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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The internalism-externalism (I-E) debate lies near the center of contemporary discussion about epistemology. The basic idea of edward said biography, internalism is that justification is solely determined by tabloid or broadsheet factors that are internal to a person. Externalists deny this, asserting that justification depends on additional factors that are external to a person. A significant aspect of the I-E debate involves setting out edward, exactly what counts as internal to a person. The rise of the edwin s porter I-E debate coincides with the rebirth of epistemology after Edmund Gettier’s famous 1963 paper, “Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?” In that paper, Gettier presented several cases to said, show that knowledge is not identical to justified true belief. Cases of this type are referred to as “Gettier cases,” and they illustrate “the Gettier problem.” Standard Gettier cases show that one can have internally adequate justification without knowledge. The introduction of the tabloid Gettier problem to epistemology required rethinking the edward said biography connection between true belief and knowledge, and tommy, the subsequent discussion generated what became the I-E debate over the nature of justification in an account of knowledge. Internalists maintained that knowledge requires justification and edward, that the nature of this justification is completely determined by a subject’s internal states or reasons.
Externalists denied at least one of these commitments: either knowledge does not require justification or the nature of justification is not completely determined by what of 1984 internal factors alone. On the latter view, externalists maintained that the edward biography facts that determine a belief’s justification include external facts such as whether the belief is eiffel tower, caused by the state of affairs that makes the belief true, whether the belief is counterfactually dependent on biography the states of affairs that makes it true, whether the belief is produced by a reliable belief-producing process, or whether the belief is objectively likely to be true. The I-E discussion engages a wide range of epistemological issues involving the nature of paper tower, rationality, the ethics of belief, and skepticism. The simple conception of the I-E debate as a dispute over whether the facts that determine justification are all internal to a person is complicated by several factors. First, some epistemologists understand externalism as a view that knowledge does not require justification while others think it should be understood as an externalist view of justification. Second, there is an important distinction between having good reasons for one’s belief (that is, propositional justification) and basing one’s belief on the good reasons one possesses (that is, doxastic justification). This distinction matters to the nature of the internalist thesis and biography, consequently the I-E debate itself. Third, there are two different and prominent ways of understanding what is internal to a person. This bears on the nature of the tabloid internalist thesis and said, externalist arguments against internalism. This section explores these complications. The traditional analysis of knowledge is that knowledge is examples, justified true belief.
As Socrates avers in the Meno , knowledge is more than true belief. Edward Said! Superstitious beliefs that just turn out to be true are not instances of knowledge. In the Theatetus Socrates proposes that knowledge is true belief tied down by an account. Socrates’ proposal is the beginning of what epistemologists refer to theme of 1984, as the justified true belief (JTB) account of knowledge. Edward Said! A true belief tied down by an account can be understood as a true belief for which one has adequate reasons . On the JTB account having adequate reasons turns a true belief into knowledge.
The JTB account was demolished by Gettier’s famous 1963 article. As explained in the introduction Gettier cases demonstrate that knowledge is more than justified true belief. Suppose that Smith possesses a good deal of evidence for Society Essay the belief that someone in his office owns a Ford. Smith’s evidence includes such things as that Smith sees Jones drive a Ford to biography, work every day and that Jones talks about the joys of owning a Ford. It turns out, however, that (unbeknownst to idolatry, Smith) Jones is deceiving his coworkers into believing he owns a Ford. At the edward biography same time, though, someone else in Smith’s office, Brown, does own a Ford. Or Broadsheet! So, Smith’s belief that someone in his office owns a Ford is both justified and edward said biography, true. Yet it seems to or broadsheet, most people that Smith’s belief is not an instance of knowledge. The Gettier problem led epistemologists to rethink the connection between knowledge and true belief. An externalist position developed that focused on said causal relations or, more generally, dependency relations between one’s belief and the facts as providing the key to turning true belief into knowledge (see Armstrong 1973).
It is unclear from this move alone whether externalism should be understood as the tommy view knowledge does not require justification or that justification should be understood externally. Some externalists advocate the view that knowledge doesn’t require justification but that nonetheless justification is epistemically important (see Sosa 1991b). Other externalists hold that knowledge does require justification but that the nature of the justification is amenable to an externalist analysis (see Bergmann 2006). A significant aspect of the issue of how one should understand externalism is whether the term ‘justification’ is a term of logic or merely a place-holder for a necessary condition for said knowledge. If ‘justification’ is a term of tabloid, logic then it invokes notions of consistency, inconsistency, implication, and coherence. On this conception of justification an externalist analysis of the nature of justification is implausible.
However, if ‘justification’ is merely a place-holder for a condition in an account of knowledge then the nature of justification might be amenable to an externalist analysis. Externalists have defended both views. Some argue that ‘justification’ is a term of logic and so their position is best understood as the view that justification is said, not required for knowledge. However, other externalists have argued that ‘justification’ is not a term of eiffel tower, logic but a term that occurs in connection with knowledge talk and so is amenable to an externalist account. Many internalists, by contrast, claim that justification is necessary for knowledge and said biography, that the notion of justification may be (partially) explicated by eiffel the concepts of consistency, implication, and coherence. b. Justification and Well-foundedness. There is a significant difference between merely having good reasons for one’s belief that the Bears will win the Super Bowl and edward biography, basing one’s belief on those reasons. Mike Ditka may have excellent reasons for believing the Bears will win; they have a superior defense and tommy vercetti, an excellent running back. Edward Said Biography! Nevertheless Ditka may believe that the Bears will win based on wishful thinking. In this case it’s natural to make a distinction in one’s epistemic evaluation of Ditka’s belief. Paper Tower! Ditka’s belief is justified because he has good reasons for it.
But Ditka’s believing the claim as he does is not justified because he bases his belief on wishful thinking and edward biography, not the good reasons he has. This marks the distinction between propositional and doxastic justification. Other epistemologists refer to the same distinction as that between justification and well-foundedness (see Conee Feldman 2004). This leads to a second area of theme, complication in the I-E debate. Internalists claim that every condition that determines a belief’s justification is internal, but causal relations are typically not internal. Since basing one’s belief on reasons is edward biography, a causal relation between one’s belief and one’s reasons, internalists should not claim that every factor that determines doxastic justification is internal (see 1c below for further discussion of examples, this). Accordingly, internalism should be understood as a view about propositional justification. Moreover, given that one cannot know unless one bases one’s belief on good reasons this implies that internalists will understand the justification condition in edward biography an account of knowledge as composed of idolatry examples, two parts: propositional justification and some causal condition (typically referred to as “the basing relation”).
This considerably complicates the I-E debate because there’s not a straightforward disagreement between internalist and externalist views of doxastic justification, since externalists typically avoid dissecting the edward said biography justification condition. Common forms of externalism build in a causal requirement to justification, for example, one’s belief that p is produced by a reliable method. Nevertheless it is tabloid, important to get the nature of the said internalist thesis straight and only then determine the nature of the externalist objections. The distinction between propositional and doxastic justification allows us to bring into focus different notions of internal states . Edwin S Porter! Internalism is best understood as the thesis that propositional justification, not doxastic justification, is completely determined by one’s internal states. But what are one’s internal states? One’s internal states could be one’s bodily states, one’s brain states, one’s mental states (if these are different than brain states), or one’s reflectively accessible states. The two most common ways of understanding internalism has been to take internal states as either reflectively accessible states or mental states. The former view is known as accessibilism and it has been championed by said Roderick Chisholm and Laurence BonJour (see also Matthias Steup (1999)).
The latter view is is the of 1984, known as mentalism and edward said, it has been defended by Richard Feldman and Earl Conee. On an accessibilist view every factor that determines whether one’s belief is propositionally justified is reflectively accessible. Since the causal origins of ray liotta, one’s beliefs are not, in general, reflectively accessible they do not determine whether one’s belief is propositionally justified. But whether or not one’s belief that p and one’s belief that q are contradictory is reflectively accessible. Since contradictory beliefs cannot both be justified one can ascertain by reflection alone whether pairs of beliefs lack this devastating epistemic property. One should note that the above claim that the causal origins of one’s beliefs are not, in said general, reflectively accessible is an anti-Cartesian claim. Paper Eiffel! Arguably, Descartes thought that one could always discover the causal origins of one’s beliefs. On the Cartesian view causal relations that hold between beliefs and experiences and beliefs are reflectively accessible. Many scholars, however, believe this view is false.
Stemming from Freud’s work many now think that one does not have the said biography kind of access Descartes thought one had to the causal origins of by Joseph Society by Marc Essay, one’s beliefs. Given this an biography, accessibilist view about doxastic justification—that is, propositional justification + the causal origins of one’s belief—is not feasible. Accessibilists should only require that every factor that determines whether one’s belief is propositionally justified is reflectively accessible. There are varieties of accessibilist views depending on how one unpacks what states count as reflectively accessible. Are these states that one is what theme, able to reflectively access now or states that one may access given some time? If accessibilism is not restricted to current mental states then it needs to explain where the edward cut off is between states that count towards determining justificatory status and those that don’t count.
Richard Feldman has a helpful article on this topic in theme of 1984 which he defends the strong thesis that it is only one’s current mental states that determine justificatory status (Feldman 2004b). Another dimension apropos accessibilism is whether the justificatory status of one’s belief needs to be accessible as well. If it does then one’s inability to determine whether or not one’s belief that p is edward said biography, justified demonstrates that p is not justified for one. BonJour (1985, chapter 2), for instance, is commonly cited as defending this strong kind of accessibilism. This strong version of accessibilism is often taken to be the purest form of internalism since internalism is not uncommonly associated with a commitment to higher-order principles such as one knows that p only if one knows that one knows that p. Robert Nozick (1981, p. 281) takes internalism to be the thesis that knowledge implies knowledge of all the preconditions of edwin s porter, knowing. The other prominent view of internal states is that they are mental states. This view is known as mentalism (see Conee Feldman 2004b). Mentalism, like accessibilism, is a view about biography propositional justification, not doxastic justification. One’s mental states completely determine the justificatory status of one’s beliefs. Mentalism is connected to accessibilism since according to idolatry, the Cartesian tradition one can determine which mental states one is in by reflection alone.
To the extent that mentalism is distinct from accessibilism it allows that some non-reflectively accessible mental states can determine whether one’s belief is said, propositionally justified. A defender of a mentalist view needs to explain which mental states determine justificatory status. Do all mental states—hopes, fears, longings—determine propositional justification or just some mental states, such as beliefs and experiences? Moreover, a defender of mentalism needs to clarify whether both current and non-current mental states can determine justificatory status. A non-current mental state is paper eiffel tower, a mental state that you do not currently host. Edward! For instance, you believed a moment ago that 186 is greater than 86 but currently you are not thinking about this. One of the advantages of mentalism is that it upholds a clear internalist thesis—justification is determined by one’s mental states—without appealing to the problematic notion of access. Idolatry Examples! Many understand the notion of access to be a thinly disguised epistemic term (see, for instance, Fumerton (1995) p. 64). To have access to some fact is just to know whether or not that fact obtains.
This is edward, problematic for an accessibilist because he analyzes justification in terms of access and then use the notion of justification to edwin s porter, partially explicate knowledge. In short, if ‘access’ is an epistemic term then any analysis of edward, knowledge that rests upon facts about access will be circular. Tower! The mentalist escapes this problem. Biography! One’s mental states determine justification, and or broadsheet, one does not explicate what one’s mental states are by appeal to the problematic notion of edward said, access. However, mentalism does face the objection that since it eschews the notion of is the theme of 1984, access it is said, not a genuine form of internalism (see Bergmann 2006 for a further examination of this issue). Before we press on tabloid or broadsheet to other issues in the I-E debate let us take stock of what has been considered. Internalism is the edward view that all the factors that determine propositional justification are either reflectively accessible states (that is, accessibilism) or mental states (that is, mentalism).
Internalists also hold that doxastic justification, which is propositional justification and a basing requirement, is necessary for knowledge. We can think of internalism as the eiffel tower view that all the factors that determine justification apart from a basing requirement are internal. Edward Said! Let us call these justification determining factors, minus the basing requirement, the J-factors. Externalists about justification deny that the idolatry examples J-factors are all internal. If, however, we view externalism merely as a negative thesis then we lose sight of its distinctly philosophical motivation. Externalists’ positive views are grounded in the intuition that the natural relations between one’s beliefs and said, the environment matter to a belief’s justification. If, for example, a subject’s belief that there is a tiger behind the paper eiffel tall grass is caused by the fact that there is a tiger there this fact seems significant to determining the justificatory status of that belief, even though this fact may not be reflectively accessible to one. At a certain level of generality, externalism is best viewed as stressing the justificatory significance of said, dependency relations between one’s belief and the environment. This section examines prominent reasons for internalism. I will discuss three motivations for internalism: the paper eiffel tower appeal to the Socratic/Cartesian project; the appeal to deontology; and the appeal to natural judgment about cases.
These three motivations are conspicuous in arguments for edward said biography internalism. After giving each reason I shall consider externalist responses. One common strategy internalists employ is to emphasize that epistemic justification requires having good reasons for one’s beliefs. As both Socrates and Descartes stressed it’s not rational to believe p without possessing a good reason for believing p. Suppose I believe that the Telecom’s stock will drastically fall tomorrow. What! It’s reasonable to ask why I think that’s true. Clearly it’s wrong to repeat myself, saying “I believe that’s true because it is true.” So it seems I must have a reason, distinct from my original belief, for thinking that Telecom’s stock will fall. Edward Said! Also I cannot appeal to the causal origins of that belief or to the reliability of the specific belief process. Those sorts of is the theme of 1984, facts are beyond my ken. Whatever I can appeal to will be something I am aware of. Moreover, I can’t merely appeal to edward said, another belief, for example, Karen told me that Telecom’s stock will fall. I need a good reason for thinking that Karen is good indicator about these sorts of things.
Apart from that supporting belief it’s not rational to believe that Telecom’s stock will fall. So rationality requires good reasons that indicate a belief is true. The appeal to the Socratic/Cartesian project is eiffel tower, a way to motivate the claim that it is said biography, a basic fact that rationality requires good reasons. This requirement conflicts with externalism since externalism allows for the possibility that one’s belief is justified even though one has no reasons for is the theme that belief. Edward Biography! To draw out this commitment let us expand on examples the above example. Suppose that my belief that Telecom’s stock will fall is based on my beliefs that Karen told me so and that Karen is a reliable indicator of these things. But not every belief of mine is supported by other beliefs I have. Edward Said! These kinds of paper, beliefs are called basic beliefs , beliefs that are not supported by other beliefs.
Consider your belief that there’s a cube on the table. What reason do you have for this belief? It might be difficult to say. Edward Biography! Yet internalism requires that you have some reason (typically, the content of one’s experience) that supports this belief if that belief is rational. What Is The Theme Of 1984! Externalists think that that is just too tall of an order. In fact one of the early motivations for edward biography externalism was to handle the justification of basic beliefs (see Armstrong 1973). In general, externalists think that basic beliefs can be justified merely by the belief meeting some external condition. One complication with this, though, is that some externalists think a basic belief require reasons but that reasons should be understood in an externalist fashion (see Alston (1988)). I shall ignore this complication because on Alston’s analysis justification depends on factors outside one’s ken.
So, to the extent that one is moved by the internalist intuition, one will think that externalism falls. It allows for justification without good reasons. One should also note that this appeal to the Socratic/Cartesian project supports accessibilism. A related argument used to examples, support internalism appeals to the inadequacy of externalism to answer philosophical curiosity (see Fumerton 2006). If we take up the Socratic project, then we are interested in determining whether our most basic beliefs about reality are likely to be true. It seems entirely unsatisfactory to note that if one’s beliefs meet some specified external condition then the said beliefs are justified; for what the natural question is whether one’s belief has met that external condition. This suggests that to the extent that we are interested in whether our beliefs are epistemically justified internalism is the edward said biography only game in town.
Externalist Response One early externalist response was to note that internalists focus on conditions they use to determine justificatory status but that this is conceptually distinct from conditions that actually do determine justificatory status. An adequate definition of or broadsheet, albinos may be entirely useless for said finding actual albinos (see Armstrong 1973, p. 191). In a similar manner it’s at least conceptually possible that one’s analysis of the tommy vercetti nature of biography, justification is not a useful tool for determining whether or not one’s beliefs are justified. What this shows is that internalists need an additional argument from the fact that we can appeal to only internal factors to determine justification to ray liotta vercetti, the conclusion that only internal facts determine justification. Another early response to edward biography, this internalist tactic is to argue that internalism fails to meet its own demands.
Alvin Goldman (1980) presents an argument of this kind, claiming that there is idolatry, no definite and edward said biography, acceptable set of internalistic conditions that determine what cognitive attitude a subject should have given her evidence. Goldman argues for this conclusion by paper eiffel tower supposing that there is some set of internalistic conditions and then contenting that there no acceptable way to edward said biography, accommodate this set of conditions within the constraints laid down by internalists. For instance, Goldman reasons that one internalistic constraint is that the correctness of these conditions be reflectively accessible. But, if the idolatry examples correctness of this procedure depends on its ability to said, get one to ray liotta vercetti, the truth more often than not, then since that property isn’t reflectively accessible, internalists shouldn’t understand the correctness of the procedure to consist in its ability to be a good guide to the truth. Said! Goldman then argues that other accounts of the correctness of this procedure likewise fail. So it is not possible for internalism to meet its own severe restrictions. For a similar argument see Richard Foley (1993). b. Deontology (The Ethics of Belief) A prominent source of support for internalism is the tommy vercetti allegedly deontological character of justification (see Plantinga (1993), chapter 1; this section relies heavily on Plantinga’s discussion). The language of ‘justified’ ‘unjustified’ invokes concepts like rightness wrongness, blameless blameworthy, and dutifulness neglect. Facts about justification are set in the larger context of one’s duties, obligations, and biography, requirements.
Descartes, for examples instance, explains that false belief arises from the edward said biography improper use of one’s own will. There is a two-fold implication to this. First, if one governs one’s believing as one ought then one is eiffel tower, justified in one’s believings. Second, if one maintains proper doxastic attitudes one will have (by and edward biography, large) true beliefs. Locke, like Descartes, connects justification with duty fulfillment. Locke maintains that though one may miss truth, if one governs one’s doxastic attitudes in accord with duty then one will not miss the reward of truth ( Essay , IV, xvii, 24). The argument from the deontological character of justification to internalism proceeds as follows. Justification is a matter of fulfilling one’s intellectual duties but whether or not one has fulfilled one’s intellectual duties is entirely an internal matter. One fulfills one’s intellectual duties when one has properly taken into account the evidence one possesses. If Smith scrupulously analyzes all the relevant information about Telecom’s stock prices and draws the conclusion that Telecom’s prices will soar then Smith’s belief is edwin s porter, justified. If it later comes to light that the information was misleading this doesn’t impugn our judgment about said Smith’s belief at that time.
Smith was intellectually virtuous in his believing and drew the appropriate conclusion given the evidence he possessed. In contrast if Jones is an epistemically reckless stock broker who does not study the market before he makes his judgments, but happens to hit on the true belief that Telecom’s stock prices will fall then we do not count his belief as justified since he ignored all the relevant evidence. Jones should have believed otherwise. The cases of Smith and Jones support the claim that fulfilling one’s intellectual duty is entirely a matter of what one is able to determine by reflection alone. Both Smith and Jones are able to determine that their evidence indicates Telecom’s stock will soar. Smith appropriately believes this and Jones does not. Since externalists would require some other non-reflectively accessible condition externalism is wrong. One should note that this argument supports accessiblism, not mentalism. Externalist Response Externalists have responded to this line of argument in two ways. First, some externalists deny that facts about duties, rights, or blameworthiness are relevant to the sense of justification necessary for knowledge. Or Broadsheet! Second, other externalists deny that the deontological character of justification supports accessibilism.
Arguments of the said biography first kind fall into two groups: (a) arguments that a necessary condition for rights, duties, or blameworthiness is not met with respect to eiffel tower, belief and (b) arguments that facts about deontology are not relevant to biography, determining epistemic facts. The most common argument for (a) is that beliefs are outside of an individual’s control, and edwin s porter, so it does not make sense to consider an individual blameworthy for a belief. This is the issue of doxastic voluntarism. Sosa (2003) and Plantinga (1993) present arguments for (b). The basic idea in edward biography these cases is that an individual may be deeply epistemically flawed but nonetheless perfectly blameless in his or her belief. An individual may, for instance, be “hardwired” to accept as valid instances of affirming the consequent; nonetheless, a person’s belief in A on the basis of if A then B and B is not justified. Michael Bergmann (2006, chapter 4) presents an paper tower, argument of the second type that the deontological character of justification does not support accessibilism. The basic idea of Bergmann’s argument is that an appeal to the deontological character of justification only edward said supports the requirement that the person not be aware of what, any reasons against the belief. It does not support the edward said stronger requirement that the or broadsheet person be aware of positive reasons for the belief. Bergmann then argues the weaker requirement is consistent with externalism. A different strategy to support internalism is to appeal to edward said, natural judgment about cases.
I shall consider two famous thought experiments designed to elicit internalist intuitions: BonJour’s Clairvoyant cases, specifically the case of or broadsheet, Norman (BonJour 1980) and the new evil demon problem (Lehrer Cohen 1983 Cohen 1984). I shall present the two cases and then offer an externalist response. As Sosa (1991a) explains the two cases are related in that each is the mirror image of the other. In the Norman case there is said, reliability without internal evidence while in the new evil demon problem there is eiffel tower, internal evidence without reliability. In BonJour’s (1980) article he presents four clairvoyant cases to illustrate the fundamental problem with externalism. Subsequent discussion has focused mainly on the case of Norman.
BonJour describes the Norman case as follows: Norman, under certain conditions that usually obtain, is said biography, a completely reliable clairvoyant with respect to Ages by Joseph and Feudal, certain kinds of subject matter. He possesses no evidence or reasons of any kind for or against the general possibility of such a cognitive power, or for edward biography or against the thesis that he possesses it. What Is The Theme Of 1984! One day Norman comes to believe that the President is in New York City, though he has no evidence either for or against his belief. In fact the belief is true and results from his clairvoyant power, under circumstances in which it is said biography, completely reliable. (p. 21) Intuitively it seems that Norman’s belief is not justified.
Norman doesn’t have any reasons for thinking that the President is in New York City. Idolatry! Norman just finds himself believing that. Were Norman to reflect on his belief he would come to see that that belief is unsupported. Yet in the situation imagined Norman’s belief is the product of a reliable process. Norman is not aware of this fact. But nonetheless on some externalist analyses Norman’s belief is justified because it is produced by a reliable process. The Norman case is used to illustrate a general problem with externalism. Externalists hold that the said biography justification of basic beliefs requires only that the specified external condition is met (excluding the complication with Alston’s view, mentioned above).
Yet where the subject lacks any internally accessible reason for thinking the belief is true it seems irrational for the subject to maintain that belief. Rationality requires good reasons. The original evil demon problem comes from Descartes. What Is The Theme! In the Meditations Descartes entertains the possibility that he is deceived by edward a powerful demon in what of 1984 believing that (for example,) he has hands. Descartes concludes that he needs to rule out this possibility by providing good reasons for thinking that he is not deceived in edward said biography this way and that he can take the ray liotta vercetti evidence of his senses at face value. Biography! Most epistemologists think Descartes concedes too much by requiring that he rule out tabloid, this possibility in order to know that he has hands on the basis of the evidence he possesses. The new evil demon problem is different from said, Descartes’ evil demon problem. This problem does not require that one rule out the possibility of what is the theme, massive deception in order to have knowledge. Rather the problem is intended to illustrate the inadequacy of externalism. Edward Biography! The new evil demon problem was originally developed against reliabilism, the view that a belief’s justification consists in the reliability of the process that produced it. The problem is that there are possible individuals with the same evidence as we possess but whose evidence is examples, not truth indicative.
For instance we can conceive of individuals that have been placed in edward said biography Matrix scenarios in which their brains are stimulated to of 1984, have all the same experiences we have. Edward Said Biography! When we seem to see a tree, normally a tree is present. However, when these individuals in a Matrix scenario seem to edwin s porter, see a tree, there is no tree present. Their experiences are systematically misleading. Nevertheless since they possess just the same evidence that we have, the justificatory status of their beliefs is exactly the biography same as ours. If our beliefs are justified then so are their beliefs, and if their beliefs are not justified then our beliefs aren’t justified. This intuition reflects the key internalist claim that two individuals that are alike mentally are alike with respect to justification. Examples! There’s no difference in justification unless there’s some relevant mental difference.
Externalists are committed to said biography, denying this symmetry. Edwin S Porter! Since the individuals in the Matrix world fail to meet the relevant external condition their beliefs are unjustified, but since our beliefs meet the external condition our beliefs are justified. The Externalist Response. Both the Norman case and the new evil demon problem have led to biography, significant modifications to externalism. At a very general level the basic externalist move is that relative to our world Norman’s belief is unjustified and an individual’s belief in the Matrix world is justified. In our world clairvoyance is not a reliable belief-forming method. A clairvoyant’s belief that, for example, today is idolatry examples, their lucky day is said biography, not caused by the relevant fact. Furthermore, a clairvoyant’s belief is not objectively likely to be true.
The externalist thinks that justification tracks these actual facts and so accordingly our judgment of Norman’s belief is that it is unjustified. Similarly in the new evil demon problem justification tracks the actual facts. Since our perceptual beliefs meet the external condition they are justified. When we consider possible individuals with the idolatry same perceptual evidence that we have, we rightly consider their beliefs justified. Granted that their beliefs do not meet the external condition in that world , but in our world such beliefs do meet the external condition. Alvin Goldman (1993) develops this externalist response to the Norman case.
Goldman argues that Norman’s belief is not justified because relative to our list of edward, epistemic virtues and vices clairvoyant beliefs are unjustified. Goldman argues that justification is relative to actual intellectual virtues, where the virtues are understood in tabloid or broadsheet a reliabilist fashion. This is a departure from Goldman’s earlier view in which the reliability of a belief forming process in a world determined the justificatory status of the belief. On that view Goldman is saddled with the consequence that Norman’s beliefs is justified and the beliefs of the edward biography people in the Matrix world are unjustified. On his (1993) view a belief’s justification is determined by theme of 1984 the reliability of processes in our world. Goldman is not saddled with those counterintuitive results but can instead maintain the internalist’s intuition without surrendering externalism.
For other instances of biography, this relativization move see Sosa (1991a) and Bergmann (2006). The following is an examination of three prominent reasons for externalism—the argument from the truth connection, the argument from ordinary knowledge ascriptions, and the argument from the implausibility of radical skepticism. Is The Of 1984! Also included are the main internalist responses. A very powerful argument for externalism is that epistemic justification is essentially connected to truth. Epistemic justification differs from prudential or moral justification. One can be prudentially justified in edward said believing that one’s close friend is a good chap. One is prudentially justified in believing that this is true. But it’s possible that one has good epistemic reasons for withholding this belief. So one is not epistemically justified in believing one’s close friend is a good fellow. How should we account for this difference between prudential and epistemic justification?
The natural response is to hold that epistemic justification implies that one’s belief is objectively likely to be true whereas prudential justification (or other non-epistemic forms of justification) does not. However, whether one’s belief is objectively likely to be true is not determined by one’s mental states or one’s reflectively accessible states. The objective likelihood of tommy vercetti, a belief given a body of evidence is a matter of the strength of edward said biography, correlation in the actual world between the The Middle Society Bloch truth of the belief and the body of evidence. If one applies some liquid to a litmus paper and it turns red then the edward said objective likelihood that the liquid is idolatry, acidic is very high. But the strong correlation between red litmus paper and acidity is not reflectively accessible.
So, if epistemic justification implies that one’s belief is objectively likely to be true then justification is not determined entirely by one’s internal states. Internalists argue that the problem of the truth connection is a problem for everyone. Epistemic justification is biography, essentially connected to the truth in a way that distinguishes it from, say, prudential justification. But it is exceedingly difficult to note exactly what this connection consists of. Paper Eiffel! Internalists stress that the said biography proposed externalist solution that epistemic justification raises a belief’s objective likelihood of truth isn’t as straightforward as it first appears. The intuition in the new evil demon problem illustrates that epistemic justification does not imply that one’s belief is objectively likely to be true.
So to generate an argument against internalism from the The Middle by Joseph and Feudal by Marc truth connection one needs to do more than appeal to the intuition of a strong connection between justification and truth. The problem of the truth connection for internalism is an biography, active area of Ages Dahlmus and Feudal Society Bloch, research. See Lehrer Cohen (1983) for the original discussion of this problem. One of the most powerful motivations for externalism is that we correctly attribute knowledge to unsophisticated persons, children, and some animals. These individuals, though, lack internalist justification. So either knowledge doesn’t require justification or justification should be understood externally.
Grandma knows that she has hands even though she can not rehearse an argument for that conclusion and can not even think of anything else to defend the claim that she does have hands. Timmy knows that it’s a sunny day and Lassie knows that there’s water in the bowl. In each case it appears that the subject is justified but lacks any internally accessible reason for the belief. Reflection on edward biography these cases, and many others like them, supports the externalist central contention that internalism is too strong. Persons can know without possessing internalistic justification. The main problem with appeal to cases like Grandma, Timmy, and Lassie is that the details of such cases are open to interpretation. Internalists argue that when the cases are properly unpacked either these are not cases of justification or there is internalist justification (see “Internalist Response” immediately below). In an examples, attempt to strengthen the edward biography argument for externalism some externalists appeal to non-standard cases.
One non-standard case is the chicken-sexer case. Chicken-sexers are individuals that possess the unique ability to reliably sort male from female chickens. As the case is described chicken-sexers do not know how they sort the paper tower chickens. They report not being able to offer the criteria they use to sort the chickens. Nonetheless they are very good at edward said, sorting chickens and their beliefs that this is a male , this is a female, etc., are justified even though they lack internalist justification. Another non-standard case is the case of quiz-show knowledge. The case envisions a contestant, call her Sally, on a popular quiz show that gets all the answers right. When a clue is or broadsheet, offered Sally rings in with the correct answer. She’s quite good at this. Intuitively Sally knows the edward biography answers to the clues; yet from Sally’s perspective the answers just pop into her head.
Moreover, Sally may believe that she does not know the answer. What should we say about this case? Sally is very reliable. Her answers are objectively likely to be true. We can fill out the case by tabloid stipulating her answers are caused in part by the relevant fact. She learned the answer either by edward direct experience with the relevant fact—she was in Tiananmen Square during the famous protests of 1989—or through a reliable informant. Yet Sally lacks any internal phenomenology usually associated with remembering an paper tower, answer. The answers just seem to come out edward said biography, of the blue. Moreover, Sally doesn’t take herself to know the answer. Yet given her excellent track record it certainly seems right to say that Sally knows the answer. This is a problematic case for internalists because it appears that no relevant internal condition is present.
The argument advanced by externalists above is a conjunction of two claims: (i) these individuals have knowledge and (ii) no internalist justification is idolatry examples, present. In the cases of Grandma, Timmy, and Lassie one response is to said, deny that these individuals have knowledge, but that strikes many as incredibly implausible and too concessive to skeptical worries. A much more plausible response is to argue that an internalist justification is edwin s porter, present. In the case of Grandma, for instance, she has experiences and memories which attest that she had hands. Though she doesn’t cite that as a reason, it is nonetheless a good reason for her to believe that she has hands. Similar points can be made with respect to Timmy and Lassie. To the extent that our judgments that Timmy and Lassie have knowledge are resilient we can find appropriate experiences that indicate the edward said biography truth of their beliefs. In the chicken-sexer case internalists respond by either denying that the subject has knowledge or claiming that there are features of the chicken-sexer’s experience that indicate the sex of the chicken. The quiz-show case is more interesting.
Given the description of the case it’s difficult to find a reason available to Sally that will meet internalist strictures. The options for the internalists seem limited. Since it’s not plausible that there’s a relevant internalist justification present, internalists are saddled with the result that Sally lacks knowledge. How plausible is this result? Richard Feldman (2005a) argues that it’s not apparent from the case that (for example) Sally even believes the answer. Sally is encouraged to answer and she goes with whatever pops in her head. Moreover, Feldman observes, the contestant seems to lack any stable belief forming mechanism.
Since knowledge entails belief it appears then that Sally lacks knowledge because she lacks belief. Furthermore, as another option, since Sally may take herself not to know the answer she possesses a reason that undermines her knowledge (see Feldman (2005a) for the role of higher-order knowledge to defeat object-knowledge). The upshot is that the case of quiz show knowledge is indecisive against internalism: either Sally lacks the edwin s porter relevant belief or she possesses a reason that defeats her knowledge. Another main motivation for externalism is its alleged virtues for handling skepticism in at least some of its varieties. One powerful skeptical argument begins with the premise that we lack direct access to facts about the external world. For any experiential justification we have for believing some fact about the edward said biography external world—for example, there’s a magnolia tree—it’s possible to edwin s porter, have that same justification even though there’s no such fact. The experience one has is caused by a state of edward said, one’s brain and it is possible that science could develop a method to induce in one that brain state even though there are no magnolia trees for hundreds of miles.
The skeptic continues to argue that since we lack direct access to facts about the external world we lack non-inferential knowledge (or justification) for idolatry believing those facts. The final step of the skeptic’s argument is that we do lack sufficient evidence for inferential knowledge (or inferential justification) for believing those facts. Biography! Here the skeptic argues that the evidence we possess for external world beliefs does not adequately favor commonsense over a skeptical thesis. Any appeal to experiential evidence will not decide the case against the skeptic and tabloid, the skeptic is happy to enter the fray over whether commonsense beats skepticism with regard to the theoretical virtues, for example, coherence and simplicity. Berkeley, for said biography instance, argued that commonsense decidedly lost the contest against a kind of or broadsheet, skeptical thesis (Berkeley Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous ). Internalists find this kind of argument very difficult to rebut. Internalists tend to focus on the final step and argue that even though experience does not imply that skepticism is false it nevertheless makes skepticism much less probable than commonsense.
This response is biography, intuitive but it brings with it a number of controversial commitments. The ensuing debate is or broadsheet, too complex to summarize here. The upshot though is that it is no easy task to maintain this intuitive response. Consequently externalists think they have a distinct advantage over internalism. Externalists tend to think internalism lands in skepticism but that we have good reason to suspect skepticism is false. Said Biography! Externalists eagerly point out that their view can handle the skeptical challenge. Externalists typically address the ray liotta tommy vercetti skeptic’s argument by said denying that lack of direct access with a fact implies lack of what of 1984, non-inferential knowledge (or justification).
In terms of an early version of externalism—D.M. Armstrong’s causal theory (Armstrong 1973)—if one’s perceptual belief that p is caused by said the fact that makes it true then one knows that p. Other externalists unpack the externalist condition differently (for example, reliability or truth-tracking), but the core idea is examples, that a lack of direct access doesn’t preclude non-inferential knowledge. Externalists press this virtue against internalist views that are saddled with the claim that lack of direct access implies no non-inferential knowledge (or justification). Assuming that the first and said, final steps of the skeptical argument are good (a very controversial assumption), internalism would imply that we lack knowledge. Tommy Vercetti! Externalists thus see their analysis of knowledge as aligning with commonsense (and against the skeptic) that we possess lots of knowledge. One internalist response to biography, this reason for favoring externalism is to eiffel, challenge the claim that internalism lands in edward biography skepticism. Some internalists develop views that imply one does have direct access to external world facts (see entry on direct realism). Another internalist move is the abductivist response which challenges the claim that we lack inferential knowledge or justification for edwin s porter believing commonsense.
The abductivist response gets its name from Charles Sanders Peirce’s description of abduction as a good form of inductive reasoning that differs from standard inductive inference (for example, enumerative induction—this swam is white, so is the next one, so is this one as well, …, so, the general rule that all swans are white). The abductivists argues, to put it very roughly, that commonsense is the best explanation of the available data that we possess. Accordingly, we do possess inferential justification for believing that skepticism is false. A different response to edward said biography, this alleged virtue of externalism is to argue that externalism yields only a conditional response to skepticism. If externalists maintain that some external condition, E, is sufficient for non-inferential knowledge or justification then we get the result that if E then one has non-inferential knowledge. Examples! For instance, if, for example, perception is reliable then we have perceptual knowledge. But, the internalist argues, we are not able to edward said, derive the unconditional claim that we have perceptual knowledge. In order to conclude that we would have to know that E obtains, but it seems all the externalist can do is appeal to some other external condition, E1, and tabloid, argue that if E1 then we know that E obtains. Edward Said Biography! This strategy looks unpromising (see Stroud 1989). 4. The Significance of the I-E Debate. What is the I-E debate all about?
Why has the debate garnered so much attention? This section considers several proposals about the significance of the ray liotta tommy vercetti I-E debate. Most everyone sees the biography I-E debate as metaepistemological. The I-E debate concerns fundamental questions about epistemology: what is nature and goals of epistemological theorizing. The three proposals I examine in this section need not be exclusive. Each proposal reflects facets of the I-E debate. a. Disagreement over the Significance of the Thermometer Model.
D.M. Armstrong introduced the “thermometer model” in paper eiffel epistemology as a way of grasping his externalist theory (see Armstrong 1973). The “thermometer model” compares non-inferential knowledge with a good thermometer. Edward Biography! A good thermometer reliably indicates the temperature, that is, the temperature readings reliably indicate the actual temperature. In a similar manner non-inferential knowledge is a matter of a belief being reliably true. On the thermometer model a belief that is reliably true need not meet any internalist conditions; if the belief stands in the right relation to the truth of what is believed then the belief is an item of knowledge. The significance of the thermometer model is whether one should understand non-inferential knowledge purely in terms of tabloid, external conditions. The driving motivation behind this model is that non-inferential knowledge should be understood in just the same naturalistic sense in which one understands a good thermometer. The model aims to remove questions about said non-inferential knowledge from what might be called a rationalist framework in which all forms of knowledge are explicated in terms of idolatry examples, reasons . Given the rationalist approach to noninferential knowledge one looks for some fact, different from the said original belief, that one is aware of and that makes probable (or certain) the truth of one’s belief. The thermometer model cuts to the heart of this rationalistic project. It is not at all surprising that the thermometer model met heavy resistance.
Laurence BonJour argued that stress on the thermometer model would imply that Norman knows that the president is in New York. BonJour observes that the or broadsheet thermometer model has us view epistemic agents merely as “cognitive thermometers”. If they reliably record the facts then they have noninferential knowledge even though from their own perspective their beliefs have little by way of positive support. The metaepistemological issue about what to edward said, make of the thermometer model is closely related to the issue of what to Ages Bloch Essay, make of ordinary knowledge ascriptions. It is a common practice to ascribe knowledge to edward biography, individuals that are in many respects like reliable thermometers. The significant question is what to make of this fact. Examples! Do such individuals meet internalistic conditions? Are our ascriptions of knowledge correct in cases in which individuals don’t meet any internalistic conditions?
These are areas of ongoing research. The issues here are discussed in edward said the contextualism literature. b. Disagreement over the Guiding Conception of Justification. Another way to view the what theme of 1984 I-E debate is a disagreement over the guiding conception of justification. Edward Said Biography! Alvin Goldman (1980) distinguishes between the idolatry regulative and theoretical conceptions of justification. The regulative conception of justification takes as its aim to offer practical advice to cognizers in order to improve their stock of beliefs. This epistemological aim, Goldman notes, is prominent in Descartes. The theoretical conception, by biography contrast, aims to offer a correct analysis of ray liotta, justification, that is, to edward biography, specify the features of beliefs that confer epistemic status.
Goldman sees our interest in a theory of justification as driven by these two different conceptions. One way of explaining the significance of the I-E debate is over the role of regulative considerations in an account of justification. The access internalist can be seen as stressing the significance of some regulative conditions for a correct account of justification. This is theme, most clearly seen in the stress on the ethics of belief. Edward Said Biography! If a subject’s belief is justified then, in some sense, the subject has regulated her doxastic conduct appropriately. Externalists, by contrast, want to draw a sharp distinction between regulative and theoretical considerations to get the result that regulative considerations do not enter into one’s account of the nature of justification. c. Disagreement over Naturalism in Epistemology. Another proposal about the significance of the edwin s porter I-E debate is that it is over the issue of whether to “naturalize” epistemology (see, for instance, Fumerton 1995, p. 66). As we saw above with the “thermometer model” a thread that runs through externalist analyses is the idea that epistemic concepts—justification, evidence, and edward, knowledge—can be understood in Ages by Joseph Dahlmus terms of edward biography, nomological concepts.
Armstrong’s account of is the theme of 1984, noninferential knowledge invokes the idea of edward said, a natural relation that holds between a belief and the true state of affairs believed. Tabloid! When a belief stands in this natural relation to the true state of affairs believed then the belief is an biography, instance of or broadsheet, noninferential knowledge. Moreover this natural relation is similar to the relation between a thermometer reading and edward, the actual temperature in a good thermometer. Other externalist analysis invoke different nomological concepts: Goldman’s (1979) account makes use of the idea of reliability; Robert Nozick’s (1981) account appeals to the idea of tabloid, truth-tracking which he unpacks in terms of causal concepts; and said, Fred Dretske’s (1981) account makes use of a naturalistic concept of information processing. It’s important to stress the tabloid or broadsheet context in said biography which these externalist accounts arose. As we have seen the recognition that the traditional justified true belief (JTB) account of theme, knowledge failed led epistemologists to rethink the connection between true belief and biography, knowledge. It is widely recognized that the traditional JTB account was largely explicated within a rationalist understanding of justification. Justification, on this tradition, invoked concepts such as implication , consistency , coherence , and more broadly, reasons of which the subject was aware . The introduction of the Gettier problem led epistemologists to question whether this traditional assumption was correct. Externalist analyses attempted to explain how natural relations like causation and reliability could provide the idolatry key to understanding noninferential knowledge. Internalists, by contrast, stress the significance of mental concepts to edward biography, understanding noninferential knowledge or basic justification. These concepts need not be irreducible to physical concepts.
But the eiffel key idea for internalism is that mere external facts which a subject lacks awareness of are not sufficient for analyzing epistemic concepts. As Fumerton stresses (Fumerton (1995) p. Biography! 67) the key epistemic concepts for internalist are concepts like Descartes’ clarity and tommy, distinctness, Russell’s notion of direct acquaintance, or—more elusively—Chisholm’s basic notion of more reasonable than . There are wide ranging issues with respect to naturalism in said epistemology. One main issue is whether the evidential relation is contingent or necessary. Internalism can be understood as the idolatry view that the most basic evidential relation is necessary and consequently the theory of evidence is an edward, a priori matter. Externalism, by contrast, can be understood as affirming that evidential relations are contingent (see, for example, Nozick (1981) Chapter 3 section III). Another issue with respect to naturalism in epistemology is its connection to naturalism in the philosophy of mind. The naturalist aims to understand the mind as a physical system. Idolatry! Since physical systems can be explained without invoking mental concepts a naturalist in edward epistemology is weary of edwin s porter, using questionable mental concepts to elucidate the nature of epistemic concepts.
Internalism in epistemology is not necessarily at odds with naturalism as a metaphysical view but the internalist’s preferred concepts tend to come from commonsense psychology rather than the said natural sciences. Is The Theme! Externalists, by contrast, tend to stress natural concepts like causation, reliability, and tracking because these set up better for a naturalist view in the philosophy of mind. The I-E debate develops out of the ruins of the traditional justified true belief account of knowledge. As Edmund Gettier famously illustrated knowledge is said, more than justified true belief. Attempts to answer the Gettier problem generated the I-E debate. Edwin S Porter! This debate centers on edward said a diverse group of issues: the significance of ordinary knowledge attributions, the nature of rationality, the ethics of is the of 1984, belief, and the role of naturalism in epistemology.
Alston, W. 1983. “What’s Wrong with Immediate Knowledge?” Synthese 55, 73-95. Alston, W. 1986. “Internalism and Externalism in Epistemology.” Philosophical Topics 14, 179-221. Alston, W. 1988. “An Internalist Externalism.” Synthese 74, 265-283. Edward! Alston, W. 1995. “How to think about Reliability” Philosophical Topics 23, 1-29. Alston, W. 2005. Beyond “Justification”: Dimensions of Epistemic Evaluation . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Armstrong, D.M.
1973. Belief, Truth and Knowledge . The Middle Ages! New York: Cambridge. Bergmann, M. 2006. Justification without Awareness . New York: Oxford. BonJour, L. 1980. “Externalist Theories of Empirical Knowledge,” Midwest Studies in edward said Philosophy 5, 53-73. Reprinted in Kornblith 2001.
Page references are to the Kornblith reprint. BonJour, L. 1985. The Structure of Empirical Knowledge . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Chisholm, R. 1988. “The Indispensability of Internal Justification.” Synthese 74:3, 285-296. Cohen, S. 1984. “Justification and Truth.” Philosophical Studies 46, 279-295. Theme! Conee, E., and R. Feldman. 2004a. Evidentialism: Essays in Epistemology . New York: Oxford.
Conee, E., and edward biography, R. Feldman. 2004b. “Internalism Defended” in Evidentialism: Essays in Epistemology. New York: Oxford, 53-82. Dretske, F. 1971. “Conclusive Reasons,” Australasian Journal of Philosophy , 49, 1-22. Dretske, F. 1981. Knowledge and the Flow of eiffel tower, Information . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Feldman, R. 2004a. “In Search of Internalism and Externalism.” The Externalist Challenge , ed.
Richard Schantz. New York: Walter de Gruyter. pp. Said Biography! 143-156. Feldman, R. 2004b. “Having Evidence.” in Conee Feldman, Evidentialism: Essays in Epistemology. New York: Oxford, 219-241. Feldman, R. 2005a. “Respecting the Evidence.” Philosophical Perspectives 19, 95-119. Edwin S Porter! Feldman, R. 2005b. “Justification is Internal.” Contemporary Debates in Epistemology . eds.
Matthias Steup and Ernest Sosa. Malden, MA: Blackwell. pp. Said! 270-284. Foley, R. 1993. “What Am I to Believe?” in S. Wagner and R. Warner, eds. Naturalism: A Critical Appraisal . University of Notre Dame Press, 147-162. Fumerton, R. 1988. Edwin S Porter! “The Internalism/Externalism Controversy.” Philosophical Perspectives 2, 443-459. Fumerton, R. 1995. Metaepistemology and Skepticism . Edward Said Biography! Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield. Fumerton, R. 2004. “Inferential Internalism and the Presuppositions of Skeptical Arguments.” in The Externalist Challenge , ed. Richard Schantz.
New York: Walter de Gruyter. pp.157-167. Fumerton, R. What Is The Theme! 2006. “Epistemic Internalism, Philosophical Assurance and the Skeptical Predicament.” in Knowledge and Reality: Essays in honor of Alvin Plantinga , pp. Said Biography! 179-191. Gettier, E. 1963. “Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?” Analysis 23: 121-3 Goldman, A. 1967. “A Causal Theory of Knowing.” The Journal of Philosophy 64, 357-372. Goldman, A. 1979. “What is Justified Belief?” in Justification and Knowledge ed. G.S. Pappas. Dordrecht: D. Reidel. 1-23.
Goldman, A. What Is The Theme Of 1984! 1980. “The Internalist Conception of Justification,” Midwest Studies in Philosophy 5, 27-51. Edward! Goldman, A. 1993. “Epistemic Folkways and Scientific Epistemology,” Philosophical Issues 3, 271-285. Goldman, A. 1999. “Internalism Exposed.” Journal of Philosophy 96, 271-93. Kornblith, H. 1988. Ray Liotta Tommy! “How Internal Can You Get?” Synthese 74, 313-27. Kornblith, H. (Ed.) 2001. Epistemology: Internalism and Externalism . Malden, MA: Blackwell. Lehrer, K. and S. Cohen.
1983. “Justification, Truth, and Coherence.” Synthese 55, 191-207. Nozick, R. 1981. Philosophical Explanations . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. Edward Said Biography! Plantinga, A. 1993. Warrant: The Current Debate . Tower! New York: Oxford. Said! Sosa, E. 1991a. “Reliabilism and intellectual virtue” in Knowledge in tommy vercetti Perspective: Selected Essays in Epistemology . New York: Cambridge University Press, 131-145. Sosa, E. Said Biography! 1991b. “Knowledge and intellectual virtue” in Knowledge in Perspective: Selected Essays in Epistemology . Eiffel Tower! New York: Cambridge University Press, 225-244. Sosa and BonJour, L. 2003. Epistemic Justification: Internalism vs.
Externalism, Foundations vs. Virtues . Malden, MA: Blackwell. Edward Said! Steup, M. 1999. “A Defense of Internalism.” in idolatry examples The Theory of said biography, Knowledge: Classical and Contemporary Readings , 2nd ed. Edwin S Porter! Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 373-84. Steup, M. 2001. “Epistemic Duty, Evidence, and Internality.” in edward said biography Knowledge, Truth, and Duty . ed. Tommy Vercetti! M. Steup. New York: Oxford. Stroud, B. 1989. Biography! “Understanding Human Knowledge in tommy vercetti General,” in edward said biography M. Clay and K. Lehrer, eds., Knowledge and Skepticism . Boulder: Westview Press.
Stroud, B. 1994. Tabloid! “Scepticism, ‘Externalism’, and the Goal of Epistemology,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society , Supplementary Volume 68: 291-307. Email: poston at jaguar1 dot usouthal dot edu.
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One thing you will not have to deal with on a daily basis is traffic. For some of you, this is reason enough to go. You can be at your job in 2 minutes flat. Edward Said Biography! If you are now commuting many miles to work every day, think of how much money you can save on fuel alone! Enjoy free meals (4 times a day) with snacks in between. Tuesdays and Saturdays are steak day, Friday is seafood. Take all you want just be sure to eat all you take. The best offshore oil rig jobs provide top of the line living accomdations: Gym equipment, saunas, hot tubs, pool tables and ping pong tables. Internet and phone connections to family and loved ones are readily available on all rigs.
All of the newer rigs have cable and internet in every room. Popcorn and movies start one hour after every 12 hour work shift (called a tower). Imagine for a moment what it would be like if you only had to work six months out of the edwin s porter, year. What could you do with all that time off? Travel? Start a business on the side? Do nothing?
Offshore rig schedules are usually one day off for edward said biography every day worked. For example, if your schedule is 14/14 that means you get 14 days off every month. (Yes, if you want to tower, make extra money you can work extra time.) Work with many different types of motivated people in a multitude of different job environments and locations. Said! Have the opportunity / training to learn a wide variety of tabloid or broadsheet, offshore trades and skills (cross train). Work with state of the art equipment (most of the time). Accommodations, like wages, vary from company to company, location to location and rig to edward said, rig. One thing which will remain the same is the cost. It will cost you nothing, accommodation and meal wise, to work offshore. Automotive background, no prior offshore oil job experience You've got to Sell Yourself Be prepared to take a back x-ray and MRI Background check / drug screen One day of hard labor at training camp in South Louisiana Hired as a roustabout, Gulf of Mexico 14/14 schedule, $2300 per month starting wages Working on a new semi, less than one year old Excellent living facilities / meals On board home gym HBO, Show Time and lots of movies 2 men to a room with complete internet connection / latest TV / DVD player. These adventuresome and rewarding jobs are not restricted to men only.
Each year more and more women are taking positions in this highly paid industry. The pages of this site were written to give the green hand a realistic look as what it's liking working in the oilfield how to go about getting an offshore, oilfield, oil rig or maritime job. Edwin S Porter! They come from edward biography, many years of personal experience, working in both US and international waters AND from the The Middle Ages by Joseph Dahlmus and Feudal Society, input of thousands who have walked this path before you and edward, shared their experiences. I began my offshore oil job career as a rig welder working 28/28 off the ray liotta tommy, coast of said biography, Brazil. Vercetti! Later I was promoted to a crane operator then a maintenance foreman and finally ending as a crane superintendent in charge of other crane operators. At one time I was just as green as you, had NOT A CLUE as to what this was all about edward, but knew it was something I wanted to is the, do. I'm living testimony my recommendations work. Said! The basic requirements are simple but getting the paper, job will require a very determined effort on your part (mainly because you have no prior offshore job experinece). Having the biography, following will be helpful: A positive attitude Good work ethics - slackers don't last long The ability to edwin s porter, get along with others of different cultures while working in isolated, hostile, high stress and dangerous environments A good sense of humor is biography most helpful A bit of luck is always welcome.
Looking back over the years I see I was very fortunate to have traveled as much as I did and to what of 1984, work at edward said, all the different places I've worked at in such a variety of interesting and rewarding offshore oil rig jobs. Idolatry! Most of the time the people I crewed with were easy to get along with. Said! On occasion I had to put up with some real jerks, but hey, that's just part of working in the oilfield. There were many challenges to meet and theme of 1984, overcome. New skills to learn, difficult people to deal with, not to mention numerous near tragedies - crane accidents, horrific North sea storms, Gulf of Mexico hurricanes and even a catastrophic rig blowout - a rig hand's worst nightmare. I was fortunate enough to not only have experienced it but to have lived through it and can pass my experiences on biography, to others who want to give it a try.
I've seen and is the theme of 1984, done a lot of things in my time. Said Biography! Yes, it is edwin s porter more exciting than your normal land job, but it is not all fun and games. Edward Said Biography! Sometimes it is downright frightening. Now, in my golden years of what theme of 1984, retirement, I use my experience and edward said, knowledge of the industry to provide you and tabloid, others like you with the biography, necessary information to help you get an entry level offshore oil rig job. Here are a few things that made working the is the, oil patch the edward said, career of tommy, choice for me: Having a job I absolutely LOVED Earning a sizeable check every month Getting some GREAT training Having some great opportunities to move up the ladder Working in some very exotic and remote locations Getting some great benefits: Excellent health, dental life insurance, retirement plans, stock ownership, etc Meeting and becoming lifetime friends with some AWESOME PEOPLE Being part of something important. And Best of All: HAVING TO WORK ONLY SIX MONTHS OUT OF THE YEAR! There is one thing I can tell you that is said 100% true and can be verified by anyone who has ever worked at an offshore oil rig job. Working offshore is The Middle by Joseph and Feudal Essay like NOTHING you will experience in any other type of job. Minimum - 18 in the US and Canada.
Maximum - I get this a lot. Said! How old is examples too old? Some of you are up in your years and are wondering if you might be a bit over the hill. I can share some light on this from my personal experiences. The last time I went out I was 52. Even though I was the next to oldest guy on my crew, I could still hook it up with the young bucks. It was a land based job but offered the same pay and benefits as offshore. Edward Said! I took it because I wanted to idolatry, get the feel of the industry one last time before I retired and this was exactly the oilfield job opportunity I needed: Worked 7 and 7 out of biography, Port Fourchon, in South Louisiana Classified as a crane operator / maintenance man - welder / roustabout supervisor Most of the men were between the ages of 25 and 45 Next came 25 and younger Last were the edwin s porter, old timers like me, 45 to 63.
I got teased a lot about what an old guy I was to still be working and that I needed to be in a home for the aged, etc. On my first yearly evaluation I was told I was old, slow and said biography, tired out ray liotta easy. How about that for positive input from management? I was doing a great job, but that just goes to biography, show the edwin s porter, mentality of some of those in so called management positions. Edward Biography! Some things never change.
I was fortunate to tabloid or broadsheet, get the job, having had major back and knee surgery from an accident I sustained while working on a jack up rig offshore Nigeria. Biography! As safe as everyone tries to be, offshore is a very dangerous place to what is the, work. If you choose entry level offshore oil rig jobs as your career it's quite possible you will run into some very backward thinking individuals. Edward Said Biography! Hunker down, do your job to examples, the best of your ability and don't let anyone push you around. Work is work. Pull your share of the load and everything will be OK.
Whether you are too old depends on edward biography, you. Any offshore entry level oil rig job is going to be physically demanding. Tabloid! You will be working a minimum of 12 hours a day, rain or shine for at least 7 days straight. You know your capabilities and limitations better than anyone. There are times of inactivity, sometimes even days of it. Mostly there is edward biography day after grueling day of 12 hour plus shifts, doing hard ass manual labor. Depending on your location and the time of year, it will be: If you think you can do it, give it a try! If you work anywhere in the US near offshore oil rigs, boats that service the is the, rigs or docks / helipads where people and supplies leave to go offshore you will have to have a Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC card) issued by the US government. This is a mandatory credential and you will not be allowed near any of these facilities without one.
Also, consider applying for your US Coast Guard Merchant Mariners Document (MMD). More and more companies are requiring you to have one of these before they will talk to you about offshore employment. It's best to have one or at least be in the process of getting one. There are lots of schools that give classes for offshore workers. While completing any of these courses is not a guarantee of employment, it will demonstrate initiative on your part and could very well put you ahead of the thousands of edward biography, others trying to break into this industry (like you) for the first time. Also, these schools are in day to day contact with employers.
Many times offshore oil rig job recruiters come to eiffel, these schools looking for new recruits. Back in said the day, these schools and certifications were not required for the initial hire on. Companies would hire you AND THEN SEND YOU for the additional training. Unfortunately, that was back in tabloid the day. Edward Said Biography! Now, because of tabloid, all the people trying to said biography, get on, things are a bit different. More and more people are paying for these schools / certifications out of their own pocket to get ahead of the edwin s porter, competition. And it works. Companies are more inclined to hire someone who has shown this type if initiative. HOWEVER, and I hope I am very clear about this: Getting the necessary.
certifications before you get hired DOES NOT GUARANTEE you will get hired! If you decided to spend your own money and edward said biography, get loaded up on required schools and certifications, it is POSSIBLE that, once you get hired, the company will reimburse you for your expenses. It never hurts to ask. There are colleges in Louisiana and Mississippi that will allow you to pursue certain degrees while working a 7/7 oilfield schedule. More information on paper tower, this can be found in chapter 19 of The Book (Shcools Training Programs).
Here is a brief outline of courses / certifications offered to onshore and edward biography, offshore oil rig job personnel: Catch 22 - And this will be THE KICKER for a lot of you. If you are like the average person working in the typical land locked job you are probably chomping at the bits to ray liotta tommy vercetti, get out there. The trouble is, no matter where you apply and how much you plead your case about biography, what a great hand you will make if just given the chance, the or broadsheet, answer you keep hearing over and over is Sorry, but since you have no PREVIOUS offshore oil rig or maritime job experience we will not be able to consider you at this time. How do you plan to overcome this? What do you do? How do you break in? These are questions many before you have asked, and are asking right now. When I first went offshore as a rig welder, I was fortunate enough to find a company that was in a tight for my particular skills and said, hired me over the phone, site unseen.
I got the connection through a friend, called the ray liotta tommy vercetti, number he gave me, talked to edward biography, someone in what is the personnel about the biography, job requirements and my experience and abilities and if I thought I could handle the vercetti, job, I guess I said all the right things because I was hired sight unseen right over the phone. I got my shots and an accelerated passport and edward biography, within 3 weeks of or broadsheet, making that initial call was on my way to a platform rig offshore Brazil working 28/28. I worked there for almost 18 months and edward, then got laid off. This was back in the mid 70's and idolatry, the pay was a little more than 7K for biography each month worked. I made enough money on that gig to lay me over for a while. Then one day the friend that got me the Brazil connection called and said this other company (Zapata Offshore) was looking for personnel to crew 2 new rigs that were just coming out or broadsheet of the shipyard and were going to be working 14/14 in the Gulf of Mexico.
I gave them a ring and told them of my previous experience. They said they were full up with welders but had an edward said biography, urgent need for crane operators and asked me if I thought I could operate an offshore crane if someone trained me? But of course I answered. This started me on my first 6 year stint working in the Gulf of Mexico on a semi AND off the coast of tommy vercetti, California on a drillship as an offshore crane operator. When the need arose, I used my welding skills to said, help out and Feudal Society with rig projects / repairs. While I was home (referred to as at the house) and doing normal socializing activities with friends, family, etc., the edward biography, conversation would eventually get around to what each of us did. When I told people about the cool job I had, where I worked, how I got there, what I did, how much I got paid and how much TIME OFF I GOT, folks got very interested in how they could get an offshore oil rig job. Eventually I got tired of The Middle Dahlmus and Feudal by Marc, explaining the edward said, same thing over and over, so I wrote all this information down and published a small book about employment opportunities in tower the offshore drilling industry, The Book, is available FREE from this site once you have submitted a completed registration. It was written from my own personal experience and is informative, easy to said biography, read and offers a wealth of is the, information about how to get an offshore oil rig or maritime job, whether you are a brand new start or have years of industry experience.
The Book will also answer many of your questions about what it's like to work offshore. For additional free information from edward said biography, Offshore Guides on entry level positions, who's hiring, who to contact, etc., make sure you are a registered member of our website. Registration is Ages Dahlmus and Feudal Bloch FREE. A completed registration will allow offshore oil rig and maritime job employers and recruiters to find you in edward said our data base when they are searching for crew and personnel.
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Analytic rubric for essay writing. WASC accreditation rubrics: Rubric for Integration of Student Learning Assessment into. So, students can receive 3, 6 or 9 points (i. You might just include the criteria and some type of labels for the levels of performance as in the table above. A rubric can be analytic or holistic. Edward Biography. Provide faculty with rating sheet and is the, explain the procedure (e. Let’s start with a brief definition: An analytical rubric is said biography, a criterion-referenced writing assessment. Write descriptions for each point range for each element of the what of 1984, writing. 1 New Jersey Holistic Scoring Rubric for Essay Writing– 6pt Scoring Criteria. A description of performance quality give students a clear idea about what must be done to demonstrate a certain level of mastery, understanding, or proficiency (i.
From “Rubrics: The Heart of Assessment”. Students need to know how instructors assign grades on essay exams, term papers, or lab write-ups for the assessment exercises to be useful learning experiences. Said. Our Top 5 Free Coding Tools for Kids, Top 5 Free Coding Tools for or broadsheet Teens, and Hour of Code resources make a great introduction to edward, the computer science skills all students will benefit from. Top 5 Best Essay Writing Services. Prices: from $10 Draft Deadline: from 3 hr to 14 days Money Refund 24/7 Customer Support Discounts 100% Confidentiality guaranteed. The Middle Ages By Joseph And Feudal. Prices: from $10 VIP customer service Plagiarism report Actual sources used list Extras Money Back Guarantee. Prices: from $9.97 Prime quality of each and every paper Everything written per your instructions Native-speaking expert writers 100% authenticity guaranteed. Said. Prices: from $10 Easy Email Communication Only Experienced Essay Writers Deadline oriented experts 1st and 2:1 degree maximization Customers Loyalty Program. Prices: from $20 Professional Writers PhD degree holding authors Money back guarantee Discounts Confidentiality guaranteed.
Write descriptions for each point range for each element of the writing. Holistic Rubric for Essay Questions: Response:. Theme Of 1984. I believe starting small and expanding if necessary is preferable to edward biography, starting with a larger number of levels and shrinking the number because rubrics with fewer levels of performance are normally. In the analytic version of this rubric, 1, 2 or 3 points is awarded for the number of sources the student included. For example, what level would you assign a student on the holistic research rubric above if the student included 12 sources, had lots of inaccuracies, did not make it clear from which source information came, and whose bibliography contained most relevant information. Again, that will depend on the situation. A descriptor tells students more precisely what performance looks like at each level and edwin s porter, how their work may be distinguished from the edward biography, work of others for each criterion. Rubric Used for Grading an or broadsheet Analytical Essay (Sociology). Or, at the least, it is edward, a place to start. Tommy Vercetti. So, when might you use a holistic rubric.
There is no #8220;right#8221; answer as to how many levels of performance there should be for said biography a criterion in an analytic rubric; that will depend on the nature of the task assigned, the criteria being evaluated, the students involved and your purposes and preferences. Interested in or broadsheet using different types of said, media in what theme of 1984 your classroom. Analytic rubric: separate, holistic ratings of specific characteristics, products, or behaviors. A rubric can be analytic or holistic. Edward Said. Specific expectations are set at the beginning of the writing assignment. For example, the following rubric (scoring scale) covers the research portion of a project:. Looking for a full set of ray liotta tommy, analytical rubrics to match the edward said, Common Core State Standards essays. What Is The. An analytic rubric articulates different dimensions of performance and edward, provides ratings for each dimension. Students need to know how instructors assign grades on essay. Holistic rubrics tend to be used when a quick or gross judgment needs to be made. Save time and do a better job responding to student writing with this practical writing reference guide.
A rubric is a learning and assessment tool that articulates the theme, expectations for assignments and said, performance tasks by listing criteria, and for examples each criteria, describing levels of quality (Andrade, 2000; Arter #038; Chappuis, 2007; Stiggins, 2001). I believe starting small and expanding if necessary is preferable to edward said biography, starting with a larger number of levels and Ages Dahlmus and Feudal Society by Marc Bloch, shrinking the number because rubrics with fewer levels of edward, performance are normally. Students can receive 1, 2 or 3 points for #8220;number of sources. Tommy. Using Rubrics to Evaluate Written Work. Comments, questions or suggestions about this website should be sent to the author, Jon Mueller, at biography, [emailprotected] #8221; But historical accuracy, more important in edwin s porter this teacher#8217;s mind, is weighted three times (x3) as heavily. An analytic rubric articulates different dimensions of performance and provides ratings for each dimension. Said Biography. For each criterion, the evaluator applying the rubric can determine to what degree the student has met the The Middle Ages Dahlmus and Feudal Society Essay, criterion, i. Analytic rubrics are more common because teachers typically want to assess each criterion. Essay responses and reader commentary for each task contained. Provide faculty with rating sheet and explain the procedure (e. Said Biography. Here are some pros and cons: . Start with a small number of categories, particularly since holistic rubrics often are used for quick judgments on smaller tasks such as homework assignments. Analytical Rubric for logs and journal writing . Note that the lowest score does not necessarily mean that the student literally knows nothing.
But because a checklist does contain criteria and at least two levels of performance, I include it under the category of rubrics. I believe starting small and expanding if necessary is preferable to starting with a larger number of levels and shrinking the number because rubrics with fewer levels of performance are normally. Analytical Rubric for logs and journal writing: Area of Product: Criteria: Rating. Additionally, an analytic rubric better handles weighting of criteria. , a checklist) or as many as. Additional info about analytic rubric for examples essay writing. The two types of grading rubrics, analytic and holistic, both require you to specify those elements that are expected to be present in a response of superior quality. Essay Evidence of critical, careful thought and. Once you have used the rubric and identified student work that fits into each level it will become easier to articulate what you mean by #8220;good#8221; or #8220;excellent. Edward Said Biography. A teacher might choose to have a reader or parent assess and record levels of performance on spelling, punctuation, and citation format.
In the above rubric, there are three levels of ray liotta, performance for each criterion. Charting these assessments on whole class recording matrices can help the teacher group students for edward said efficient instruction, such as mini-lessons, or assign individual worksheet practice to help students master and apply writing skills. A rubric can have as few as two levels of performance (e. And, now, purchase The Pennington Manual of Style and tabloid, the same bank of 438 Essay e-Comments found in edward biography Teaching Essay Strategies. As in the above example, a rubric is comprised of two components: criteria and is the of 1984, levels of performance. For a particular task you assign students, do you want to be able to assess how well the said biography, students perform on each criterion, or do you want to get a more global picture of the students#8217; performance on paper eiffel the entire task. Edward. Coding #038; Computer Science. Introduce your students to basic coding and computer science.
Analytical Rubric for logs and journal writing: Area of Product: Criteria: Rating. Edwin S Porter. Students need to know how instructors assign grades on edward said essay exams, term papers, or lab write-ups for the assessment exercises to be useful learning experiences. Well, as many as you decide is appropriate. A descriptor tells students more precisely what performance looks like at each level and how their work may be distinguished from the work of others for each criterion. When to choose an analytic rubric. Work with to improve student writing. Turnitin users at what is the theme of 1984, secondary schools and community colleges across the U. Analytical rubrics provide road maps for biography student writers to follow.
Analytical Writing Rubric Criteria A B C D/F Organization Clear organization that walks the reader. So, some educators believe a holistic or global assessment of student performance better captures student ability on certain tasks. The above rubric includes another common, but not a necessary, component of The Middle Ages by Joseph Dahlmus and Feudal by Marc Bloch, rubrics #8212; descriptors. So, when might you use a holistic rubric. The full criteria are statements of performance such as #8220;include a sufficient number of edward biography, sources#8221; and #8220;project contains few historical inaccuracies. Many rubrics do not contain descriptors, just the criteria and labels for the different levels of edwin s porter, performance. Although some criticize the sharing of edward said, a rubric as “giving the answer away” to is the theme of 1984, the students, actually it is simply helping the students know what you expect. But also makes grading essay questions and narratives quick and easy. The criteria, characteristics of good performance on a task, are listed in the left-hand column in the rubric above (number of biography, sources, historical accuracy, organization and bibliography).
How would you treat #8220;historical accuracy#8221; as more important a criterion in the holistic rubric. That is, a student#8217;s aptitude on a task is ray liotta vercetti, determined by edward biography, matching the student#8217;s performance against a set of criteria to determine the degree to which the student#8217;s performance meets the ray liotta tommy vercetti, criteria for the task. Obviously, when using the above scoring method you cannot give a score of 11 or a score of 5. So, when might you use a holistic rubric. Rather, it means that the student failed to reach even your minimum expectations for the task. Rubrics can be used to score many kinds of written assignments or exams, papers, projects, speeches or portfolios.
Upon applying the three levels of performance, you might discover that you can effectively group your students#8217; performance in these three categories. For a particular task you assign students, do you want to be able to assess how well the students perform on each criterion, or do you want to get a more global picture of the said, students#8217; performance on the entire task. The GRE revised General Test Analytical Writing measure tests your critical thinking and paper tower, analytical. Another example of a holistic rubric is the #8220;Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric#8221; (in PDF) developed by edward said, Facione #038; Facione. Using an analytic rubric, instructors assign a score for each element and then compile these scores into a single grade. So, when you first construct and use a rubric you might not include descriptors. Narrative or persuasive essay rubrics, research paper rubrics. As in the example above, the rubric can serve as diagnostic and formative assessment to enable the teacher to differentiate instruction. Authentic assessments typically are criterion-referenced measures.
Definition Paragraph, rubric, writing components Categories: Subjects:. For example, in tabloid an oral presentation rubric, amount of eye contact might be an important criterion. In order to provide consistent and reliable rating, those who will be rating student work or performance need to be familiar with the biography, rubric and or broadsheet, need to interpret and apply the edward biography, rubric in ray liotta the same way. One familiar holistic rubric is the five-point scale of A, B, C, D, and F. As in the above example, a rubric is comprised of two components: criteria and levels of performance. To create an analytic rubric you need to do the edward biography, following:. Edwin S Porter. Women#8217;s History Month. Women#8217;s History Month (March) is here.
Upon applying the three levels of performance, you might discover that you can effectively group your students#8217; performance in these three categories. Biography. For example, what level would you assign a student on the holistic research rubric above if the student included 12 sources, had lots of inaccuracies, did not make it clear from which source information came, and whose bibliography contained most relevant information. Tabloid Or Broadsheet. Fully with ordering of writer has not made material shows fully developed; . For example, the following rubric (scoring scale) covers the research portion of a project:. A grading rubric is nothing more than an instructor#8217;s explicit statement of his or her expectations for student responses at various levels of achievement. Recall the analytic rubric from part two and compare it with the edward said, holistic rubric below: Fiction Writing Content Rubric. The two types of grading rubrics, analytic and holistic, both require you to specify those elements that are expected to be present in a response of superior quality. Finally, the rubric above contains a mechanism for assigning a score to each project.
So, when you first construct and use a rubric you might not include descriptors. Finished paper contains minor flaws in grammar and essay writing; needs editing. If a student achieves a 9, it means the theme, student has not demonstrated enough ability to achieve a 12. As in the above example, a rubric is comprised of two components: criteria and levels of said, performance. In other words, a student’s writing is assessed according to a pre-determined set of criteria. Well, as many as you decide is appropriate. Tower. These data can be analyzed by class and individual performance and said, serve as progress monitoring. Finished paper contains minor flaws in grammar and essay writing; needs editing. Check out these free essay writing rubrics.
Evaluating a College Writing Sample RUBRIC CRITERIA / SCALE-3- Exceeds Expectations -2- Meets Expectations. One familiar holistic rubric is the five-point scale of A, B, C, D, and F. Analytic rubric: separate, holistic ratings of examples, specific characteristics, products, or behaviors. Again, that will depend on said biography the situation. Edwin S Porter. Most often an analytic rubric is in a grid or table. Well, as many as you decide is appropriate.
They can also be used to edward said biography, facilitate self and peer-reviews of student work. A rubric can be analytic or holistic. Students need to paper, know how instructors assign grades on essay exams, term papers, or lab write-ups for the assessment exercises to be useful learning experiences. Analytic rubric: separate, holistic ratings of specific characteristics, products, or behaviors. Performance on that criterion could be judged along three levels of performance: never, sometimes, always.
The essay may show a distinctive and elegant writing style. It becomes more and more difficult to assign a level of performance in a holistic rubric as the number of edward said, criteria increases. Clear organization with a natural flow. Analytic rubrics are more common because teachers typically want to assess each criterion. Or Broadsheet. Our Educators#8217; Calendar outlines activities for each event, including: Brain Awareness Week (3/14-20), Deaf History Month (3/13-4/15), St.
Samples of Analytic Scoring RubricsIn Analytic Scoring, the teacher.
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Custom Brazilian Beer Market Essay. Both US beer and food retail industries have recently encountered numerous persistent challenging economic and strong demographic and cultural trends that have adversely hurt food retail and beer sales. Edward Said. The trend is likely to continue even in future. In 2009, beer sales depicted both business and consumer uncertainty. In a span of the last three years, the volume of the total beer sold in US declined from unpretentious growth to flat growth especially in 2008 when the recession occurred, making a loss of 2.1% in the subsequent year. The domestic beer also marked a sales volume decline of 1.4%.
Domestic premium brands have persistently indicated losses through declining by over 9%. Edwin S Porter. US consumers maintain their passion with low carbohydrate or low calorie brands that account for over the half of the entire beer sold. Increased food prices in combination with high rate of edward said biography, unemployment have affected the food retail industry. In the past few years, food retail has recorded a decline with the situation worsening due to economic crisis. Competition in the food retail industry is stiff given the numerous key players in the market who include Starbucks, McDonald and Wal-Mart. Competition in the US beer industry is or broadsheet also stiff with three key players who include Coors, Anheuser-Busch and said Miller. They compete by products that range extensively from wine, hard liquor to malt liquor, including imported beer. Tabloid Or Broadsheet. For instance, in the US micro-brewing industry, players have been taking significant portion of the pie in the recent period.
According to Boeing et al (2008), an Anheuser-Busch product known as Budweiser has declined in popularity for the last eighteen years consecutively. This is because its position has been taken up by Bud Light. This is probably because consumers in said biography, this industry are at the present more concerned with product differentiation but not brand identity. In addition, these industries have been there for long since beer brewing and sports as well as restaurants started. Therefore, they have reached their peak, showing no signs of edwin s porter, declining, indicating that they have reached their maturity stage. Due to these factors, Buffalo Wild Wings, a company in the sports restaurant industry selling food and beer products, is planning to expand internationally to Brazil. Industry Description and Trends in Brazil. Brazil is the fourth largest beer market in the world. In 2010, the country produced over 88 M barrels. Within the country, a number of edward biography, companies come into the beer industry, produce and sell it cheaply since there is no tax imposed on beer (Kubrick 2010).
The largest share of the Brazilian beer industry is taken by edwin s porter the Brazilian beer giant known as Ambev making competition less stiff compared to US beer industry. This company produces popular beer brands that include Brahma, Skol, Bohemia, and Antarctica among other accepted brands as well as soft drinks. It is by far the main player in said, this industry although it has been facilitated by what theme successful mergers. It forms the single biggest brewer in the world by said volume, taking 14% of the global beer revenues and market (Butler 2011). The industry is comprised of retail sales of stouts and bitters, low or no alcohol beers, ales, specialty beers, standard lager, and premium lager. In 2010, the beer industry in Brazil produced $23.5 billion total revenues that represented a compound annual growth rate of 4.5%. Tommy. This has been consistent for edward the period straddling from ray liotta vercetti 2006 to 2010.
In terms of beer brands, standard lager emerged the biography, most profitable brand in tower, Brazilian beer industry since in 2010; its sales produced a total of $20.3 billion revenue, which is equivalent to 86.3% of the entire market value. According to Datamonitor (2010), the edward said, performance of the tabloid, Brazilian beer market is expected to edward said accelerate with an expected compound annual growth rate of 5.6% for tommy the next five years. This is anticipated to biography drive the industry to almost $30.8 billion by 2015. The food retail industry on the other hand, is edwin s porter experiencing a strong growth currently. This trend is edward said expected to persistently continue even in the near future. In the period spanning 2007 to 2011, the industry recorded a compound annual growth rate of 20.2%. it is tabloid expected that by said biography 2016, the industry will have grown by a compound annual growth rate of edwin s porter, 10.3%, driving the said, market to approximately $667.5 billion. The competition is relatively low since the market has few key players. Given the moderate level of competition and profitable returns, Buffalo Wild Wings choose to expand in Brazil. Market Audit and Competitive Market Analysis. The beer market of Brazil indicated a relatively strong growth rate during 2006 to Ages Dahlmus and Feudal Society Bloch Essay 2010 period.
This was attributed to enormous growth in sales of low and no alcohol ales, and stouts and bitter brands. The entire growth of the market is anticipated to accelerate in the 2010-2015 period. However, the annual growth rate has depicted signs of declining from 6.1% to 5% in 2011 to biography 2015 respectively (Datamonitor 2010). Similarly, the Food retail industry has indicated a double digit growth in the past few years. In 2011, it generated $408.8 billion that was equivalent to 20.2% compound annual growth rate. When compared to US food retail industry, Brazilian seems more profitable since US’s growth rate was 4.2% in food retail industry. In 2010, the beer market of Brazil generated $23.5 billion in total revenues. This represented a 4.5% compound annual growth rate for by Joseph and Feudal Society by Marc 2006 to 2010 period. When compared to US beer market, Brazilian beer market is performing quite well because US beer market indicated a decline that translated to a compound annual growth rate of -0.1% over the same period to reach $76.9 billion in total revenues. Canadian market on the other hand, reported increased revenues and a compound annual growth rate of said biography, 1.8%, reaching $11.7 billion total revenues over the same period. The overall consumption volumes in Brazilian market also increased, representing a compound annual growth rate of 3.8% for the period across 2006 to 2010.
The amount of consumed beer in 2010 summed up to 10.4 billion liters. By the end of tabloid, 2015, the market consumption volume is expected to increase to edward 13.4 billion liters, which will be a 5.2% compound annual growth rate. Market performance is expected to increase rapidly to reach anticipated 5.6% compound annual growth rate within the next five years period, that is, 2010 to 2015. This is expected to propel the market to a value of approximately $30.8 billion by 2015 in is the, beer industry. For food industry, is expected to grow swiftly in the next five years, reaching $667.5 billion as indicted above. Said Biography. Comparatively, in a closer scrutiny of the US beer market and Canadian market trends, the US market will decline representing a -0.5% and 4.3% compound annual growth rate on beer and food retail industry, reaching $75.2 and $1,141.6 billion respectively. For the Brazilian beer market value, growth has been persistently positive from 2006 (Datamonitor 2010). Food retail industry has also been positive with a notable increase of 20.2% annually. This provides a ready and promising profitable market for new companies that will focus on product differentiation rather than identity of the idolatry examples, brand like Buffalo Wild Wings.
Competitive Market Analysis. The competitive market analysis of Brazilian beer and food retail market will be performed using five forces analysis as indicated by Datamonitor (2010) and said Marketline (2012). The market is highly intense comprising of three key players who hold an overall market share of approximately 90.2% of the entire beer market volume. To enhance brand identity, some key players have started to ray liotta tommy introduce modern retailing and management of edward said biography, brand by bringing bold brands, marketing campaigns and different label designs. Consumers consequently have a broader variety of examples, products to choose from with moderately reduced switching cost. Key players on the other hand, offer premium brands but most of their commercial activities entail mass-market products. This results to said biography elevated fixed costs facilitated by the need to run big breweries. Similarly, products’ prices may be pulled down by extensive retailer chain available, thus exerting stronger negotiation power. Those two factors enhance rivalry although it is entirely moderate.
For food retail industry, rivalry is strong given large retailers who are pushed to offering competitive prices and is the similarity of the players in the market (Marketline 2012). Buyer’s bargaining power: Brazilian food retail market has retailers who run incentive schemes for loyal shoppers. This assists in customer retention. There is also high retail outlet movement which translates to high buyer bargaining power. However, there are limited consumer places that make their bargaining power moderate. Brazilian beer market has specialist retailers as the major buyers. They take 45.6% of the said biography, overall distribution. Supermarkets often stand a better chance of bargaining on the price with producers which elevates buyer power substantially. In addition, their switching costs are relatively low, thus increasing their power too.
However, the by Joseph and Feudal, ability of producers to strongly differentiate their products by entire segment, brand, style and ingredients among other grounds, since buyers require wide range of products, weakens buyer’s power. In addition, the fact that retailers and producers are in different businesses eliminating the likelihood of forward or backward integration, further weakens buyer’s power making it moderate. Supplier bargaining power: The key beer inputs include hops, malted grain and barrels or bottles. Some major breweries in the world grow their hops independently, thus weakening the power of suppliers. However, independent growers of barley usually get alternative markets that include animal feed producers and spirit distillers. Edward Said Biography. This tends to raise their power. However, their power in Brazilian market is relatively moderate. Suppliers in food industry include farmers and food manufacturers. Large retailers maintain relationships with suppliers. Edwin S Porter. Further, there is surge of numerous retailers who offer own-brand products.
Due to these two factors, the supplier power has remained relatively low. Threat of Substitutes: Substitutes to food retail are few with food service as the only alternative. Edward. The only idolatry strong substitute is farmers who produce their own food products thus meeting their needs. However, due to increased health concerns, possible substitutes remain few and therefore substitute’s threat is weak. Other alcoholic products like wine and said biography spirits as well as non-alcoholic products like soft drinks act as strong substitutes for both beer and low or no alcoholic beer products. Or Broadsheet. In respect to retailers, switching costs are low and prices per unit volume are relatively higher compared to wines or spirits. However, some established pubs operate hardly without beer. Few restaurants and bars focus on wines and spirits particularly if there is a specific demographic group targeted. Said Biography. It is for this reason that threat of substitutes is high. Threat of new entrants:
In beer market, the Ages Dahlmus Society by Marc Essay, ability to sell high quality beer products at premium prices makes it possible for new entrants to edward said biography enter the market on small scale and later expanding. Larger breweries tend to embrace mass-market production where margins are lower. Tommy. Retail chains also have significant buyer power despite availability of brewery-owned outlets. Said. This pulls the prices obtained by producers down, making economies of edwin s porter, scale crucial. Consequently, entry barriers such as demand for establishing dependable supplies from numerous hop and barley growers and capital layout on production plants that want to produce on large scale become higher. In addition, stringent government regulations on said biography alcoholic beverages reduce ease of entry. Generally, threat of tabloid, new entrant in Brazilian beer industry is biography relatively moderate. In food retail industry, large scale retailers benefit substantially from economies of scale and their capability of adopting competitive pricing schemes. Is The Theme Of 1984. However, exit and entry costs are low, thus encouraging new entrants. According to Marketline (2012), the market has a strong growth that makes it an attractive place for new entrants and therefore, the threat of edward said biography, new entrants is high. The main products in the Brazilian beer market are categorized into five distinct categories.
Standard lager is the first category that accounts for 86.3% of the is the of 1984, entire market volume. It has been the most profitable brand in a period straddling from 2006 to 2010. The second category is premium lager that accounts for 7% of the entire market volume. This is edward followed by specialty beer that accounts for 3.1% of the Brazilian beer market, followed by edwin s porter low or no alcohol brands that accounts for edward 2.2% of the entire beer market. The last category is or broadsheet ales, stouts and edward said biography bitters that account for 1.4% of the overall Brazilian beer market. Tabloid Or Broadsheet. For the retail food market, the main products that are present include non-perishable foods, vegetables, beverages, dairy products, meat, fruits, disposable products, and cleaning products among others. The target market. Despite Ambev controlling almost 70% of the beer market in Brazil, it is evident that beer market in edward, this country is highly competitive. This means that as larger breweries fight amid themselves, there is always a ready profitable room for smaller companies. According to Anderson (2001), many consumers in Brazil tend to consume regional beers more than international beers. They prefer beer that is made close to their country.
In addition, smaller breweries tend to focus on regional consumers since they are supported by tower reduced distribution costs, and thus offer products at lower prices. Further, large breweries do not supply their products to some areas particularly remote regions of the edward said biography, country. Instead, they primarily target restaurants and bars located in edwin s porter, big cities as well as major super and hyper markets. Therefore, smaller scale breweries target regional consumers who buy beer products at low prices while large scale breweries target customers like restaurants, bars, super and hyper markets in big cities but not necessarily focus on customers in remote regions of the edward biography, country. In addition, food retail market targets both intermediate and retail customers, distributing products across the region of operation. This involves lower and middle income customers and running stores that are strategically located in the neighborhood of these consumers. Brazilian beer market size is tabloid based on retail and edward said biography non-retail sales as well as liters consumed annually. Based on retail sales, specialist retailers occupy 45.6 %, super and eiffel hypermarkets take 32.7 %, on-trade (pubs and bars) account for edward 14.2% while the other 7.5% is occupied by other retailers. In relation to examples consumption liters per year, the market size has already indicated a 6.1% growth in 2010. The market size is expected to grow by 5.6% on average by the end of edward said, 2015. It is therefore forecasted to have a value of approximately $30,751.8 million, which is an increase of 31% by 2015 (Bier Wein 2009).
Brazilian food retail market size on the other hand, is based on share of distribution. The main channels include convenience stores and gas stations who take 39.1%, hyper and supermarkets that take 37.7%, food and drinks specialists taking 21.9%, and tabloid or broadsheet others who take 1.3%. Best Locations to edward Expand in tommy, Brazil. The global beer market is edward said biography rising in eiffel, the developing markets mostly due to the rise in population growth and increase in income distribution (Sab Miller 2012). Edward Said Biography. Therefore, in selecting a location to expand the beer market in Brazil population must be considered. The best areas to locate according to examples population and economic development are Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte. The three cities have a population of 19, 11, and 5 million respectively (Stark Tourism Forum 2012). Additionally, the three cities are famous tourist sites in Brazil. Like population growth, tourism industry is a key factor in the development of biography, a beer market. The tourism industry is expected to grow significantly within the eiffel tower, next two years because the three cities were among 10 other cities in Brazil selected to host the FIFA World Cup.
Therefore, expanding in these areas can lead to edward biography faster growth of the company in Brazil. The key competitors in the Brazilian beer market as noted by Datamonitor (2010) include Anheuser-Busch InBev, Primo Schincariol Ind. Edwin S Porter. De Cervejas E Refrigerantes S.A and Cervejaria Petropolis SA. The key competitors in food retail market include Companhia Brasileira de Distribuicao, Grupo Pao de Acucar and edward Wal-Mart Stores as noted by Marketline (2012). This company is idolatry examples among the key competitor in the beer market of Brazil. It is the chief global brewer involved with production, distribution and selling of beer products and other soft drinks. It sells premium beers, specialty brews and lagers in a number of countries across the globe. It operates brewery facilities in more than 23 countries. It offers over 200 brands. Among them are Budweiser, Beck’s, Stella Artois, Leffe, and edward said biography Hoegaarden. Its local Brazil brands include Skol, Jupiler, Brahma, Bud Light, and Quilmes among others.
Its manufacturing operations are run in tommy, 152 beverage breweries across the globe. Edward Said. It operates in seven segments that are based on geographical areas. They include Latin America North and South, Western, Central and Eastern Europe, North America, Global export, and Asia Pacific, where Brazil is incorporated in idolatry, Latin America North segment. In relation to its financial performances, the company recorded $36.3 billion total revenues in its financial years that ended December 2010. However, this was a 1.3% decrease compared to its revenues of 2009 financial year. Despite this decrease, it recorded $10 billion total revenue during 2010 financial year from Latin America North, a segment where Brazil appears. Said. In comparison to 2009 financial year, this was an increase of 31%. Primo Schincariol Ind. De Cervejas E Refrigerantes S.A. This is a Brazilian company that is eiffel tower involved in said biography, production, distribution and ray liotta vercetti selling of beer, soft drinks and water.
Its main beer brands include Glacial, Primus, NS2 and Nova Schin among others. Edward Said Biography. Its headquarters is in Sao Paulo, Brazil and is the of 1984 operates as Grupo Schincariol subsidiary. Edward. Being a privately owned entity, its financial data is not released. Cervejaria Petropolis SA. This is another major competitor in the Brazilian beer market. This company is based in Brazil, present in thirteen states of ray liotta tommy vercetti, Brazil via four of its breweries located in Petropolis, Teresopolis, Rondonopolis, and Boituva. The company produces beers under Itaipava, Lokal, Crystal, Weltenburger Kloster, and Black Princess Petra among other brand names. Said. It is also involved in production of non-alcoholic drinks such as TNT (an energy drink) as well as spirits under the Blue Spirit brand name. Similar to Primo Schincariol Ind.
De Cervejas E Refrigerantes S.A, Cervejaria Petropolis SA is a privately owned entity and therefore it does not release its financial analysis and data. Companhia Brasileira de Distribuicao. It is the largest food retailer in Brazil running over by Joseph Dahlmus and Feudal Essay 1647 stores in the country. It offers food and non-food products in its food segment. It distributes its products via 51 channels located in 14 Brazilian stores. Said Biography. By December 2010, the company recorded $18,157 million in revenues.
Grupo Pao de Acucar. This is another large distribution and private employer, operating super and hyper markets, specialty stores, and cash and ray liotta vercetti carry among others. Biography. It operates over 1800 stores in Brazil. In 2010, it recorded $20,450 million in revenue which was a 37.9% increase compared to 2009 performance. This is a global retail food operator operating in countries like Brazil, UK, Japan, and Argentina among others. It sells its products via e-commerce. In 2010, the company recorded $408,214 million, a 1.7% increase from 2009 year. As Buffalo Wild Wings seek to enter new international market in order to sustain its growth, it must take all necessary measures to tabloid or broadsheet avoid finding itself in a strategic predicament. Given the said biography, level of competition in Brazilian beer market, the company’s product designs, supply-chain management, marketing methods, and business approaches require substantial time and extensive managerial effort in edwin s porter, order for the company to successfully adapt and reconfigure in the new Brazilian market. According to Elsevier Inc. (2005), entry in edward said, large international market presents both significant strategic opportunities and challenges. International markets will allow a company to introduce new products lines that are specifically designed for that market, or restructure their product in order to suit the tastes and preferences of the targeted consumers better.
A number of entry strategies exist which include rapid establishment of tabloid or broadsheet, presence with the aim of capturing first mover advantage and said biography slow entry with the aim of ray liotta tommy vercetti, uncovering local pitfalls and possible subtleties of serving customers with diverse preferences. The possible entry strategy that Buffalo Wild Wings can use is edward said rapid establishment of presence accompanied by line-branding strategy. This will enable the company to respond to the apprehension of offering one consistent response under one name by introducing several complimentary products, bearing in mind that customers are more concerned with product differentiation rather than brand identity. The line-brand strategy will entail exploitation of ray liotta tommy, fruitful concept of product differentiation by edward said biography extending products while staying close to the original product. This will assist the firm to meet the diverse needs and preferences of customers better. Given the targeting and edwin s porter positioning strategy of the key players, the biography, company should enter with a product-brand strategy in order to easily identify and claim a specific place in the minds of customers and develop a firm competitive position (SKEMA Business School 2010). Custom Brazilian Beer Market Essay. 95% of satisfied returning customers Customer support 24/7/365 The largest source database A wide range of services Privacy guaranteed Certified writers only edwin s porter Custom-written papers only Direct communication with a writer Free plagiarism report(on demand) Free revision upon request more details Your writers are masters at time management. I turned in an order for four very difficult papers, and they were all written perfectly, even with the short deadline notice. Thanks, EssaysWriters.com! Your writing company delivers for me every time.
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