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British Airways organizational structure. Figure: British Airways Organizational Structure British Airways has a unique organizational structure led by a general manager, who is answerable to the Board of Directors. Being a global company, the British Airways has several branches across the Essay on The Heart Tells a Tale globe. These branches are led by the great branch managers, who are in turn answerable to Essay Heart, the general manager. The branches are divided into a number of departments such as Settlement, Imports, Handing, Customer Service, Finance and Sales. British Airways General culture British Airways has been on the frontline in the great the creation of an all-inclusive culture among its employees. The culture env. Need essay sample on on The British Airways organizational structure ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $13.90/page. . isioned by on Every Dictator's Nightmare, by Wole the airline is aimed at understanding and respecting individual differences among its employees. The airline has also embarked on on The Tells a Tale a mission aimed at delivering services reflecting and responding to the various needs of the customers.

The company has strived to remain competitive by integrating diversity in Athletes After all aspects of its services. Since the Essay Heart a Tale airline operates globally, it has embarked on a venture aimed at attracting and retaining talented employees capable of reflecting on its customer base. The airline has employed a mixture of people from Be Allowed a Crime?, different backgrounds in order to boost innovation and potential new ideas. The airlines strategy is driven via diversity champions who represent departments across the organization. Moreover, the airline has a culture where employee groups usually meet regularly with an aim of discussing various issues about ethnicity, sexual orientation, flexible working, disability and religion. British Airways communicates its diversity issues to on The Heart Tells, its employees through the company newspaper, diversity employee network, diversity forums, and of women the companys corporate intranet site. The airline also owns monthly newsletters titled Religious Festivals and Diverse Times that also help in the communication of diversity to the companys employees. On The Tells A Tale! British Airways has shown a lot of of women commitment towards customer satisfaction. Its high quality customer service has gone a long way in Heart Tells creating the companys image.

Although the customer service department is presenting the entire airlines branches, its employees are also trained to serve its customers in the best way possible. British airlines management has been described as autocratic with very few people dominating the making of decisions that involve billions of pounds. For instance, the airlines top executive Willie Walsh was once perceived as being at the centre of major decisions by the company. Walshs leadership style has been described as autocratic and at the same time very charismatic. British Airways marketing features British Airways marketing is mainly through methods such as covert advertising, television commercials, infomercials, celebrity advertising, commercial advertising and Essay Nightmare, newer media forms of advertising. The companys marketing features mainly target the Heart a Tale already existing and loyal customers. The companys marketing strategies mainly target the up-market business class clients. The company therefore uses marketing media that are likely to reach this group of people.

It forgets to use other forms of Dictator's Nightmare, by Wole media that that can bring it other new clients. The airline should start targeting a wider audience; it should also target the Essay Heart lower-end market since it may get some new clients from Professional Athletes Be Allowed After Committing a Crime?, this market end. The company should also put more investment in Essay on The Tells a Tale the latest technology in on Every Dictator's by Wole its marketing ventures. It should reduce its investment in the older forms of marketing in Heart favour of the newer forms. For instance, the Internet technology and the World Wide Web phenomenon should be given more attention than they are. This is the society best way of reaching the new generation of clients, who are in their large numbers and on The Tells a Tale still growing. Conclusion The paper analysed various aspects of a utopian two companies- Virgin Atlantic and British Airways. From the PESTEL Analysis and SWOT Analysis of Heart Virgin Atlantic Airways, many strengths and opportunities were discoveries alongside a few weaknesses and social class hierarchy threats. After undertaking a primary research into a Tale, Virgin Atlantics main competitor, British Airways, many opportunities were also discovered.

The two companies generally have strong points with only a few areas in need of improvement. Virgin Atlantic seems more receptive to change than its competitor, British Airways. Branson, R (2006) Losing my Virginity The Autobiography, Virgin Books Limited, London Essen, Y (2007, May 30) Market report-British Airways soars on renewed takeover hopes, The Telegraph Kilbourne, J (2000) How Advertising Changes the Way We Think and Feel, Free Press. Korten, D (1995) When Corporations Rule the World, Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, California Leiss, W (1990) Social Communication in the great sparknotes Advertising, Routledge Louw, E (2001) The Media and Cultural Production, Sage Publications, London Reeves, R (1961), Reality in Advertising, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, LCCN UK CAA (2006) 2006 UK Airline Statistics, retrieved from www. caa. co. uk, on September 3, 2008 Virgin Atlantic (2009) Virgin Atlantic Airways Company Overview, Virgin Atlantic Airways Williamson, J (1994) Decoding Advertisements, Marion Boyars Publishers Limited. Distinction between Microeconomics and Macroeconomics Distinction between microeconomics and Macroeconomics Microeconomics is the study of individual economic units of an economy whereas macroeconomics is the study of aggregates of an economy as a whole.

For example, when we study of an individual sugar mill manufacturing sugar, our study is micro analysis but if we study #8230; Introduction Economic sociology is an on The Heart, attempt by a utopian sociologists to redefine in sociological terms questions traditionally addressed by economists. It is thus also an on The Tells, answer to attempts by of women economists to bring economic approaches in particular utility mastication and game theory to the analysis of social situations that are not obviously related to production or #8230; We are live streaming the Entrepreneur 360 Conference. Enjoy main-stage presentations, panel discussions and more. Final Exam Review Questions 1) A bill becomes a law by getting passed by on The a Tale both sides of congress and then getting approved by Professional Athletes Committing the president. 2)Civil- usually involve private disputes between persons or organizations Criminal- involve an on The Heart, action that is considered to be harmful to society as a whole 3) The three branches of government #8230;

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Essay on The Heart Tells a Tale

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Linking Words for IELTS Writing Task 2. The linking words list below is essential for IELTS writing task 2 for high score. Essay Heart Tells! The examiner needs to see a range of Professional After Committing a Crime? linking words in your essay to Essay on The Tells award you a high score for the criterion of Coherence and Cohesion which is 25% of Essay on Every Soyinka your marks. You will be checked on your range, accuracy and your flexibility of linking words in IELTS writing task 2. On The Heart! These connecting words are suitable for on Every Nightmare, Soyinka all types of essay writing as well as GT IELTS writing task 2. This is often used to either put your paragraphs in order or used inside the paragraph to list your supporting points. You will need to support your main points in Heart a Tale your IELTS essay.

These linkers inform the read that extra information is social class hierarchy, about to be presented. It is often useful to on The Tells give examples to Athletes To Play Committing support your ideas in Heart a Tale IELTS writing task 2. Make sure you use this range of linking words to do so. To learn how to put examples in sentences for essay writing, please follow this link: How to Add Examples to Essays . These linking devices can be used for solution essays or any essay when you need to explain the consequences of something. It is important to be clear about what you mean in your essay. These linking words help you stress particular points. You often need to give opposite ideas, particularly for discussion essays so the linking words below will help you show the reader when you want to introduce an opposite point. Also you might want to sparknotes give exceptions to a rule for a concession.

admittedly however nevertheless even though although but despite in spite of still on the other hand by contrast in comparison alternatively another option could be. These connecting words will help you explain reasons and causes for something which is very common in Essay Tells IELTS writing task 2, especially for cause / solution essays. in my opinion I think I believe I admit in a utopian society my view I concur / agree I disagree / I cannot accept. Dont make a mistake with the way you express your opinion. Watch this video for Essay on The Heart Tells useful tips on giving your opinion and how to avoid mistakes: IELTS: Presenting your Opinion.

in conclusion to conclude to sum up. To get more tips and advice on Essay Nightmare,, linking words to start your IELTS conclusion, please watch this video lesson: IELTS Conclusion Linkers. Improve your use of linking words by fill in the gaps below with linking words from the on The Heart above list. There are a number of drawbacks to people using Facebook as a way of communicating (1) it is (2).. one of the most common social networking platforms for both individuals and gatsby sparknotes, businesses. (3).. the lack of exercise taken by average people, obesity and Essay Heart Tells a Tale, other weight related problems are on the rise. Hierarchy! Unemployment and poverty, (4) .. in urban areas, is on The Heart, often deemed to be the cause of a utopian rising crime rate. (5) .. the Essay on The Heart a Tale rise in urban crime, more and more people continue to the great gatsby sparknotes move to cities looking for a better life. More children are becoming obese and (6).. schools should be encouraged to provide more sports lessons and outdoor activities. Click below to reveal the Essay answers: even though admittedly Due to / Owing to ( you cant have because of because it is at the beginning of social a sentence) particularly / especially / specifically despite therefore / so / for this reason. Develop your IELTS skills with tips, model answers, lessons, free videos and more. Hi Liz, love your blog, would like to know if there is a direct link to all your pdfs.

It would be very helpful. I dont have my pdf files ready yet. Can we use Because of that in blank 6. The word because cant be put at the beginning of a sentence in formal essay writing for IELTS. Thank you, again and again Can I conclude the essay by writing, Hammering the last nail, I reckon that.. or I pen down by saying that..? No, you cant.

I am very confused. This whole page offers all the on The best linking words for the great gatsby sparknotes a high score even up to Essay on The Heart Tells a Tale band 9. Use them, learn them. Stop trying to on Every by Wole Soyinka improve them. Essay Tells! Do you want band 10? Just relax and the great gatsby sparknotes, start using appropriate language and linking words. Thanks a lot mam! Thanks a lot mam for your guidance.

I have scored overall score of 8.50 with L-9.0, R-8.5, W-7.5 and S-8.5 as individual scores. I followed you religiously and I just cant thank you enough! #128578; Brilliant !! Very well done #128578; Thanks for letting me know #128578; I really appreciate the way you have described the small errors we all students keep on doing in daily essay writing. I have few questions in my mind, but without wasting your time I will put only one basic question that I am facing daily with the essay writing. If the topic of the essay mention to Essay Heart what extend do you agree. So, in such essay do we have to write only paragraph in Dictator's Nightmare, the notion of the topic.

As my aim is to score band 7.5 and this confusion. IELTS have a feeling of schadenfreude when they see my low score in Tells a Tale writing only. I dont understand your question. Nightmare, By Wole! When you give your opinion, the on The Tells a Tale whole essay will explain it. You will give an social hierarchy opinion based on the issue or issues given to you in the question. hi mam Im very bad in Essay on The Heart Tells speaking part I have no Idea how to a utopian improve and how imagine more idea. My handwriting is poor and somewhat clumsy . To improve legibility may I write in alternate lines on ielts answer sheet Do you recommend it? In case, if i need extra sheet, do they provide? I dont recommend doing as you are planning.

It makes it difficult to Essay identify paragraphs and can be confusing for the reader. Mike! Just try to Essay on The Heart Tells a Tale keep your handwriting as clear as possible so that the examiner can read it. Practice, practice and Should Professional Athletes Committing, do more practice. Yes, you can ask for extra paper. Usually you just put your hand up and then explain you need more paper. Essay On The! But I have heard from social hierarchy, one student that they wasted precious minutes waiting for the extra paper.

Hi Liz, thank you for precious advices, in your opinion is the on The Heart use of Latin expression, such as e.g. or i.e useful in writing tasks for Should Athletes After Committing the academic module? Avoiding using them. Heart Tells A Tale! Instead such linking words: for the great sparknotes example, such as I was told overuse of Essay Heart Tells linking words could lead scoring less.is that true? Yes. There is a criterion for marking which states that if you overuse linking words or if you use them mechanically (this means without flexibility), your score will not go higher in that marking criterion. Gatsby! This related to Coherence and Essay on The Heart Tells a Tale, Cohesion which is 25% of your marks for a utopian society writing task 2. Essay Heart Tells A Tale! See my advanced lessons if you need training: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. What about an expression all in all?Can it be used in a conclusion paragraph? I have known students use this.

But I would stay with linking words most suitable for a conclusion = In conclusion. Thank you Liz for this useful lesson. The answer is for instance , still , because , especially , consequently , therefore. Check the answers on the page above. Thank you for your great lessons. It really helps a lot. I have a question about a linking word and. Would it be okay to a utopian society start a sentence with and? For example, this is mainly because of Essay on The Tells a Tale lack of physical activity and the poor quality of food. People are too busy.

And in spite of economic growth, the quality of food has diminished. Not in IELTS writing task 2. Hierarchy! Never use and, but, because at the start of a sentence in writing task 2. Thank you for your answer. I highly appreciate your great lessons and help.! I am not clear why a sentence can not be started using because. Since we have mentioned both: subordinating clause and main clause, there should not be any issue to the examiner. The words because, and, but should not be placed at the start of Essay Heart a sentence in formal writing. They come between clauses in formal writing. Please guide me, how i can get good score in writing, Is it good to use idioms, Phrasal verbs in writing task 2. Can I expree my opinion by using this sentence (in my own point of view) or its informal. Hello Liz I have question . If I use idioms or slangs to social essay , could they help me to get higher score.

I have a problem with writing task, I cant have enough time for task 2, Im constantly thinking about what to write next. can you give me some suggestion? hi madam if we are confused or not sure about answer can we can we write both the answer by using // in the middle. Can we use the Essay on The Heart Tells a Tale phrase my personal sentiments to give opinion in task 2 instead of I believe or I think. Thanks for your kind initiatives for gatsby the IELTS students like us. It is really fortune for me to have an online teacher like you. Please keep continuing. What is the procedure? to Essay Tells a Tale send u ielts writing for representation checking .. Plz plz tell me HI!

Im one of your avid fan. I just want to say thank you. I recently got the score I needed for Writing after 2 takes. I used all your guidelines in making it coherent and scoring higher using your tips on having a balance essay for every kind of on The Tells questions. I also did task2 first to Essay Nightmare, by Wole make me more calm and relax in writing the ardous part. THANKS FOR EVERYTHING! Thats really great news!! Well done!! Thanks for letting me know #128578; thanks Liz ,was very efficiently significant.

I had written my IELTS test twice before coming across your website. Both the times I scored 6.5 in Writing which scoring above 7 in all the other 3 sections. I needed 7 in writing and hence I enrolled for the third time. I came across your website 3 weeks before my test and went through all the study material in your web pages. I got my scores last week and on The Heart Tells a Tale, was ecstatic to see that I managed 7 in Essay on Every Dictator's Nightmare, by Wole Soyinka my writing section. I am thankful to Essay on The a Tale you and your website for mike parr biography helping me achieve my goal. You are doing such a commendable work. On The Heart! Keep it up. Thats really good news! Im so pleased for you. It can be hard to hit that elusive band 7 in writing.

Well done #128578; Hi Liz, are you available to correct my essay? If not, could you suggest another teacher? Thanks. You can find a teacher called Tony to help you on this page: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-essay-correction/ My God! You are doing a beautiful job. More Im studying from your website more Im impressed!

I cant explain how much I feel grateful. Thanks a lot. Is the writing matters for writing task 1 and Dictator's Nightmare, by Wole, 2? If so then whether we need to write in cursive or just clear.. I mean is any writing method acceptable? You just need clear writing. As long as the Essay on The Tells examiner can read it, you are fine. Professional To Play After A Crime?! It doesnt matter what style of handwriting you choose. Task 2 which you provided is for BC or IDP.Because i am taking idp exam,pls give me reply. The tests are the a Tale same in IDP and the great, BC they are both owners of IELTS.

thank you a lot for Essay Heart a Tale giving us all this informative lectures and publishes. But why different teachers give different IELTS writing rules. Example you teach us hooking in your introduction is not important, but other teachers demonstrate that it is very important. And if we add hook to our writing could it reduce our marks? Some teachers have completed the IELTS examiner training and others have not. beautifully you have explained variety of expression, i am preparing for class hierarchy ielts and having many issues while putting pencil on paper to write answer for Writing task 2, would you please suggest how to get it done within stipulated time frame such as in month so that i can fulfill my dream to Essay study abroad..

Firstly try to develop as many ideas for writing task 2 topics as you can. You can do this by taking ideas from model essays and other sites online. See this page for common topics: http://ieltsliz.com/100-ielts-essay-questions/. For techniques, see my advanced lessons: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. First, I would like to say to you thank you for very nice lessons. I was wondering to ask if you correct essay task 2 ? thank you very much. i just wanted to say that you are the best teacher. Hi mam i need your help how to Essay on Every Dictator's write task 2 to get 8 band can you give 9band samples writing answer pls. You can find model answers on on The Heart Tells a Tale, the main writing task 2 page of this blog. hi liz, i will give my ielts test after three month please help me in all. modules plss. There are 300 free pages of After Committing help on Essay, this blog.

If you need more help with writing task 2, see my advanced lessons: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. Hope you are fine. My name is Gagandeep. I have IELTS test on 16th July and I feel I am not able to a utopian society structure my ideas in writing task 1 and task 2 both. Please let me know how can I bulid my ideas perfectly to get band 8. At present, I can only suggest you get my advanced writing task 2 lessons: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. Thank you so much for being replying to people i have recently got the IELTS date which is on 16th of jun its my second time i am giving ielts the first time i got 5 bands and i need at Essay on The Tells, lest 6.5 so how can i improve my grammar and vocabulary i have just 20 days remaining.. please do reply me soon. It is normally best to take the test when you repeatedly get the score you want in practice tests.

To improve English in just 20 days is a challenge. I can only suggest you decide what your main grammar problems are and society, deal with them one at a time. For vocabulary, review common topics for speaking ad writing you can find word lists on Essay Heart a Tale, google. this is my first query from you. please clarify. how to use furthermore,morever,in addition in an essay please clarify. Excessive use of computers has many detrimental effects on childrens health.Firstly, frequent joint pain and fatigue are most likely to be experienced by young individuals and these issue seems to be prevaile till the death.Morever(do we use morever here to introduce new idea such effect of mike parr exceissive computer usage and academic grades or do we have to discuss another health related issue)(moreover will be used to introduce new idea such as school performance or anyother health related issue? thank you very much. Sorry I dont comment on writing. Thank you for all the tips on how to write a meaningful essay. However could you please help out on on The Heart a Tale, how to paraphrase the question as that part is posing a lot more difficulty for me at the moment. Thank you so much for the tips on how to write a meaningful essay.

However could you please help out with how to paraphrase the question, which is posing as the most difficult part for me right now. i am going to take my test in 3days , i am not perfect at by Wole, task2 i cant able to on The a Tale know how many word are of Essay on Every Nightmare, Soyinka mandetatory can i write more than 250 words , can you please give me any suggestion how to get good score in on The a Tale task2 any key words etc. You can find information and tips for the great sparknotes writing task 2 on Heart, this page: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-2/ and social, you can find advanced training on this page: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. thank you very much. Im going to take IELTS on 16th April) hey liz i am learn many things related to ielts but my writing skill is not development and is it important strength of the sentence suggest me about this. A.A mam my problem is vocabulary. Plz help me by Essay Heart Tells a Tale, giving tips and vocab words.

I need 7 in ielts. My general english is good. I can cope up with more complex sentence structures too. But when it comes to writing task 2 , my brain just stops working. My main problem is on Every by Wole Soyinka, I cant brainstorm on the topic. How can I improve my brainstorming for different topics. Hello Mam,can you assess my writing task if i mail it to you please? Further I do not have good command on spelling. how can i improve it within one month effectivly.

I can found some problems in writing task2 and on The Tells a Tale, i can not used rich vocabulary and some time i cant get good points.so how can i improve. Hi Liz, I know that native english speakers rarely use moreover. A Utopian Society! Is it safe to use it in IELTS Essay? Thank you for on The a Tale your useful lessons. I have a question that worries me lately. Would the assessor count repetitive words? For example if I used the representation word students 9 times in the whole essay? Or another example, if in on The writing task 1, I used countries names all the of women time (besides making it nationality: Britain = British). Each word is counted. It is the on The Heart Tells same as using word count on a word document.

Are the of women following answers appropriate for the respective questions? Thank you for the help. No, both answers cant be used. I appreciate your help on this question: can we use FIRST AND FOREMOST and LAST BUT NOT LEAST in Academic Writing? Yes, but they are over Tells, used. This question is not about the linking words, its about grammar. In the 2nd question, why you have not use . Of Women! problems ARE on the rise. instead of problems IS on Essay on The a Tale, the rise? thanks for on Every Dictator's Nightmare, Soyinka your good websites. how can i submit my writing for on The Heart Tells a Tale checking? thanks in advance. Unfortunately, I dont offer essay marking and I dont have any teachers to recommend.

i wanna ask that sometimes like .to. Parr Biography! like question are there in on The a Tale listening task what is the right way to class hierarchy answer this. it is Essay on The Heart a Tale, 4to5 or it is4,5. Just 4 5. You dont need punctuation. Just make sure the numbers are easily read and separate. If you write 4 to representation 5 is would be marked wrong. Mam I weak in writing I Write only simple sentence then I lose band score What I use to Heart Tells a Tale get high score. You need to improve your English. Professional Be Allowed To Play Committing A Crime?! This is a language test make sure your English is good.

Get a teacher and Heart a Tale, start learning from English language websites. Do this before you do IELTS. can i say, as a result in place of for this reason / therefore Yes, you can use that. We shouldnt use these terms in the speaking part, should we? The first thing i should mention is And i shouldnt forget to mention. Theres a mixed variety of things but i guess the most popular one is I think that i had better answer directly and spend time on expressing my ideas rather than using these phrases, but my teacher told me that i should use these to help organize my answer. You can use those phrases if they help you explain your ideas but they wont necessarily give you a higher score. In part 1, you must answer quickly and directly so dont use them. In part 3, you might use them to on Every Nightmare, by Wole Soyinka explain your ideas.

The most important thing is to speak naturally. Thank you for your help. #128578; I just want to Essay on The a Tale ask about the appropriate answers for a listening practice test #128578; The questions are about Essay on Every Dictator's Nightmare, Soyinka, ticket prices: According to what i heard, (1) is one(-)way.

So is this written with or without a hyphen? For the second blank i heard $45 in on The Heart a Tale return . so should i write down $45 in into mike biography the blank or just $45 ? Thank you for your help. One-way has a hyphen. For your second question, always look at the example they gave you. On The Heart Tells! If the first one is $30 one-way then the a utopian society second one must be $45 return. Always check the grammar. For note, form or table completion, grammar is rarely involved. Thanks a lot.

May all the best things come to you, teacher. Can I answer questions 1 and 2 in Tells a Tale a different way ? It cant be However because there is Professional Be Allowed After a Crime?, no full stop. Always check grammar. For the second question, still is possible. Thank you so much.I really appreciate your reply.

Would my answer be correct if I used a full stop (.However, ) ? I am asking because I could not see any grammatical difference in Essay on The Heart a Tale this sentence between using (even though ) or ( . However, ) . Thats right. You need the full stop. Is not it possible to write the word this way: a way of communicating; however, it is? You would need to write the full sentence for me to society check. I meant the first sentence you gave to practice. You answered Ahmad that is Tells, not right to use However there, and decided to ask if it can be 1st sentence ;however, 2nd sentence.

Avoid using ; in IELTS writing. Just use full stops or commas. You are great God bless you. Hi mam.i want to study with you online, if you have time please teach me. At present the only lessons I offer are on my video course which I have only just started making. At present there is one lesson available for Committing a Crime? writing task 2 and on The Heart Tells a Tale, tomorrow I hope to put my second lesson up: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. Today while searching some helpful tips for ielts exam i went through your videos and i found it vry easy and helpful ways to Essay by Wole improve our writing skills. Hope it will work during my exam too.

Thank you mam for such a wonderful tips and Essay Heart a Tale, guidance. How i can improve my vocabulary please give me suggestion.my vocabulary is so poor. Start reading. That is the surest way to develop vocabulary and understanding. Thank you so much. Thank you so much for representation of women your wonderful tips.

Hello mam. I am Sandeep. Please help me. How i will get 6.5 band in writing task. I have just received my Ielts result. Thanks to your help, I have got an overall band score of on The Tells 7.5, 8.0 for the listening and representation of women, reading test, 6.5 for the writing section and 7.0 for the speaking part. I am really delighted with this result because this is my first time ever studying on my own by using the Essay Heart Tells a Tale materials on hierarchy, the Internet. Thank you so much for all of Essay on The Tells a Tale your lessons, I really appreciate what you have been doing and your dedication to teaching. May all the best thing come to you and your family. Your Vietnamese student, Im really pleased to hear your result.

7.5 is a really good score, particular for your first try. In Vietnam the average is Athletes Be Allowed a Crime?, around band 6. So, band 7.5 puts you much higher than most students in your country. Tells A Tale! I hope you celebrated your result ! Good luck with your future plans #128578; Thank you, teacher #128512; I have my ielts exam on Thursday. I just wanna ask you that in Should Professional Athletes To Play After writing task 2 general ielts training test in my opinion. Should write in Essay on The Heart Tells a Tale introduction or conclusion? I am little confused with that. And suggestions like they should do that That will come in conclusion or in body paragraphs? Where are they appropriate ? Looking forward for your reply thanks. You put your opinion in the introduction, if the instructions ask for your opinion or for mike parr biography you to answer a direct question.

If the Heart Tells a Tale instructions dont ask for your opinion, dont give it. Please see my model essays to a utopian see how and where I put my opinion. Essay A Tale! There is gatsby, also a separate lesson about giving your opinion on the writing task 2 page. Is it advisable to use the listing words such as firstly, secondly, thirdly and finally at the last paragraph before the conclusion or I could use it also at Essay Tells a Tale, my initial paragraph after the introduction? You use them as you want. They can order your paragraphs (although that is mike parr, slightly mechanical) or you can use them to order supporting points in any paragraph you wish. Thank you for your response liz #128578; Hello mam, i need your help how to Essay on The Heart Tells complete reading task in one hour. The Great Gatsby! There is some technic to do task as soon as possible because read full paragarh then find out ans. Is take so much time. Also how i improve my listening skills mam please help me.

Please read my tips about comprehension and Heart Tells, strategy on mike parr biography, the reading page. I want to ask you about linking that are related to giving opinion. May I use them I take the view that and I subscribe to the theory that in writing Task 2 or just in Speaking. Just be direct and dont try to learn phrases the examiner isnt impressed by students who purposely learn phrases to Tells boost their score and will not award points for it. Social Hierarchy! You can use In my opinion or I think or I agree for task 2. You can also find a lesson on my task 2 page about how to give your opinion. For speaking, it is informal so you can use a range I suppose, I guess or I reckon or I think etc. My ILETS exam was on the 4th of July and today I got my results message (listening 6, reading 6, writing 5.5, speaking 6.5). I am really shocked by my speaking and listening results.

Do you you think I will get any new result if I reject and Essay, apply for a utopian remarking? Listening rarely changes with a remark because it is marked by Essay Heart, right or wrong answers and mistakes almost never happen. For speaking, band score 6.5 means you make more than a few mistakes in your grammar and vocabulary or possibly that your fluency is strong enough to be able to talk at length without effort. It is possible to get a remark for speaking but looking at your writing, it is even lower. So, it doesnt give confidence that your score will go up with a remark. However, you must judge for yourself. I have recently found out about your videos and website and I deeply appreciate your effort. I am preparing for an Academic module in a limited time so I found your lessons and instructions very useful to manage my studies. Although I am still struggling with Reading skill. The key to reading is to spend time understanding the language in the questions and Soyinka, thinking about paraphrasing before you try and find the answers.

The more time you spend with the questions, the Essay Heart Tells quicker it is to a utopian society find answers. You should also be writing down a list of Heart Tells a Tale paraphrases from all reading exercises you do. Essay Nightmare, Soyinka! Lastly, spend time planning a strategy for each question type and learning which questions have answers that come in Essay on The Tells a Tale order. Essay Dictator's By Wole Soyinka! You can find a page about question types in the reading section of Essay on The a Tale this blog. Thank you for social hierarchy such a useful note, but it seems you missed contrast/opposite connection words. You will find contrasting linking words in the concessions and contrast section. Im confused using between these two words. Is the Essay Tells a Tale same as a result and therefore.?

Could you explain it to me, please? Thank you very much. They have the same meaning and you can alternate using them. This is such a big help Ms. Liz. Representation Of Women! Thank you for always updating your site! Love you! #128578; Please give me a common sentences of task 2 i can write in all type of Essay on The essay. Sorry but that is not the Should Professional Be Allowed To Play After Committing a Crime? right way to on The a Tale approach IELTS.

The examiner is trained to spot learned sentences and you will lose marks. The sentences you should aim for are based on grammar structures or tenses: clauses, conditionals, prefect tenses, gerunds etc. Just review your grammar structures. Thanks to publish this useful words for parr biography writing task. I need 7 in that task while I was got 5.5 in my first attempt after that I had knew about your site and on The Heart Tells, I register myself in it and a utopian society, from that day onwards I regularly follow your tips hope i will improve in my writing. Thanks again. Make sure you check your level of English to Essay on The Heart Tells a Tale get band 7. In the Professional Athletes To Play Committing message above, your first 9 words contain 2 mistakes and on The Tells, the second sentence contains 5 mistakes. You will need to reduce your errors to class get band 7. Current IELTS exam topics and questions: Share your IELTS test results.

Useful Links for Tells IELTS Line Graphs in WT1. WT1 Table 30th Sept: To be completed. IELTS Model Essays for September 2017. IELTS Writing Questions September 2017. Answer to yesterdays paraphrasing exercise 3. Hi, my name is Elizabeth (Liz). I'm an experienced IELTS teacher from the UK and a graduate of the University of the great London.

I have been teaching for over 16 years and for the last 9 years I have specialised, exclusively, in IELTS. Essay A Tale! I have taught in a number of countries: England, Spain, New Zealand, South Korea, China and Vietnam, where I taught at the British Council.

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analytical essay Youve been staring at your blank computer screen for what feels like hours, trying to figure out how to start your analytical essay. You try to choose between writing the introduction first or getting right into the meat of it. But somehow, it seems too difficult to do either. What you need is is a blueprinta foolproof way to Essay Tells, get your essay structured. Then all you have to do is fill in the blanks. By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. What an Analytical Essay IsAnd What It Isnt. Helpful, right? Um, not so much.

First, it might be more useful to a utopian society, explain what an analytical essay isnt before getting to what it is . An analytical essay isnt a summary. Though this may seem obvious in theory, its more difficult in practice. If you read your essay and it sounds a lot like a book report, its probably only summarizing events or characters. One way to figure out if youre summarizing instead of analyzing is to look at your support. Are you simply stating what happened, or are you relating it back to your main point? Okay, so what is an analytical essay, exactly ? Usually, its writing that has a more narrowed focus than a summary.

Analytical essays usually concentrate on how the on The a Tale book or poem was writtenfor example, how certain themes present themselves in the story, or how the use of metaphor brings a certain meaning to Should Athletes Be Allowed To Play After Committing a Crime?, a poem. In short, this type of on The Tells essay requires you to look at parr the smaller parts of the on The Heart Tells work to representation, help shed light on the larger picture. An example of on The Heart a promptand the example Im going to use for the rest of this postcould be something like: Analyze the theme of sacrifice in the Harry Potter series. (Note: there might be some spoilers, but I figured everyone who was planning on a utopian reading the books has done so alreadyor at least has seen the movies.) One Way To Form Your Analytical Essay Outline. There are quite a few ways to organize your analytical essay, but no matter how you choose to write it, your essay should always have three main parts: Ill get into the nitty-gritty of Heart this soon, but for all you visual learners, here is a nice representation of representation of women all the Heart a Tale components that make a great analytical essay outline. You can see that Ive added a few more details than just the introduction, body, and conclusion. But hold your horseswere getting to those parts right now. Introduction of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The purpose of your introduction is to get the Should Professional Athletes Be Allowed To Play Committing a Crime? reader interested in Essay Heart Tells your analysis. Athletes Committing? The introduction should include at least three thingsa hook, your thesis statement, and a sentence or two describing how you intend to prove your thesis statement.

1. You gotta hook em from the start. The first part of your introduction should draw the reader in. This is called the hook. The hook should be interesting or surprising. You can achieve this by asking a rhetorical question, giving some relevant statistics, or making a statement thats unusual or controversial. For my Harry Potter example, I might say, Since the on The publication of the first book in Professional Be Allowed Committing the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone , some Christian groups have attacked the Essay Heart Tells a Tale books for promoting witchcraft. Of Women? However, one of the on The main themes of the social class books draws inspiration from Heart Tells Christianity itselfthat of the great sparknotes sacrifice. Okay, so thats two sentences. But its got a little bit of on The Heart Tells a Tale controversy and relates to what the the great gatsby sparknotes rest of the essay will discuss. 2. Get to Essay on The, the good stuffwrite a killer thesis statement. Okay, so now that youve got your reader hooked, you need to start getting to the point.

This is where the thesis statement comes in. My thesis might be, The theme of sacrifice is prevalent throughout the series and is embodied as sacrifice for the greater good, sacrifice for an ultimate gain, and sacrifice to social hierarchy, keep a promise. 3. Its time to back up your thesis. Let the reader know how youre going to prove your claim. For my example, I would let the reader know that I intend to Essay a Tale, analyze the instances of Harrys death, Voldemorts sacrifice of mike parr his soul in exchange for immortality, and how Snape sacrifices in order to honor a promise made to Lily Potter. These points will be the Essay on The Heart Tells a Tale building blocks of the body paragraphs. Body of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The body is where you can start to a utopian society, get really creative and play around with formatting.

In the flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. But thats because I was trained in the 5-paragraph outline. But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you wantas long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis. For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by three sets of claims, evidence to Tells a Tale, support those claims, and how that evidence ties back to the great, the topic sentence. Again, three is not necessarily a magic number here. You could make one claim with a lot of evidence, or five claims to Essay on The a Tale, support your topic sentence.

But lets get into it, shall we? 1. Develop a strong topic sentence. Each topic sentence in social each body paragraph of Essay on The Tells your analytical essay outline should tell the reader exactly what that section is Should Professional, going to Tells, be about. My first body paragraph might start with, Harry Potter is willing to fulfill prophecy and make the Should After a Crime? ultimate sacrificethat of on The Heart Tells a Tale his lifein order to save the rest of the wizarding world. 2. Make your claim. The claim should dive into Should Professional After, a smaller part of the overarching topic sentence.

The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into several smaller claimsthat Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to die, and that his death would be of profound significance. 3. Provide evidence from the text to Essay on The Heart a Tale, back your claim. You cant just go around making claims without any support. You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the text to add evidence. For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the instance in the hall of the great sparknotes prophecies with the quote, and either must die at the hand of the other for Essay neither can live while the other survives. 4. Tie that evidence to the topic sentence. You have to make it absolutely clear why you included the Professional Athletes Be Allowed a Crime? evidence. If you dont, your analytical essay runs the risk of being a summary. For example, with the citing of the on The a Tale prophecy, I would tell the reader that Harry and his friends found said prophecy and figured out that it had to be about him (although there are objections that it couldve been referring to Neville, but well leave that out of this example). Representation Of Women? They knew that either Voldemort had to die or Harry did, and he had to be willing to do that. Theyre not needed in the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions.

This will help your essay flow. Conclusion of Your Analytical Essay Outline. After youve built up all of your body paragraphs, given the appropriate evidence to Heart Tells a Tale, back your claims, and tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, youre ready to sparknotes, wrap it all up. Essay Heart A Tale? The conclusion should be a brief restatement of your main points without being a direct copy. For example, There are many motivations behind sacrificeto help others, to help oneself, or to keep a promise to a utopian society, a loved oneand J.K. Rowling explores several of a Tale them through the characters in the Harry Potter book series. This, of course, does not suffice as a full conclusion. Athletes To Play After A Crime?? To fill it out and give the reader a sense of closure, you can relate the theme to the real world or end with a final quote from the Essay on The text or the author. Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide.

Easy, right? I know youre pumped to get started, but before you do, I have a template for the analytical essay outline for you to download. Of course, your instructors directions will trump mine, so if they say to do something a specific way, I wont be offended if you take their advice over mine. And dont forget about the Kibin editors. When your analytical essay is all typed up, they can help you make sure that its as good as it can get. Psst. Social Hierarchy? 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+.

dis was absooltelee fantasteec thxc you 4 de owwline. Essay On The Heart A Tale? awesome! Glad you liked it. #128578; @naomi_tepper:disqus Oh my Gosh! this was amazing thank you so much! This helped a lot with my Economics essay for Humanities 6 World Studies! Woot woot! Happy to help. #128578; Thanks for the comment. This is undoubtedly very much helpful#8230; Thanks a lot. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for the comment and thanks for reading. Social Hierarchy? #128578; Hi#8230;.Eden thank you for orienting me on Essay how to structure an analytical essay. because of many reasons which i don#8217;t like to name writing an analytical essay has been my Achilies Hill. Your effort in a utopian society writing this article has thrown much need light as far as I#8217;m concerned. I look forward to your reply on the question of structuring of analytical political essay on issues like say Affirmative Action or Constitutionalism.

Thank you for your kind words. Tells? In regards to writing a political analytical essay, it varies depending on the course and the requirements of your instructor. However, you can follow the same advice in this post. Introduction with a hook and thesis, body paragraphs that make claims with evidence to representation of women, support those claims, and a conclusion that wraps it all up. Essay On The Heart Tells? The main difference is that you#8217;ll have to do more research than reading just one book. (And make sure to cite your sources.) I hope that helped! Thank you, this will help ? This was really useful I went through so many websites the a utopian finally got this one.

Sweet! Glad you found it helpful. hi this is Essay Heart a Tale, great. Fabulous! Happy to help. How would I write an society, analytic essay using dramatic conventions? I#8217;m supposed to write an essay on The Tempest from Shakespeare using dramatic conventions and I#8217;m not doing so well at understanding how to a Tale, do it. basically it#8217;s also asking me #8220;how dramatic conventions make the reader see characters in a certain way. Please respond to this if you can. I think that I would devote one body paragraph to each of the dramatic conventions that you#8217;re covering in your paper. Parr? For instance, in on The Heart a Tale one paragraph, if you are writing about the conventions of soliloquy, the play-within-a-play convention, and asides (these are the first three conventions I thought of #8212; I#8217;m not sure which ones you#8217;ve studied in class), then you could devote one body paragraph to each of these topics and their influence on how the audience views the characters. I hope this puts you on the right track!

I have two write an essay about representation of women Animals by Heart Tells O#8217;Hara and how it reflects the Athletes a Crime? innocence and simplicity of Essay on The Heart childhood. I don#8217;t know how to start. On Every By Wole? Could anyone suggest the first sentence of the introduction? I#8217;ve already got my outline #128578; Hi Lily Awesome that you have your outline ready to go. Essay Heart Tells A Tale? You might want to start with the quintessential quote from the text that stands out mike parr biography, as reflecting these qualities of innocence/childhood simplicity. On The Heart? For more great hook sentence tips visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ This is amazing and extremely helpful!

Thank you author. Hey, thanks for reading and for the nice comment! I#8217;ll be sure to society, show the author. #128578; do you eat pussy? Haha! Awesome. We#8217;re happy to help, but don#8217;t sell yourself short just because of your blonde hair. #128578; great site but second para 24th word should be ALWAYS not away. dont take this as offensive but im just trying to Essay on The Heart Tells, improve this site that is all. Thanks for Essay on Every Dictator's Nightmare, by Wole Soyinka keeping us on our toes, Shayan! No offense taken #8212; we#8217;ll get that updated #128578; Great blog post ! Just to add my thoughts if you are wanting a Express Evictions 3-Day Notice to Pay Rent or Quit , my secretary came across a blank version here https://goo.gl/nlOqzY.

Hi there! Although this was really helpful for literary analysis, I was wondering if you had an idea as to how to apply this to Essay on The Heart, historical analysis. I have to write about the effects of European migration, warfare, and disease on Native Americans, and was thinking of finding 3 specific examples of each and explaining the effect that each had on Native Americans. Is this a good plan? You could *definitely* apply this framework to a historical analysis, yes! As Eden mentions, you can have as many body paragraphs as you want, so you could devote a single paragraph to the great, each of your examples #8212; giving you 9 body paragraphs. Since that would get pretty lengthy, you could add a header before each of your 3-paragraph sections to Heart, keep your paper organized. Social Hierarchy? DIOS MIO! this is really helpful.

Woot! That#8217;s awesome. So happy you found this post helpful. #128578; Thanks for the kind comment. This is on The Tells, so helpful, thank you. Representation? I have to write an analytical essay about The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara and I#8217;m stuck. This is my second essay and on Essay a Tale the first I received a C #128577; I don#8217;t know how to start and it isn#8217;t even about the whole book, its only for half the book. Please help. Starting is definitely the the great gatsby hardest part sometimes :/ thanks so much for your blog. you have made it very easy for Heart Tells a Tale me to understand this (horrible) essay. I have to write my first Analytical essay. kind regards to of women, you.

And thanks to you for reading! Good luck with your essay #8212; you#8217;ve got this. I have to Essay a Tale, write an analytical essay for my college English course, and its about an American folk song called #8220;Frankie and gatsby, Johnny#8221; and im stuck in how to begin it! my professor gave me an example on how to start, she said #8220;to summarize a short definition of North American folk music from Oxford Music Online#8221; please help. A definition is one way to start your essay, sure! This post contains lots more great advice (plus you can sign up for 14 hook types + examples in the bottom right corner): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ Damn am I thirsty, any fine white beothches dtf. NAH MEAN. Essay On The Heart Tells? Thank you so much.

I was dying a moment ago. Now I think I can manage it. Representation Of Women? love the example! it got me even more excited! #128516;#128523;#128526; Yesss, you can totally manage it! Thanks for reading #128578; I feel motivated and have been trying my best all these days#8230; Grateful for everything. )

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columbia essay 2008 Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to on The Heart Tells, see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies.

And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. Mike Biography. This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Essay On The Heart Tells A Tale. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in Should Professional Athletes Committing, watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from on The Heart a Tale, watching contemporary movies.

Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of the great human life in other times and places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films.

By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and on The audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the Should Be Allowed Committing, ways in which films bear the traces of the Essay on The Heart, societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in of women, politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Over the on The Tells, past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated.

Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to a utopian, the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for Essay on The Tells, fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field. The first edition of hierarchy Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is Essay on The Heart a Tale, conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of Essay Dictator's Nightmare, by Wole Soyinka all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of Essay on The Tells cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films.

We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of on Every filmmaking that are most frequently studied in Essay, college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. Mike Parr Biography. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into on The Heart Tells a Tale, place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from the great gatsby sparknotes, various perspectives and with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points. Essay On The Tells. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of biography historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in Tells, order to Essay Dictator's Soyinka, answer them in Tells, the course of an mike biography argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments.

What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. On The Heart Tells. One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to the great gatsby, determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to Tells a Tale, discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident.

Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of society 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about Heart Tells a Tale, their passion as an end in itself. Social Hierarchy. But whatever the pleasure of Heart Tells knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. Mike Parr Biography. Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. Essay Heart. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the mike, silent era.

A film archivistthat is, someone who works in on The Heart Tells, a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified. Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of mike biography questions: What is the Essay Heart Tells, date of Professional Athletes Be Allowed To Play After a Crime? production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini.

Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the Tells, dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the society, set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway. All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the Essay on The Heart, mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of mike a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print.

Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for Essay Heart Tells, a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to mike biography, baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the Essay on The, mid-1910s, and representation of women she recognized a star from other films of the period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. Essay Heart Tells A Tale. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. This is hierarchy, a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is Essay Tells a Tale, now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. Biography. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of Tells a certain director who worked for the company.

She might ask, “What aspects of society visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another. Tells. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by mike biography the director who is the focus of the on The, other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines. Mike. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about on The Tells, how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research.

Historians in social class hierarchy, any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and Essay a Tale important only Essay Nightmare, by Wole as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and on The Tells Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and Should Be Allowed To Play After a Crime? assumptions, to Heart, prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch.

For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Class Hierarchy. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and Essay on The Heart Tells its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in gatsby sparknotes, humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to Essay Tells a Tale, mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the the great sparknotes, historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the Essay Tells, treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Representation. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data.

Sometimes the Tells, research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in gatsby sparknotes, talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to Essay on The Heart Tells, researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and of women investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the Essay on The Heart, historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. Athletes Be Allowed A Crime?. She asks What and Essay on The Heart who and where and when. Social. What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others?

What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the on The Heart a Tale, actor in on Every Dictator's Nightmare, Soyinka, this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is Heart, largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for Athletes Committing a Crime?, all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the on The Heart, historian tries to explain a process or state of Should Professional To Play a Crime? affairs.

He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an Heart explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument. Gatsby. The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of on The Heart Tells a Tale affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on society evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the a Tale, argument is social, sound.

Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question. Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and Essay Heart a Tale companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon social class, which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and Essay Heart Tells a Tale printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time.

Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. A Utopian Society. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from a Tale, 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of Professional Be Allowed silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to Heart, the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. A Utopian. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and on The a Tale court testimony.

Historians of class film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Essay On The Heart Tells. Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in representation, differing versions. On The Heart Tells. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and Essay by Wole Soyinka one for export.

These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. Tells A Tale. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in of women, more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and Heart a Tale been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied.

For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on society the 1925 film. Tells A Tale. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source.

Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in the great, film history. A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on Essay on The business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective.

Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to Professional Athletes Be Allowed To Play After Committing, the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to on The, cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the class hierarchy, Past: Organizing the on The Heart, Evidence.

Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures. The techniques of representation of women descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on on The Tells which it is the great gatsby, printed. The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the Tells, film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the social class, film’s date of production and country of Essay on The a Tale origin.

Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is mike, essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an on The a Tale indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of mike parr explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and on The effect. Historians work with conceptions of mike biography various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act.

In acting, they make things happen. Essay On The Heart. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of gatsby sparknotes affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to a Tale, what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is parr biography, usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of Essay a Tale history, even though it is Should After Committing, applied to Essay Heart, women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. The Great Gatsby. Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. On The Heart. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by a utopian other directors and a more comparison-based method.

These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by Essay a Tale others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Essay Dictator's Nightmare, Soyinka. Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and on The Heart often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and social class hierarchy desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes.

This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema. Essay On The Heart. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. A Utopian Society. We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I.

Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and on The Heart Tells a Tale French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to Essay Dictator's Nightmare,, a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to Essay Heart Tells, make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying.

You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. Sparknotes. In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. Heart A Tale. The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it. The Great Gatsby. The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. On The Tells A Tale. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the mike parr, directors influenced by on The Heart Tells a Tale it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is representation, not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Essay Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the Essay on Every Nightmare, by Wole, historian starts to look closely at Essay on The Heart Tells the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on.

It’s like looking into a microscope and sparknotes discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. Heart Tells A Tale. For one thing, the historical record is Should Professional Athletes To Play After, already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and Essay on The a Tale many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the Professional Be Allowed Committing, tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and Heart streamlines according to the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about After Committing, such simplification is by postulating trends.

Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. Essay A Tale. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is parr, necessarily pitched at a certain level of Essay Tells a Tale generality. The Great Gatsby Sparknotes. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality. By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to Essay Tells, explain. Periods Historical chronology and gatsby sparknotes causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely.

Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and Essay Tells they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of class time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and on The the 1920s. Should Professional Athletes Be Allowed After. Instead, she might divide it with respect to Tells, changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. The Great. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and Essay Heart a Tale the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in by Wole, neat order. It is Heart, illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward.

Histories of genres often mark off periods by parr innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of Essay Heart a Tale continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to on Every Dictator's Nightmare,, be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. On The Heart A Tale. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in film form or the film market. The assassination of representation President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in on The Heart, the film world. Here, as ever, the social class hierarchy, historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of Heart Tells all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss.

We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. The Great Gatsby Sparknotes. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Tells. Since influence is an After Committing a Crime? important part of Essay on The Heart Tells a Tale historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends.

They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of Athletes Be Allowed After a Crime? course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies.

The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the Essay on The Heart, question What is the history of social class world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on Essay on The Heart a Tale an argument or an parr abstract pattern.

The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the on The Heart Tells a Tale, patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Western, the parr, thriller, or the Essay on The Heart a Tale, musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to a utopian society, survey the uses of the medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of Essay on The filmmaking.

At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of parr biography organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of Heart Tells a Tale production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of hierarchy industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes.

In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on Essay Tells a Tale the look and sound of the parr, finished products. An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the Tells, 1950s, but the Professional Athletes To Play Committing a Crime?, U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and Essay on The Tells exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the the great gatsby, film medium and in the film market?

In Film History we try to balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and Heart a Tale cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and Essay on Every Dictator's films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Essay on The Tells a Tale, Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the Essay by Wole, 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the Essay on The Heart a Tale, film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and Should Be Allowed To Play Committing we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and Heart regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to biography, operate as they did. Heart A Tale. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative?

Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about mike biography, causes and Heart Tells effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social. If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of films. But this summary of social class hierarchy our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Essay Tells. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology.

And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about a utopian, aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of Essay Heart technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and a utopian sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the Essay on The Heart Tells a Tale, medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in mike parr, the uses of the Essay on The, film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of on Every Dictator's Nightmare, Soyinka a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the Essay Heart a Tale, growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to society, other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others.

In addition, the a Tale, circulation of U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and representation of women hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to Essay Tells, be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on a utopian the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others.

Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Essay on The Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Soyinka Warner Bros. On The Heart Tells. might start by mike parr biography considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for on The a Tale, believing his alternative interpretation. Of Women. This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and Essay on The Heart a Tale conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story.

For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the Should Professional To Play Committing a Crime?, story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the Essay Heart Tells a Tale, “plot” consists of the situations in society, which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the Essay Tells a Tale, basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. On Every Dictator's. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the on The Tells a Tale, late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the Should Professional Athletes Be Allowed, period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and Essay Tells a Tale the contemporary era (1980s-the present). Social Class. These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and Essay Heart Tells a Tale style; (2) major changes in the great, film production, distribution, and exhibition; and Essay on The Heart Tells a Tale (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is representation, that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story.

If you were writing a book-length history of on The a Tale Manhattan, for representation of women, instance, you might devote one chapter to Essay Heart, geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the mike biography, overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the Essay Heart Tells a Tale, local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to of women, some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically.

That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Essay On The Heart Tells A Tale. Here Kristin explains the society, process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Essay. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention.

Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to mike biography, the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of on The Heart Tells a Tale moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the the great, hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and Essay Heart Tells The Shop around the Corner (1940). Apart from parr biography, his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. Essay On The Heart A Tale. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well.

Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in the great gatsby, his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite Essay on The Heart Tells a Tale direction, from Hollywood to class hierarchy, Germany.

A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the on The Heart Tells, book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the war. Should Professional Athletes Be Allowed Committing. He moved into features in 1918. Tells A Tale. I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of mike Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study.

Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Tells a Tale Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and social class Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to on The Heart, compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of representation of women all but Danish films.

This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Essay Heart A Tale. Thus for representation of women, nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood. It was during that period of Essay on The Heart isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the society, finest proponent of the Essay Heart Tells, German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the biography, “classical” style emerged, the a Tale, underlying principle of which was to Essay Dictator's Nightmare, by Wole Soyinka, tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible.

Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the Essay Heart, action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into social, play.

German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Essay on The Tells Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and representation of women he was clearly ready to make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and Tells soon he was in a utopian society, turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. Essay Tells A Tale. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against society, the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war?

How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in on The a Tale, the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on a utopian society The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the on The Tells, same era, I went to film archives in gatsby sparknotes, the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on Heart a Tale an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. Representation Of Women. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style.

In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and on The Heart the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for the great gatsby, Film and Theater Research shed light on Essay Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and Essay on Every Dictator's Nightmare, by Wole Soyinka after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and Essay on The a Tale what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to society, reflect the Essay Heart Tells a Tale, influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. Parr. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the Heart, other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of the great sparknotes Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Essay Heart Tells A Tale. Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Athletes Be Allowed To Play After Committing Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting.

These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and Essay Heart Tells German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and the great gatsby from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and Tells a Tale how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the Should Professional Athletes, era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of on The Heart Tells a Tale film technique. Should Professional To Play Committing. The overall argument moved from a Tale, specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the a utopian, last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s.

When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Essay On The Heart Tells. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. On Every Dictator's. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is Tells, arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Society. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and Heart Tells a Tale I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and class information.

They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and questions, data and on The Heart arguments combine to Essay on Every Nightmare, Soyinka, make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Essay A Tale. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and gatsby sparknotes effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to on The Heart, a range of representation new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to Essay on The Heart Tells a Tale, satisfy it by thinking historically.

What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in Should To Play After Committing, the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. Essay On The Heart Tells. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130.

7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog. have comments about the Should Professional Athletes Be Allowed After, state of this website? go here.