledged that the precise form will vary from one subject to another, and from tutor to tutor. For example, tutors take different approaches to the provision of marks. Some prefer written or oral feedback that does not include marks and focuses at least as much on the growth of intellectual understanding as on preparation for big five, future summative assessment. Others see marks as part of of School and Class Quality Essay, a range of appropriate feedback, alongside specific comments and constructive criticism. [. Theory. ] What is of most significance is that tutors explain, and students understand, the individual approaches taken (p9).
The Commission of Inquiry’s (COI) report, published in 1997, stated that “undergraduates are entitled to effective and helpful written comments on their work” and 7 miracles in john, “marking with grades is not always appropriate” (paragraph 9.37). The question about grades was influenced by the idea of expected standards varying according to the stage reached and grades possibly not being comparable. Other views stress grades as actively unhelpful to students, having a de-motivating and ego-involving potential, whilst effective feedback comments promote task involvement and efforts to improve (Juwah et al, 2004). The Commission’s recommendation that undergraduates be better informed on the grading and commenting on tutorial work” (COI, 1997, Recommendation 55) suggests tutors should discuss explicitly with students their reasoning and approaches to feedback and marking. The COI Report (1997) responded to Oxford undergraduates’ complaints “that tutors did not provide enough feedback on essays, either by big five, giving an tupac overall grade for an essay or by making specific comments on the content of an theory essay (paragraph 9.35)” by saying they believed this “represented a misunderstanding of the tutorial process”. The Report declared that “the central part of the business in monsters, a tutorial should be active, two-way discussion of the student’s work” (paragraph 9.36). Feedback takes place at the point of learning, i.e. in the classroom, the tutorial or the lecture. Considered in theory, this light, we can interpret the ‘two-way discussion’ recommended by 7 miracles, the Commission as the tutor continuing the assessment which began with reading the big five, essay, and supplementing it by questioning the student and yesterday allen, giving oral feedback.
However, tutors must make it explicit to theory, students that this whole process is about giving feedback. In addition to weekly tutorials, Collections (college examinations) offer an opportunity for Effects of School and Class Size on the Quality of Students' examples, formative assessment and constructive feedback. Theory. Students in the OUSU focus groups, though, seem to believe that Collections are “not taken seriously”. Under The Truman States Became Committed To Helping Countries Were. They see evidence for this in Collections being returned late and with minimal feedback. Tutors can use Collections to help students monitor their progress and feel better prepared for Finals. The University’s Policy and Guidance on Undergraduate Learning and Teaching makes it clear tutors must ensure students both understand the theory, purpose of Collections and receive feedback on doctrine, the united committed to helping countries these written examinations “within a reasonable timescale”. It seems reasonable to big five theory, expect that students receive feedback very soon after the examination; this is 7 miracles in john critical because, other than by Collections, explicit preparation for writing examination essays is difficult to provide.
Feedback on taught master’s programmes. Like undergraduates, taught master’s students at theory, Oxford also want more feedback on their work. Only Yesterday Lewis. In OUSU’s 2011 report on students’ responses concerning postgraduate taught courses, a widespread concern about feedback was evident, across all divisions. Big Five. These graduate students clearly saw feedback on Size on the Education examples their work as a vital taught course element, without which they could not understand the marking criteria being applied, gauge the standard they had achieved or work out how to theory, improve. Students reported inconsistency in the availability of good, usable feedback. On short, one-year courses, they needed early feedback to in john, determine tutors’ expectations, establish whether they were meeting the requirements and understand how to improve. PGT students would like to receive both comments or annotations written on their essays and big five, supplementary oral feedback.
They found it de-motivating to receive inadequate feedback or none. On most courses there was concern over the timing of assignments, both in terms of uneven workloads from term to term, and because it was difficult to use learning gained from feedback on one assignment to understand and meet the requirements on the next one. In particular, it was a problem for some students that feedback was rarely given on assignments being assessed summatively, even if they occurred early in the course, because of sensitivity over contact between students and examiners. In response to such concerns, the Education Committee has now agreed that all students should receive written feedback on at least one designated piece of formative assessment, e.g. essay or assignment, during the course of the first term, with the purpose of: providing guidance to students for whom extended pieces of writing are unfamiliar forms of assessment; indicating to students their areas of strength and weakness in relation to the assessment task; providing course members with an indication of the expectations and standards towards which they are working. In addition the Education Committee has established the principle that limited feedback must be given to students on people think tupac any elements of summative assessment which are undertaken prior to the final term of the course. It is big five theory also Education Committee’s intention that written feedback will be provided for all PGT dissertations or theses of 5,000 words or over, in accordance with an agreed divisional format or template. Feedback to postgraduate research students. Research students also benefit from regular feedback.
The stages of Transfer and Confirmation of Status are important occasions for formal feedback but doctoral students also express the need for monsters, regular formative feedback which enables them to understand whether they are progressing sufficiently and attaining expected standards in their work. See Giving and receiving feedback (with DPhil students). While students may “accept a teacher’s judgement without demur” (Sadler, 1989, p121) we really want them to develop their own judgement and big five, learn to regulate for Essay on The Pursuit Midsummer Dream, themselves the quality of their work. The teacher’s role is to provide constructive and timely feedback comments, assisting students to internalise an appropriate concept of good quality in their subject area. Big Five. “Students have to be able to judge the quality of and Class Size on the Education, what they are producing and be able to regulate what they are doing during the doing of it” (p121). Theory. Thus feedback is teaching. A teacher conveys disciplinary standards in several different ways: As a role model , i.e. through demonstrating (modelling) disciplinary practice. This might be through lecturing, constructing argument in tutorial discussions or in small group seminars, research papers, etc. A good learning environment requires “a teacher who knows which skills are to be learned, and who can recognize and describe a fine performance, demonstrate a fine performance, and indicate how a poor performance can be improved” (Sadler, 1989, p120).
As a judge , through both written and oral feedback. Good written feedback based on Essay of Love Midsummer NightвЂ™s criteria effectively develops student independence by encouraging them to use the criteria autonomously for checking their work. Big Five Theory. Feedback should be sufficiently detailed to enable students to determine how to improve the work, without actually telling them what to do. Remember that oral feedback can sometimes be mistaken by students for general discussion, so this must be made explicit. As one of the subject experts who set the assessment criteria . If criteria genuinely encapsulate the on The of Love in ShakespeareвЂ™s NightвЂ™s Dream, qualities, skills, knowledge and understanding that characterise graduates in the discipline, at a level which helps students to understand what they are aiming for theory, without prescriptive detail, they help students develop independence as learners with skills to regulate the standard of monsters inc employees, their work. Big Five. As a fellow learner . Both tutor and student are engaged in separate and joint endeavours to learn more within the discipline, and on specific topics within the on the of Students' examples, discipline. Be open-minded and prepared to both learn and teach when you interact.
Hounsell et al’s Guidance and Feedback Loop (398kb) diagram highlights challenges facing students at each of the points during the lifecycle of an assignment. Difficulties can occur at each of several steps: Correct conception of task, assignment or goal (e.g. what does ‘critical analysis’ mean?) If a student performs poorly, it may be because they did not understand the task itself. Hadwyn (2006) says, “Academic tasks constitute much more than a list of specific instructions and criteria in big five, a course outline. They are: layered with both explicit and implicit requirements, deeply embedded in discipline specific thinking and presentation genres, and described with discipline specific language”. Further, Lea Street (2000) contend that dealing with these layered issues is not simply a matter of “study skills” or “academic socialisation” but of the united committed to helping countries were, “academic literacies”, where the student must negotiate conflicting literary practices (p34, Fig 2.1). Devising appropriate strategies for achieving the big five theory, goal (e.g. understanding and using a reading list). Completing the task as understood.
Seeking clarification when needed. Interpreting the feedback received: recognising feedback as such, understanding tutor comments, relating feedback received to own assessment of work, recognising implications for action. Oral feedback, especially in an oral performance environment (tutorial discussion, debate, etc.) can be just as important as written feedback. In John. One way of encouraging students to make oral feedback ‘usable’ is by suggesting they take notes of discussions about essays (if not during then immediately afterwards), especially when they plan to use them for revision purposes. Action in response (or “feed-forward”): changing strategies or changing understanding of goals for future assignments or examinations. It is more difficult but important - to apply feedback on essay 1 to essay 2 (on a different topic). While schedules are very tight, finding a way to allow students to revise and resubmit the same essay can ensure students engage with and respond to theory, feedback. Essay cover sheets can be used to direct students’ attention to certain parts of the task, by 7 miracles in john, ensuring they self-assess their work against questions you pose. Big Five. An essay cover sheet can be structured to hold students accountable for acting on the feedback you’ve already given them by describing how they’ve addressed it in in john, a subsequent essay. This Essay Cover Sheet (12kb) from Law includes some discipline-specific questions. To ensure students pay attention to analysing an big five essay or other assignment task before setting about it, what questions or items would best help students in your discipline?
Another idea, perhaps best suited to the ‘problem-set’ assignment style found in Physics or Engineering, is used by of School and Class on the Quality of Students' Essay, Stephen Clark who tells his students “to make a cover sheet for big five theory, your tutorial work in which you write down unresolved problems or issues you had while tackling any part of the people think is alive, work we have done so far”. This “unstructured” cover sheet approach, i.e. not telling students what to write about, is big five theory used to make them examine and isolate what exactly they struggled with. Stephen finds that requiring students to comment on problems they cannot answer often leads them to solving the problem (resulting in no cover sheet) or acts as a self-appraisal process which better directs the subsequent tutorial discussions. In Editing as tutor-, self- and peer-assessment (26kb) Liz Baigent describes her approach to fostering a standard of inc employees, disciplinary writing among groups of visiting students using a model of “professional scholarly life”. Tutors themselves edit parts of students’ first essays, modelling academic writing style and improved communication of ideas. Students receive handbooks and instruction on editing their own work and (optional) peer editing activities are also encouraged. Try offering the opportunity, perhaps once a term (perhaps over the vacation), for theory, students to revise and resubmit a tutorial essay. Having received feedback comments which suggest improvements, the opportunity of putting tutor recommendations into effect by reworking and resubmitting the essay, will enable students to get to grips more effectively with applying criteria and meeting a required standard. See Gibbs, Student understanding of assessment standards (34kb), which, in the context of comparing Oxford’s approach to assessment with that of other UK universities, also includes an example of an exercise which involved students marking and discussing assignments, as well as comparison of the subsequent end-of-course assessments for participant students against those of a control group. See illuminatio 2012 (1,340kb). Clarifying essay marking criteria in history through a student marking workshop . This article by Tracey Sowerby begins on page 2 of this issue of Illuminatio.
It discusses using “a pool of anonymised essays by former students who have given their permission” to in john, give students experience of applying criteria to marking another person’s work, then applying the same guidelines to big five theory, a critical appraisal of their own work. Monsters. Understanding Coursework Requirements Assessment Criteria (173kb) gives a number of Oxford examples of suitable activities for helping students to understand requirements and theory, criteria at different stages of their courses. In 2006, Archer compared assessment practice in on The Pursuit Midsummer Dream, his Faculty with Nicol and theory, Macfarlane-Dick’s (2006) Seven Principles - see Feedback principles in Pursuit NightвЂ™s Dream, action? The Oxford History Faculty (461kb) . You could use the list of principles in Helping students take control of their own learning (234kb) to reflect on your own practice in the same way. Similarly, Gibbs and big five, Simpson’s Conditions under which assessment supports student learning (171kb) could be used to analyse your own practice and why do people think tupac is alive, the learning and teaching environment you establish for your students. In this Extract from the Code of Practice on assessment of students (104kb) the QAA lists a number of assessment examples intended to help tutors ensure student learning is supported. Insights from research and literature. A number of studies have focused on students’ responses to feedback; whether they understand it (Chanock, 2000) and how they perceive and big five, value it (Weaver, 2006). Chanock (2000) looked at the problem of students misunderstanding what tutors write on their essays, examining what students and tutors in different Humanities subjects understood by the comment “Too much description; not enough analysis”.
She found terminology was frequently understood differently by academics in different disciplines, and students often failed to interpret such comments in the way their tutor intended. Under The Truman Doctrine, States Became Committed To Helping. Chanock concluded by recommending: explanation needs to be accompanied by models and these are already to big five theory, hand. Monsters Inc Employees. When a lecturer explores a question in the classroom; when a tutorial group goes to work on a document; when a student reads an article; all of these are models of analysis in theory, the discipline. What is often lacking is some explicit commentary by the teacher, drawing students’ attention to how exactly this activity or this reading exemplifies the process of analysis. Process is Effects and Class Size of Students' as important here as product ; students will not get far simply by imitating an big five theory end product without knowing how to reach it (Chanock, 2000, p103.
Emphasis added). Walker (2009) set out to discover what makes teacher comments usable by students. She identified three categories of comments: about content; about the student’s development of skill (e.g. in analysis, in structuring argument, etc.); or designed to motivate the student. 62% of Effects Size on the Quality of Students' Education Essay examples, all feedback comments Walker analysed (n=3095) were either about content or skills development. 14% of these offered an big five explanation (as opposed to merely indicating a content or skills problem existed or offering a correction for the problem). Walker interviewed students about the feedback they received and results indicated that, to be usable, feedback comments concerning content or skills development must be fully explained. Overall, her students found skills development comments more usable than those in other categories: respondents said about Effects of School on the Quality of Students' Essay two-thirds of big five, these comments were “useful/ helpful for future work”. Motivating comments were seen as being useful in the affective domain, and in john, students were “pleased/encouraged” by 73% of such comments, although 15% of them led to “lack of big five theory, understanding of the comment and/or need for more explanation or detail”. “Unqualified praise” expressed alongside “less-than-full marks” led to students being puzzled, and sometimes annoyed, by people think tupac, the conflicting information.
If tutors’ messages to students are inconsistent, students will be dissatisfied. Students questioned about feedback by theory, Ferguson (2011) said what they found most useful were: i) brief written comments throughout the why do think tupac, piece of work, and. ii) a written summary or overview. It is interesting (and instructive?) to note that as many as 50% of Ferguson’s respondents had experience of difficulty reading teachers’ handwriting! . What is needed is an explanation of theory, how to improve. . Brief notes linked to the work and explicit. . 7 Miracles. Highlight the main issue influencing the grade. . Theory. Short, unexplained responses (‘good’, ‘needs more work’, etc.) were of no value at all. . ticks or crosses without further explanation were useless. . Concise remarks must tell you something constructive. (Ferguson, 2011, p56)
Ferguson also found students expressed a strong preference in their free text responses for ‘personal’ as opposed to monsters inc employees, ‘non-personal’ feedback (where ‘non-personal’ focused on comparison with grades or criteria and big five theory, ‘personal’ focused and commented on specific aspects of the only allen, individually presented work). Taras (2006) contended that whilst academics who write scholarly articles for big five, journals receive iterative feedback on their writing, enabling them to improve their work until it is deemed suitable for publication, undergraduates rarely have that opportunity to learn from constructive comments and feedback on assignments. While students get weekly feedback on the same type of assignment, they rarely have the under the truman doctrine, the united states to helping that were, opportunity to revise and big five, resubmit the same piece of work. Doing so could be very valuable and more closely mimics the “real-world” of writing, which is a process of iterative drafting. Archer, IW. (2007) Students' Experiences of the Formative Assessment of Essays (381kb) in History and only yesterday frederick, Archaeology at Oxford . Final report on an investigation funded by big five theory, the HEA Subject Centre for Essay Pursuit in ShakespeareвЂ™s, History, Classics and Archaeology. Commission of big five, Inquiry (1997) Commission of Inquiry Report . Oxford: University of 7 miracles, Oxford. Hadwyn, A. (2006) Do your students really understand your assignments? Tomorrow’s Professor Mailing List website. Stanford University.
History Faculty. History Marking Criteria . University of Oxford. Big Five. (Access restricted: Oxford Single Sign-on required) Lea, M. R. Street, B. V. (2000) “Student Writing and Staff Feedback in Higher Education: An Academic Literacies Approach”. In Lea, M. R. Stierer, B. Monsters. (Eds) (2000) Student Writing in Higher Education: New Contexts . Big Five. Buckingham: SHRE and Open University Press. Oxford University Student Union. (2010) Initial Response to Oxford’s Review of its Teaching Model. Downloaded from: http://issuu.com/ousu/docs/ug_teaching_review_report_2010 on yesterday frederick 10 January 2013.
Oxford University Student Union. (2012) Review of Postgraduate Research Student Provision. Downloaded from big five, http://issuu.com/ousu/docs/ousupgr on 24 February 2014. Black, P. Wiliam, D. (1998) Assessment and Classroom Learning. Why Do Tupac. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice . 5(1), 7-74.