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Appraisal Form of Product Specialist Essay Sample. The Product Specialist arranges one-on-one sales presentations, group discussions and educational programs for labeling people medical specialists. A product specialist possesses in-depth knowledge of their companys product and presents the latest in medical news and treatment programs using that specialized knowledge in order to increase the companys sales targets. Iago's Master Of Words In Othello By Shakespeare! The Product Specialist can also have clear sales targets. The requirement for this position is to be in possession of a bachelor degree or higher in life sciences, business or health care related degrees. Positions require experience as a Medical Representative or comparable position.

The candidate may require knowledge of a certain expertise, and have specific sales experience and training. Working Environment. Outdoors and labeling should have a driving license to be able to My War Essay meet with customers and labeling follow up on sales Skills. * Service oriented approach, flexible and proactive towards changing clients#8217; needs * Determination to reach challenging goals and create business opportunities * Keep up to date with market trends and new developments utilizing information for business improvement * Actively develop commercial initiatives. How To Write A Persuasive Speech! * Open and clear communicator. * Understands clients#8217; needs. People! * Set goals and deadlines and musical forms examples plans to deliver effectively * Recognize problems reacting quickly and effectively to resolve them Responsibilities. * Meet sales objectives and forecasts. * Operate within the annual expense budget established for the territory * Accurately forecast the labeling future sales results of current sales activities * Maintain, cultivate and Iago's Manipulations: Master of Words by Shakespeare expand existing customers in line with company growth strategies * Organize projects, trainings or activities which support sales objectives * Report all knowledge and information regarding sales activities, customers gained and lost, competitive activities, results of labeling people, marketing programs, etc. to management * Inform the how to a persuasive speech customers of the people latest medical news and trends Appraisal Form. Graphic Scale Method. Title: Product Specialist. Key Work Responsibilities: 1. Meet sales objectives and forecasts. 2. Curse! Accurately forecast the people future sales results of current sales activities. 3. Maintain, cultivate and expand existing customers in line with company growth strategies. 4. Of Summer Autumn! Report all knowledge and information regarding sales activities, customers gained and people lost, competitive activities, results of marketing programs, etc. to how to a persuasive speech management.

Goals to Be Achieved: 1. 10,000 units to labeling people be sold within ending fiscal year. 2. Obtain market share not less than 25% in assigned territory 3. Two standalone meetings were key opinion leaders talk about the product Communication. 1 2 3 4 5 Below expectationsFail to report on time, cant interpret competitive activities nor measure the results of marketing programs| Meets expectationsSubmit reports on time, but seeks assistance in how to report competitive activities, cant measure results of marketing programs| Role ModelSubmit reports on and People by Shakespeare daily basis, reports to marketing department on competitive activities, report results of marketing programs. all in perfect manner| Rules and Regulations. 1 2 3 4 5 Below expectationsNot fully aware of corporate code of conduct and not fully aware of people, procedures that are needed to be followed | Meets expectationsFully aware of corporate code of conduct but not fully aware of procedures that are needed to be followed | Role ModelFully aware of corporate code of Paradox, conduct and procedures needed to be followed | 1 2 3 4 5 Below expectationsGood relation with customers, customers arent updated with latest researches and medical updates, has no customers ready to people make a stand-alone meeting | Meets expectationsGood relation with customers, customers are updated with latest researches and medical updates, 3 customers are ready to make a stand-alone meeting | Role ModelExcellent relation with customers, customers are updated with latest researches and medical updates, at least 5 customers are ready to forms examples make a stand-alone meeting| 1 2 3 4 5 Below expectationsOnly when asked Provide info to other team member regarding common customers, doesnt accept tasks outside assigned territory | Meets expectationsProvide info to other team member regarding common customers, takes extra tasks in other territory when asked| Role ModelProvide info to other team members regarding common customers, eager to take extra tasks. Labeling People! even if not in assigned territory| 1 2 3 4 5 Below expectationsAchieve only one of the assigned goals | Meets expectationsAchieve only Manipulations: Master in Othello 2 of the assigned goals| Role ModelAchieve all assigned goals | Critical Incident Method. Continuing duties | Targets| Critical Incidents.

Customers to be visited per day| Minimum of 7 customers per labeling people day| Minimum of musical, 8 visits per day for two consecutive months| Customer coverage rate| Customers should be visited at least twice per month| Good planning, and customers were visited three times per month| Company#8217;s car should be well maintained | Regular maintenance and damages should be fixed immediately | Company#8217;s car was in a very bad condition and rear bumper fell off. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Appraisal Form of Product Specialist. Labeling People! essay editing for only $13.9 per musical page. People! Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Appraisal Form of Product Specialist. The diagram above shows that the respective sales (in red) and profits (in blue) across five stages are illustrated. The typical Products Life Cycle consists of adam's, five main aspects :#8230; Product Development and people Standardization. New Product * It can be a replacement product for some but imitative to the other.

Classification of New Product 1. Innovative Product * These product were created upon yeats realization#8230; Unit 9 Exploring Creative Product Promotion P2. Promotion is an people important marketing activity it is a component of the marketing mix. The marketing mix consists of the Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Packaging, Physical Evidence and#8230; RED product swot analysis. Brand are valuable assets in market place so its important to branding of the product.Value of Iago's Master of Words and People in Othello by Shakespeare, Brand is more than the labeling people product.Brand refers to create praticular amount of awareness,#8230; Total product, average product and marginal product. In the background to supply, we notice about the terms #8220;total product#8221;, #8220;marginal product#8221; and #8220;average product#8221;.

These three figures are the foundation upon which the analysis of 500 days, short-run production#8230; This paper will discuss the generic product development process. The product development process represents the basic sequence of steps or activities that a firm employs to conceive, design, and bring#8230;

What s in a Name: Our Only Label Should Be Our Name: Avoiding the

Labeling people

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Networks of Abstraction: Postwar Printmaking and Women Artists of Atelier 17. By Christina Weyl, PhD candidate in labeling art history, Rutgers University. Alice Trumbull Mason at work, 1954 / John D. Musical Forms! Schiff, photographer. Alice Trumbull Mason papers, Archives of American Art, Between the fall of 1951 and spring of 1952, Alice Trumbull Mason (19041971) independently coordinated a traveling show of abstract etchings she produced in the mid-1940s at Atelier 17, the avant-garde printmaking workshop located in New York City between 1940 and 1955 (fig. 1). Mason sent unsolicited letters to university galleries and regional art centers describing her show, comprised of nineteen etchings featuring biomorphic shapes, soft-ground textures, and embossed surfaces, such as Interference of Closed Forms (fig. 2).

1 To justify her credentials to people these unknown correspondents, Mason cited awards from My War Essay, annuals at the Philadelphia Print Club (1946) and labeling people the Society of American Graphic Artists (1948) and listed major institutions which owned her prints like the Brooklyn Museum of Art (BKM), Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), Library of Congress (LOC), and Iago's Manipulations: in Othello by Shakespeare New York Public Library (NYPL). Ultimately, Mason's plan worked. Labeling People! After confirming the how to write, first venue at the University of Wyoming, then a major hub for modernist art education, she booked five other locations for the show (fig. 3). Alice Trumbull Mason, Interference of labeling, Closed Forms (1945) Engraving and of summer autumn etching (soft ground) with gouging. Philadelphia Museum of Art: Print Club of Philadelphia. Permanent Collection, 1946-38-1. Image courtesy. Philadelphia Museum of people, Art Art Estate of Alice Trumbull. Mason/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY.

Although Mason painted throughout her career and write a persuasive was an people early member of the American Abstract Artists, founded in adam's yeats 1936, she never achieved the labeling, same level of critical praise or commercial success for her non-objective paintings as she did for her prints. 2 By the middle of the century, Mason's form of geometric abstraction had fallen out of favor, lagging behind the Paradox Essay, New York School's more dominant mode of labeling, large, expressionistic canvases. 3 Mason, in fact, consciously positioned herself outside of Abstract Expressionism, a view enunciated most clearly in a 1952 artist's statement where she discussed her preference for “Architectural” versus “Expressionist” abstraction. 4 Mason's achievements as a printmaker, however, transcended these stylistic concerns and introduce the career-changing importance of prints for mid-century women artists. Mason's efforts and accomplishments provide a glimpse into the robust network that supported the postwar flowering of abstract printmaking and enabled the approximately sixty women printmakers who worked in Atelier 17's New York studio to circulate their graphic work across the globe. 5.

Engaging with recent interest in how American art traveled internationally, this essay will consider the adam's yeats, movement of people, women's Atelier 17 prints and the positive impact of of summer autumn, these exhibitions on women's career success. 6 Drawing on analysis of people, primary material visualized in charts and on speech interactive maps produced with Viewshare, an labeling online platform developed by the Library of of summer, Congress, this article establishes who and where the labeling people, major hubs of adam's yeats, activity were within this network and what facilitated connections among these nodes. 7 Following the labeling, travels of six artistsMinna Citron (18961991), Worden Day (19121986), Sue Fuller (19142006), Jan Gelb (19061978), Alice Trumbull Mason, and Anne Ryan (18891954)the discussion will center on several aspects of prints' circulation: peer-to-peer relationships, printmaking annuals, traveling exhibitions, museum collecting, and artists' groups that supported avant-garde printmaking. Viewshare map showing six locations of Alice Trumbull Mason's traveling. etching show (1951-2). The number in write a persuasive the location bubble represents the. number of labeling, prints shown at each venue. A seventh point in New York City.

represents a solo show of how to speech, Mason's woodcuts at Wittenborn Gallery in 1952. This analysis will suggest that two factors primarily contribute to why making prints at labeling people Atelier 17 served as a breakthrough for women artists' careers. First, prints are highly mobilenothing more than lightweight, thin sheets of paper. Multiple impressions of the same edition could be sent to venues across America and adam's curse yeats the world, allowing women's prints to be shown in several places simultaneously. Labeling People! Second, women were highly motivated to develop a dynamic artistic network through their activities as printmakers. Mason's experiences as a painter were not isolated; there was little market or critical support for women artists' paintings and sculptures. Yet, women artists contended with a bias against printmaking in Iago's Master of Words and People the hierarchy of artistic media. Citron encapsulated challenges posed by being an artist who enjoyed printmaking: “Crossing the line back and forth between printmaking and labeling people painting is hard. You are so easily labeled a printmaker.” 8. In spite of how to write, these challenges, women artists boldly pursued connections within the postwar printmaking network, fighting for chances to secure public exposure for their prints and to build relationships with key professional contacts. This article ultimately constructs a powerful narrative about people, this active but peripheral subgroup of the New York School.

9 In doing so, it demonstrates the intrepidness and bravery of these women printmakers to Paradox share their graphic art with a global audience. It also reveals the significance of people, their prints in shaping postwar abstraction. These understudied women artists, whose prints traversed the globe evangelizing for unfettered modernist expression and American democracy, were at the vanguard of feminist activity within the art world that exploded two decades later. The Explosion of Postwar Printmaking: Network chart mapping the yeats, relationships between artists (black), galleries. (blue), curators (red), print annuals (orange), and Atelier 17 groups shows (green).

Although printmaking had a strong history in America coming into the twentieth century, several events combined around the mid-1940s to labeling people initiate a groundswell of support for Master and People in Othello by Shakespeare modern printmaking. 194748 mark watershed years, after which avant-garde printmakers found widespread acceptance for their graphic work in labeling people America and 500 days of summer autumn internationally. People! The decision of Stanley William Hayter (19011988), Atelier 17's founder, to relocate the studio to 500 days of summer New York City in 1940 from its first home in labeling people Paris certainly paved the way for autumn modern printmaking's growth in America. More importantly, MoMA's 1944 exhibition New Directions in Gravure: Hayter and Studio 17 confirmed the workshop's status as a central hub of labeling people, abstract printmaking. Forms Examples! Atelier 17 became known as the foremostplace worldwide to labeling learn experimental printmaking, and the number of artists training there increased substantially. Anne Ryan, ca. 1949 / William Pippin, photographer. Anne Ryan papers, Archives of American Art, Una Johnson (19051997), curator of prints at the BKM from 1940 to 1969 and a key figure within the network of musical, female printmakers (fig.

4), recognized that this large influx of artists producing modern prints had scarce options to exhibit their work. So in 1947, she launched the BKM's National Print Annual Exhibition, which ran continuously for ten years. 10 Johnson said that starting the labeling people, print annuals, “was in response to a need for the showing of contemporary and experimental prints within the greater New York area, where much of the experimental printmaking was then being pursued.” 11 Johnson knew that modern prints were anomalies within the era's well-established print exhibitions, which primarily showed small, realistic, black-and-white etchings popular in America since the late-nineteenth century. How To Write! 12 Under mounting pressure, some of these forums warmed to modern printmaking. For example, the Society of American Etchers conceded in 1947 to open membership to people artists of all aesthetic persuasions who practiced printmaking techniques besides etching.

Dorothy Noyes Arms, wife of John Taylor Arms who served as the organization's longtime president, noted poetically that the renamed Society of American Etchers, Gravers, Lithographers and Woodcutters, “rose phoenixlike from the ashes of the Master by Shakespeare, old.” 13 The group changed its name again in 1952 to the Society of American Graphic Artists (SAGA), the acronym which this article will use to labeling refer to the group. By the late 1940s and early 1950s, modern printmaking had gained greater exposure and critical traction. Major arts publications covered printmaking with dedicated columns in each issue. Art News featured Irvin Haas's “The Print Collector” from roughly 1946 to 1957, and Art Digest had many columns appearing intermittently from the late-1940s into 500 days of summer, the 1950s. 14 These various special sections covered trends and exhibitions in the printmaking world and reviewed new print publications. Labeling People! Even though these magazines sometimes covered print news within the 57th Street gallery reviews, the print sections effectively segregated avant-garde graphic arts from mainstream modernism.

Anne Ryan, Fantasia (1947) Color woodcut. Manipulations: Master And People By Shakespeare! Sheet: 42.8 x 61 cm (16 7/8 x 24 in.) Yale University Art Gallery, Anonymous Purchase Fund, 1977.10.7 Image courtesy Yale University Art Gallery. Art courtesy of the Estate of the Artist and The Susan Teller Gallery, NY, NY. Seizing on the opportunities that this explosion of postwar printmaking offered, women artists capitalized on prints' portability by sending their graphic work throughout the United States. Labeling! Although the scale of prints definitely increased from standard sizes seen in the early-twentieth century, artists realized that prints were still far more transportable compared to the large paintings and sculptures of the New York School.

15 Gelb's husband Boris Margo (19021995) confirmed the belief that printmaking was a better instrument for spreading postwar abstraction, writing, “costing less, framed less formidably, more easily transported by rootless moderns, the Master in Othello by Shakespeare, print can serve as a most persuasive introduction to modern art.” 16 In a 1945 journal recording her initial lessons with Hayter at Atelier 17, Ryan noted how prints' mobility would afford her greater professional success than if she exclusively painted. People! She wrote, “it is 500 days of summer autumn easier to succeed in labeling prints than painting for musical the simple reason that prints can be mailed .” 17 Further in her notes, Ryan wrote down Hayter's strategies for ensuring success as a printmaker. He prioritized publicizing instead of production, suggesting “about one third of labeling people, time is given to making of the prints and two thirds to marketing and Iago's Manipulations: of Words in Othello by Shakespeare mailing, seeing dealers, etc.” Ryan noted a final suggestion about the importance of making a substantial body of prints in labeling order to solidify a foundation for how to write a persuasive speech commercial success: “Reach the goal of 50 good prints then you will begin to sell.” Clearly, printmaking served as a way for Ryan, formerly a housewife, mother and poet, to labeling gain a toehold in the art world, earn a livelihood, and build a critical reputation that eventually led to her success as a collagist (fig. 5). 18. Chart showing number of Brooklyn Museum print annuals featuring women. artists from Atelier 17. There was precedent in American history for using printmaking as a vehicle for disseminating art to the general public. In the period immediately before Atelier 17's establishment in New York, two mail-order companies sold Regionalist-style prints directly to middle-class American consumers. Reeves Lewenthal started Associated American Artists in 1934, which marketed signed and numbered prints for by Shakespeare $5 each.

After Lewenthal's successful example, Samuel Golden began a similar mail-order company called American Artists Group, which undercut Lewenthal's business with unsigned and unlimited prints available for $2.50. These two companies' example showed Atelier 17 artists that prints, with directed marketing efforts, had the capacity to reach large swaths of the American public. 19. The Collegiality and labeling people Reciprocity of Peer-to-Peer Networking: Worden Day in her studio, ca. 1959 / unidentified photographer. Worden Day papers, Archives of examples, American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Women artists actively facilitated geographical exchange of their prints in their effort to self-promote and labeling form relationships with others. Several productive connections between women printmakers can be seen in a network chart (fig. 4).

Radiating out from Atelier 17, artists connect with one another either directly through peer-to-peer exchange or indirectly via important nodes. Artists like Ryan, Day, Fuller, Mason, Citron, and Gelb are clearly hubs and facilitated the flow of My War Essay, creativity within this system. Labeling! Hayter served as a chief exemplar for women artists of how to enlarge their sphere of influence. According to Helen Phillips (19131995), Hayter's second wife and an active printmaker at Atelier 17, Hayter made himself available for lectures and demonstrationswhich often had accompanying exhibitions of his printsand these activities, “spread his reputation throughout the adam's curse yeats, U.S. as a teacher.” 20. Day took Hayter's model to heart and became a marketing force for her own prints and those of fellow women artists from people, Atelier 17 (fig. 8). In 1947, Day and Ryan shared an informal business relationship whereby Ryan sent her prints to the peripatetic Day. Without taking a sales commission for how to write speech herself, Day entered Ryan's prints into regional exhibitions and showed them to interested curators and collectors. In an undated postcard to Ryan from an exhibition at Stephens College in Columbia, MO that Day coordinated, Day wrote of her persistent efforts: “I'm really propagandizing people to purchase prints.” 21 Day described her magnanimous marketing philosophy in a letter to Ryan from July 1947: “I'm glad to have been able to sell some of your prints and labeling don't expect anything in return. My War Essay! I believe artists should freely help one another, for it helps us all in the long run. I heartily disapprove of the highly cut-throat, competitive attitudes that most of people, our American artists regard one another.” 22 In the same letter, Day evaluated the importance of her efforts establishing regional connections across the yeats, United States: “Funny how showing around these places seems more glamorous to the artists in New York, than those already in the region.

The artists in the region regard getting on 57th more important, though of course it all helps.” 23 Through Day's marketing, the Art Center Association in Louisville, KY bought Ryan's woodcut Tenements and the Memphis Academy of Arts purchased Jugglers and Fantasia (fig. 6), the latter one of Ryan's first experiments in labeling abstraction. 24 Ryan also independently marketed her prints at several venues in the United States, Mexico, and France. Ryan's and musical forms examples Day's collective teamwork and independent efforts were paramount to getting their names known regionally. “Table” view from people, Viewshare showing Brooklyn Museum of Art accessions. made through purchase prizes at its National Print Annual Exhibitions. Beyond these two women, several artists developed intimate relationships at Atelier 17 with other female printmakers that led to important professional achievements. Of Summer Autumn! Louise Nevelson (18991988) and Dorothy Dehner (19011994) began a lifelong friendship after Dehner admired proofs of labeling people, Nevelson's large and expressively inked etchings hanging on the walls of Atelier 17. 25 Though Nevelson became progressively busier with her successful sculpture career, she and Dehner never lost touch.

While working as a fellow at the Los Angeles-based Tamarind Lithography Workshop in 1963, Nevelson wrote Dehner a postcard suggesting she also make prints there and likely suggested her name to Tamarind's founder, June Wayne. 26 Dehner also maintained a strong friendship with Doris Seidler (19122010), a British expatriate who worked at musical examples Atelier 17 after the people, conclusion of World War II. Many years after their time at Atelier 17, Seidler suggested that she and Dehner share a two-person exhibition at the Print Centre in London and said she would sponsor Dehner's membership to SAGA. 27. Chart showing number of print annuals featuring women artists from Atelier 17. Through Berea College in Kentucky, Day and Iago's Ryan both connect with Margaret Balzer Cantieni (19142002), who taught art at the school from labeling, 193745.

28 At some point during her travels, Day met Balzer Cantieni at Berea and likely influenced her to study at Manipulations: in Othello Atelier 17, which she did in 1946. 29 Ryan showed woodcuts at Berea in OctoberNovember 1947 because Balzer Cantieni brought Dorothy Tredennick, member of the school's Art Department, to see Ryan's work at her apartment on Greenwich Street. 30 Balzer Cantieni also links to the all-male Graphic Circle, a group discussed additionally later. In March 1949, Jacques Seligmann gallery lent an exhibition of the Graphic Circle to the art gallery of Lehigh University library; as a local artistshe and her husband had moved by this point to labeling people the Lehigh Valley to teach art at various institutionsBalzer Cantieni showed one of her abstract prints alongside members of this esteemed vanguard group. 31 As these examples make clear, female artists relied on peer-to-peer connections to advance their individual printmaking endeavors. The Transformative Effect and Geographic Circulation of musical examples, Print Annuals and Museum Shows: Photograph of Sue Fuller, Sue Fuller letters to Florence Forst, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Print annuals are one of the clearest examples of labeling people, how women artists energetically networked and harnessed prints' transportable properties.

Showing at these venuesand many others when the annuals traveledenabled them to Paradox Essay gain exposure and a base of labeling, critical support at a time when women did not have equal access to exhibition opportunities for their painting or sculpture. Louise Bourgeois (19112010), who began working at Atelier 17 in 1946, underscored the catalyzing importance of participating in these annual print shows: “I was able to Paradox enter the art field through the prints, because the Brooklyn Museum organized this show of prints every year. Labeling People! So it was an easy beginning, to have your name printed. I did it for 500 days of summer exposure.” 32 The selection process could be quite competitive, and women had every reason to be quite proud of gaining entry. 33 Through participation in the print annuals, women not only had their names printed in the exhibition catalogues, as Bourgeois noted, but also their names and illustrations of their artwork often appeared in the art press, especially as winners of labeling people, awards and purchase prizes. The BKM's annual was by far the most important annual exhibition opportunity for women printmakers from examples, Atelier 17. Women artists from Hayter's workshop were accepted into the BKM annuals at a much higher rate than the average participation across all exhibiting women, which hovered around twenty-five percent. Thirty-one women artists showed in Brooklyn's first ten annuals, a number that represents more than half of the roster of women working at Atelier 17 in New York (fig. 7).

Women printmakers who are central to this article exhibited with great frequency. Day, for instance, showed in eight of ten BKM annuals; Mason in seven; Ryan in six, and Citron in five. People! In total, Atelier 17 women artists showed eighty-four prints, of which thirteen were added to the BKM's permanent collection through purchase awards (fig. 9). Adam's Curse Yeats! 34 Ryan won recognition in people the inaugural BKM annual for one of curse, her first semi-abstract woodcuts, Fantasia (fig. 6). This print, in which three biomorphic figures stand on a curved green ground line, marked a significant change from Ryan's initial efforts in people woodcut, which had encompassed mostly realistic religious and circus imagery. Write A Persuasive Speech! The purchase award must have encouraged her to produce fully abstract woodcuts in labeling the next few years. 35.

Sue Fuller, Cock (1944) Color engraving, soft-ground etching, and curse aquatint. Plate: 20 x 14.9 cm (7 7/8 x 5 7/8 in.) Sheet: 35.6 x 29.2 cm (14 x 11 1/2 in.) Yale University Art Gallery Gift of labeling, James N. The Birthday Essay! Heald II, B.S., 1949, 2006.17.4 Image courtesy Yale University Art Gallery Art courtesy. of the Estate of the labeling, Artist and My War Essay the Susan Teller Gallery, As the artist-run SAGA developed a more modern identity in the 1940s, women artists from Atelier 17 increasingly showed in its annual exhibitions.

Few women exhibited in labeling people the early 1940s, since “modern” printmaking did not make inroads into Master of Words and People in Othello, this “academic” institution until about mid-decade. 36 Hayter first showed with SAGA in 1942“[overtipping] the aesthetic apple cart,” as Fuller recalledwhich opened the door for modern printmakers. 37 Shortly thereafter, women artists from labeling people, Atelier 17 began submitting their abstract and stylistically progressive prints to SAGA's annual shows in My War Essay greater numbers, with participation peaking in the years 1946, 1947, and 1948 (fig. Labeling People! 10). In Fuller's first years showing in SAGA annuals, she entered more conservative, semi-representational prints of animals and The Birthday human figures such as Cock (fig. 11).

In this profile view of a rooster in motion, Fuller contrasts pieces of lace, inherited from labeling, her mother and impressed onto an etching plate prepared with soft ground, with bold calligraphic lines that emphasize the head, neck, beak, legs, and tail of the bird (fig 12). By 1948, Fuller showed The Sorceress (fig. 13), one of her fully abstract “string compositions.” Frustrated by the limitations of stretching prefabricated lace and materials to her desired specifications, Fuller cut up lace and stripped fabric to its lowest componentthreadto make abstract compositions like The Sorceress . Even though SAGA had a more traditional reputation, Atelier 17 artists recognized the My War Essay, annual's importance for increasing their professional visibility. Fuller urged Hayter to join SAGA because of the networking potential: “I felt that if he would establish a rapport with the opposition that he would enlarge his field of circulation.” 38 Like the labeling people, BKM annuals, exhibiting with SAGA came with the possibility of recognition in the art press and My War Essay interaction with curators and gallerists. SAGA also offered artists the opportunity for leadership positions as officers of the organization or jury members for annuals. The latter proved quite influential, as Hayter, Fuller, and Citron sat on the 1946 jury that initiated several years of labeling people, strong showings by Atelier 17 members. A Persuasive Speech! 39 Karl Kup, curator of prints at people the NYPL, recalled that at My War Essay the 1946 SAGA annual, “an astonishing array of contemporary work adorned the wall, with almost every ‘school of thought' represented. [Citron, Fuller and Hayter] had been on the jury of admission, with results that may have shocked some of the more academic members.” 40.

Sue Fuller, Sorceress (1948) Soft ground etching. Image and art courtesy of the labeling, Estate of the Artist and the. Susan Teller Gallery, New York, NY. The Philadelphia Print Club (PPC) was also a significant venue for women artists from Atelier 17. Founded in 1914, the PPC's Board had conservative tastes in adam's curse yeats its early years but opened to modern printmaking when Berthe Von Moschzisker (19152002) became the Director in 1944 and labeling decided “to show contemporary things.” 41 After Hayter won the club's prestigious Charles M. Lea prize in 1944, Von Moschzisker invited him to forms examples have a solo show at labeling people the PPC and teach a once-a-month class for The Birthday Essay local artists nicknamed the “Hayter Workshop.” 42 The PPC hosted annual exhibitionsrelief and intaglio techniques had separate annualswhere women printmakers from Atelier 17 showed quite frequently (fig. 10). 43 The etching annual's highest honor, the Charles M. Lea prize, was a particularly valuable award not only because the art press featured the labeling people, winners but also because the PPC donated the award prints to the Philadelphia Museum of Art (PMA). 44 In addition to annual prizes, the PPC began a member-supported fund in 1942 to examples purchase prints from PPC annuals for labeling people the PMA's permanent collection.

45 When Mason's Interference of Closed Forms (fig. Iago's Of Words And People By Shakespeare! 2) won the Charles M. Lea prize in 1946, the PMA's curator Carl Zigrosser wanted to accession the other two prints in labeling Mason's series. Lacking museum acquisition funds, Zigrosser asked the PPC to sponsor the purchase of Labyrinth of My War Essay, Closed Forms and Orientation of Closed Forms (both 1945). 46 Mason greatly valued this award and the museum acquisitions, citing them as professional credentials in her effort to organize the traveling exhibition mentioned at the beginning of this article. Photograph of people, Minna Citron, 1930-1980 / unidentified. photographer. Minna Wright Citron papers,

Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Women artists from Atelier 17 participated to a lesser extent in Iago's Manipulations: of Words and People in Othello by Shakespeare several other annual exhibitions. They were well represented throughout the 1940s and 1950s at people the LOC's National Exhibition of Prints, which began in 1943 (fig. 10). This annual, however, had a reputation for being more conservative, and women printmakers from adam's yeats, Atelier 17 did not win purchase prizes, save one awarded in labeling people 1946 to Ruth Leaf (b. 1923) for her representational etching and My War Essay aquatint, Tears (1945). Women also showed modestly with the Northwest Printmakers annuals, and only Fuller won a purchase prize for Hen in 1946, which is now part of the Seattle Art Museum's collection. The Printmakers of labeling, Southern California began a short-lived annual in 1952 where a handful of women exhibited but never won prizes. No matter how small, these annuals were individually quite significant to building women printmakers' portfolio of professional achievements. Citron actively participated in annuals with the Paradox, Boston Printmakers (BP), winning honorable mention for Whatever (1945), her first, very small foray into abstraction (fig.

14 and 15). Working at Atelier 17's avant-garde studio was a major inspiration for labeling people Citron, encouraging her to switch from her witty social realist style to abstraction. The BP award had immediate ramifications for Citron's career and style, in that it gave her the adam's curse yeats, confidence to move beyond the cautious, black-and-white miniature of Whatever toward larger toward full-color abstractions. 47 Citron's Flight to people Tomorrow (fig. Musical Examples! 16), which became the BP's Presentation Print for 1950, showcases an inventive abstract composition and her technical masterwork. People! Her superb handling of the engraver's burin, shown in the composition's curved and straight lines, is complemented by her printing virtuosity, seen in the three colorspurple, light and dark blueshe stenciled on the plate's planar surface. Minna Wright Citron, Whatever (1946) Etching and engraving on wove paper.

Plate: 6.35 x 3.81 cm (2 1/2 x 1 1/2 in.) Sheet: 15.56 x 13.34 cm (6 1/8 x 5 1/4 in.) National Gallery of Art, Rosenwald Collection, 1951.16.18. Image courtesy National Gallery of Art, Washington. Art courtesy Christiane H. How To Write A Persuasive! Citron,

Art Executor for the Estate of Minna Citron. While these annuals displayed women's prints in major cities across the United States, traveling exhibitionsoften of these annualsprovided even greater geographical circulation. People! From the Essay, beginning, the BKM partnered with the American Federation of Arts (AFA) to labeling people distribute its print annuals to musical many locations across the United States. The first annual, for example, traveled to several venues between 1947 and 1948. 48 The relationship between the BKM and AFA was so productive that when Annemarie Pope, Assistant Director of the AFA, happily informed Una Johnson that all slots for the third annual's traveling show were completely booked, she inquired about the possibility of doubling the annual's exposure by gathering duplicate impressions from exhibiting artists. Labeling People! 49 For further visualization of the adam's yeats, AFA's circulation of labeling people, BKM print annuals, see fig. 17.

Several museums coordinated special exhibitions that traveled quite widely, allowing women to Paradox Essay promote their reputations nationally and labeling people internationally as modern printmakers. After its run at MoMA, Hayter and musical forms examples Studio 17 which included prints by labeling people Fuller, Ryan, Perle Fine (19081988), Helen Phillips, and Catherine Yarrow (19041990)traveled for My War Essay two years to venues throughout the United States. 50 Concurrently, MoMA shipped a version of the show to labeling the Inter-American Office of the National Gallery of Art, which circulated to cities in Latin America between 1944 and 1946. 51 In 195354, Day, Fuller, and Ryan had prints sent to the Municipal Museum of the Hague (Gemeentemuseum Den Haag) and the Kunsthaus in Zurich as part of the BKM's exhibition, New Expressions in Printmaking (1952), a state of the field for midcentury American printmaking. 52 Several women artists from My War Essay, Atelier 17 participated in labeling a traveling exhibition coordinated by the Boston Public Library (BPL) that first went to the Petit Palais in Paris in 1949, then the American Embassy in Manipulations: of Words and People in Othello Paris, and many cities in France, Germany, and Italy over several years (fig. 18). Labeling People! 53 The artists involved in the BPL show later donated their prints to how to write a persuasive speech museums in Israel. 54 As a result of the BPL show, the French Ministry of Education bought an impression of Ryan's woodcut The Wine Glass (1948), a fact she was extremely proud of and cited as a major accomplishment on resumes. 55 Exhibition possibilities clearly blossomed in the wake of labeling, World War II, greatly enhancing the network for global printmaking exchange and raising women's international profiles as avant-garde printmakers. Minna Citron, Flight to yeats Tomorrow (1948). Engraving and.

aquatint, printed in color Plate: 17.4 x 21.5 cm (6 7/8 x 8 7/16 in.) Sheet: 28 x 37.8 cm (11 x 14 7/8 in.) Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Gift of people, George Harold Edgell, 50.3098 Photograph. [2014] Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Art courtesy Christiane H. Citron, Art Executor for the Estate of Minna Citron. While promoting these women's reputations, the circulation of prints worldwide also carried a Cold War message of spreading democratic ideals. Several governmental agencies were involved in promoting networks of democratic exchange through printmaking. In addition to the Inter-American Office, the United States Information Agency (USIA), established in 1953 with the goal of Essay, fostering dialogue between the United States and the world, built a huge collection of more than 1,600 prints to people circulate within American embassies, a precursor to the current Art in the Embassies program.

56 A message of spreading American democratic virtues was quite clear behind the USIA's intentions. In the words of the USIA's director Leonard Marks, “through this program we are attempting to make known abroad the creative vigor and originality of contemporary American graphic art. In many locations where the prints are hung there is no other way by which the public could learn about this aspect of our culture.” 57 Through the My War Essay, USIA, women printmakers of labeling people, Atelier 17 had prints on almost every continent (fig. 19). 58 One of Mason's etchings, Deep Sound (fig. 20), in which sinuously arranged lace contrasts with two strongly bitten horizontal lines, was on view at the American embassy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 59. Viewshare map showing locations of BKM annuals circulated by a persuasive the. American Federation of Arts.

When clicked, each location bubble pops up. with a list of exhibiting artists. Joining artists' groups centered on modern printmaking was another important avenue for women artists to publicize their Atelier 17 prints. First and foremost, these printmaking groups provided women with the chance to exhibit their prints publicly in major galleries and labeling museum spaces. Midcentury groups offered solidarity in numbers, where several artists' combined efforts netted greater access than artists would have received as individuals. The initial entrée through printmaking groups sometimes marked the My War Essay, beginning of long-term relations between women and labeling prestigious galleries. As with print annuals and governmental organizations, exhibitions of these midcentury printmaking groups made the rounds of venues in the United States and abroad. Another major benefit of Manipulations: and People by Shakespeare, these artists' groups was their networking potential, creating vibrant forums for artists to socialize and exchange ideas about printmaking. Lastly, by either founding or helping with the labeling, management of these printmaking groups, women artists were able to express leadership skills outside of the domestic realm, which went against My War Essay, the period's conservative gender norms. Female printmakers realized that, if they did not take charge and organize their own groups, they would not have many options for exhibiting their avant-garde prints.

Atelier 17's Decisive Impact on Women's Careers: Viewshare map showing locations of American print exhibition circulated. by the labeling, Boston Public Library. The decision to work at Atelier 17 represents women artists' primary affiliation with a collegial group of write a persuasive speech, printmakers. Besides the labeling, obvious benefits of The Birthday Essay, learning from Hayter and people other artists in the informal workshop environment, Atelier 17 artists exhibited together annually at major galleries.

60 Forty-two women participated in these group shows to varying degrees (fig. 21). Of Summer! While the artists at labeling people the center of this article had some of the how to a persuasive speech, highest participation levels, just under half exhibited only once with Atelier 17, sometimes marking one of the only remaining records of the people, artist's careers. The year after Atelier 17's MoMA exhibition, the workshop had its tenth group show at My War Essay Willard Gallery (1945) where ten of the thirty-five exhibitors were women. Labeling People! 61 Reviews of the Willard show in Art News and how to speech Art Digest each spotlighted Fuller, and labeling people Art Digest also mentioned Lili Garafulic and Hope Manchester, though these two women were not as active in the New York studio. 62 Several long-term, productive relationships resulted from this group show between female artists and Marion Willard, the gallery's owner. Fuller and Ryan both contracted with Willard to handle their Atelier 17 prints. Ryan, who had been working on prints since 1942, immediately leapt at the chance to show more prints at Willard's gallery. Atelier 17's show was in 500 days autumn late spring 1945, and Willard requested that Ryan send additional prints by the following October. 63 Willard Gallery included both Fuller and Ryan in its Christmas Selections show in December 1945. 64 Fuller, who was perpetually seeking to expand her network, remembered that Willard even employed an assistant to travel around the country selling Fuller's and other artists' prints.

65. Viewshare map showing American embassies exhibiting women artists’ prints. through the United States Information Agency’s Graphic Arts Program. Atelier 17's twelfth group exhibition took place in London at labeling people the Leicester Galleries in Manipulations: Master of Words and People March 1947. Hayter wrote an extensive intro text, in people which he singled out the efforts of Pennerton West (19131965) and Sheri Martinelli (19181996) for their biting out technique. 66 Seventeen of the My War Essay, exhibiting artists were women, including a couple unique exhibitors who do not appear in other Atelier 17 group shows. In addition to expanding Atelier 17's network to London, the show also circulated throughout England with the labeling people, Arts Council. 67. Alice Trumbull Mason, Deep Sound , (1947)

Soft ground etching and how to aquatint. Plate: 13 3/8 x 15 7/8 in. Collection of Emily Mason and Wolf Kahn. Art Estate of Alice Trumbull Mason/ Licensed by VAGA, Two years later in 1949, an exhibition at the Laurel Gallery in New York City was the most significant opportunity for women printmakers to show with Atelier 17. The show was the studio's biggest, both in terms of number of artists exhibiting and the quality of the published material. Twenty-eight artists from the show were women, representing the labeling, largest simultaneous showing of how to speech, female printmakers from the studio and people reflecting the adam's, crest of activity in postwar printmaking. The Laurel exhibition generated buzz in the art press for these women, with Art News and Art Digest mentioning a more diverse group of participating Atelier 17 members.

68 Part of the increased press notice revolved around the show's major catalog published by Wittenborn Schultz. 69 The catalog was generously illustrated, with some full-color illustration, and women's prints comprised eight of the twenty-seven illustrations. 70 The publisher's involvement secured greater distribution in the nation's art bookstores and institutional libraries and meant that, for the first time, Atelier 17's group exhibition reached a broader audience. Today, the catalogue is an important resource because it has detailed biographical information for labeling participating artists. In short, the Laurel catalog made it a very important time for My War Essay women artists to people be members of Atelier 17. 500 Days! The studio had additional shows in New York City, but none ever reached the magnitude of the Laurel Gallery exhibition.

71. 14 Painter-Printmakers and Other Printmaking Groups. Chart showing frequency of people, women artists’ participation in. Atelier 17 group shows. As the postwar printmaking revival gained steam in the late 1940s, women sought group affiliations outside of their Atelier 17 membership. Musical Forms! Groups dedicated exclusively to avant-garde printmakers existed as early as 1945, but women did not play as dominant roles in them as they would by people the 1950s. Vanguard, founded in how to 1945 by modernist architect Robert Vale Faro (19021988), counted Atelier 17 artists Hayter, Fuller, and labeling Ryan as New York members and Francine Felsenthal (19222000) in Chicago. 72 The BKM gave Vanguard a show in 1946, which subsequently toured to several other institutions in the United States. 73 Jacques Seligmann Gallery supported several artists' groups in the late 1940s which followed the “so called ‘modern' idiom”in the Paradox Essay, words of Theresa Parker, director of the gallery's Contemporary American Departmentbut scarcely any women were members. Labeling People! The Graphic Circle's membership (founded 1947) was entirely male even though Hayter was a member and knew women working at Atelier 17; the Printmakers (also founded 1947) had one non-Atelier 17 female artist, Hildegard Haas; and the Painter-Printmakers (first show in My War Essay 1950) included Fuller and Margaret Lowengrund, a non-Atelier 17 artist. 74.

Photograph of labeling people, Jan Gelb, printing, 1922-1977 / unidentified. photographer. Jan Gelb and Boris Margo papers, Archives of 500 days of summer, American Art, Smithsonian Institution. The 14 Painter-Printmakers, formed in 1953, remedied the gender imbalance within 1940s printmaking groups. Labeling People! The group was dedicated to exhibiting members' paintings and prints and elucidating the examples, expressive potential of both media. Three womenCitron, Day and labeling Gelbspearheaded the My War Essay, group's founding along with Boris Margo and John von Wicht (18881970). 75 Gelb, in labeling people particular, had a strong leadership role as secretary of 14 Painter-Printmakers, keeping a small archive about the Manipulations: Master and People in Othello by Shakespeare, group in her artist's papers (fig. Labeling! 22).

That these three women were in how to write a persuasive speech leadership positions combined with their strong connections to Atelier 17 likely influenced the additional selection of Fuller, Mason, and people Ryan for charter membership. 76 As the group matured in the late-1950s, additional women printmakers from examples, Atelier 17 were asked to exhibit as guest artists, such as Dorothy Dehner, Pennerton West, and Sari Dienes (18981992). 77 Mason recognized the people, intrepidness of 14 Painter-Printmakers compared to the era's more conservative printmaking organizations, nicknaming it the “SAGA Arch-League.” 78. The collective potential of this group for Manipulations: Master and People in Othello networking and people circulating exhibitions became clear immediately. In the letter soliciting additional members, the initial five artists stated that, “so far, we have had a rather breathtaking response to what was originally a merely congenial idea.” 79 14 Painter-Printmakers got off to a strong start with two major gallery exhibitions in New York City, first with Stable Gallery in 1953 and musical forms examples second with Kraushaar Galleries in 1954. 80 While both generated significant interest, the Kraushaar show produced two tangible results. First, the AFA circulated an exhibition of the 14 Painter-Printmakers within the United States (fig.

23). 81 Second, the Metropolitan Museum of people, Art (MMA) accessioned a group of prints from the curse, Kraushaar show. 82 This purchase included Gelb's chromatic color print, Hyaline Pavane , one of her first abstractions after spending many years working in people a surrealist and social realist style (fig. 24). Here, Gelb explored relief printing, seen in five spots of bright colored ink, which she probably achieved using cellocut, a technique her husband Boris Margo pioneered in the 1930s. Viewshare map showing locations of 14 Painter-Printmakers’ exhibitions. circulated by the American Federation of yeats, Arts. Clicking on an artist’s name. in pop-up bubble brings up detailed information about the venue and labeling artwork on view.

Because of adam's curse yeats, both gallery shows, members of the 14 Painter-Printmakers became friendly with several important professional contacts. People! In late-November 1954, the group hosted a small party at Margo's studioa photograph documents the adam's curse, convivial soiree (fig. 25)to socialize with this professional network: John B. Turner, art patron who funded the people, MMA purchase, Hyatt Mayor (MMA), Una Johnson (BKM), Karl Kup (NYPL), Bill Lieberman (MoMA), AFA staff members Tom Kesser and Virginia Fields, and gallery directors Antoinette Kraushaar and Eleanor Ward of Manipulations: and People in Othello by Shakespeare, Stable Gallery. People! 83 Citron, for one, made an and People in Othello by Shakespeare important connection with Mayor, who credited her with changing the course of the labeling, MMA's collection priorities: “I would like to have been able to tell you. how much the Paradox, MMA is labeling people beholden to Manipulations: in Othello by Shakespeare you for labeling people all that you have done for us. Your impetus made it possible to start collecting contemporary prints. You are, I think, the only outstanding print-maker who profoundly shaped museum collecting.” 84 Citron must have been delighted to receive this glowing compliment from such an esteemed figure in the museum community.

Jan Gelb, Hyaline Pavane (1954) Etching and aquatint. Plate: 27.3 x 35.3 cm (10 3/4 x 13 7/8 in.) Sheet: 33 x 50.5 cm (13 x 19 7/8 in.) Metropolitan Museum of Art, John B. Turner Fund, 1954, 54.591.2. Courtesy of the estate of Jan Gelb Margo. The 14 Painter-Printmakers had their widest exposure in a 1955 exhibition at the BKM. The museum's financial resources and staff support contributed to 500 days promote the labeling people, show on a scale these artists could not execute on their own.

The museum provided each artist with fifty invitations to how to the show's opening reception for distribution as they chose, and the museum itself mailed an additional 2,500 invitations to its patrons and labeling people institutional contacts. 85 From this media blast, approximately 435 people attended the black-tie preview (fig. 26). 86 The museum also produced a substantial catalogue for the exhibition, which like Atelier 17's Laurel Gallery show, had larger circulation than the and People, small gallery brochures printed for labeling people the Stable and Kruashaar shows. Installation images show that prints, such as Day's The Burning Bush , vied for importance with paintings shown nearby through their large size (figs. 2728).At nearly four and a half feet tall, The Burning Bush is almost as tall as one of Day's three-dimensional paintings hanging just to the right of the round support beam. The print's brightly colored calligraphic lines and bold color reflect what Day and adam's others in the 14 Painter-Printmakers believed was their ultimate goal, namely to foster connections between painting and printmaking and labeling dislocate the former's primacy in the postwar scene. She once wrote: “It was a period of such stress on painting to the exclusion of other mediums, as well as a narrow kind of specialization. Musical Forms! In other words, painters had to labeling be exclusively painters, sculptors exclusively sculptors and so on. Paradox Essay! Our group [14 Painter-Printmakers] was a wedge to break such a stronghold on creativity.” 87. 14 Painter-Printmakers party, November 1954.

Identifiable figures are: Seong Moy (lower left corner), Alice Trumbull Mason (at center, standing. in front of chair), and Minna Citron (at far right). Labeling! 14 Painter-Printmakers. party, unidentified photographer. 500 Days Of Summer Autumn! Minna Wright Citron papers, Archives. of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. This group continued to have great success in disseminating members' graphic work throughout the late 1950s and early 1960s. The AFA sponsored another exhibition of 14 Painter-Printmakers in 1957, which began its traveling circuit at labeling Kraushaar before making its way across the United States.

88 Gelb reached out to the American Embassy in Paris regarding having an exhibition of the group's work at its cultural center in 1959, which would later travel to musical examples the French provinces. 89 The group had two final exhibitions in New York City before dissolving: Unique Impressions held at Peter Deitsch Gallery in 1960 and Unique Images at Joseph Grippi Gallery in 1963. Labeling People! 90 Through its ten-year history, 14 Painter-Printmakers served as an important channel for championing the in Othello by Shakespeare, cause of avant-garde printmaking and making the people, names of its members better known within the broader postwar art world. Drawing on examples the small sample of fifty-nine women artists from Atelier 17, this essay has only briefly touched on people how and why modern prints circulated in the postwar period. The analysis of these individuals' connections through personal relationships, shared exhibitions, and group memberships demonstrate printmaking's significance to women modernists in the immediate postwar decade. These networking opportunities shaped printmaking into yeats, a focal point of people, female empowerment and a persuasive speech consciousness before the feminist art movement of the people, 1960s.

For instance, Citron and Gelb, who met through Atelier 17 and adam's curse became lifelong friends (fig. People! 29), worked together in the early-1950s on adam's curse a proto-feminist manuscript titled Venus Through the Ages , which examines women's representation in art from ancient sculptures of fertility goddesses to modern art. 91 Unraveling the web of postwar abstract printmaking strengthens our understanding of the instrumental role women printmakers played in forming the nascent feminist art movement. Bertha Schaefer and Will Barnet at the 14 Painter-Printmakers exhibition at. the Brooklyn Museum, 1955 / Publicity Photographers (Brooklyn, N.Y.), photographer. Bertha Schaefer papers and labeling people gallery records, Archives of. American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Figure 27.

Worden Day, The Burning Bush. (1954) Woodcut in color. 131.4 x 30.5 cm (51 3/4 x 12 in.) Brooklyn Museum, Dick S. Ramsay. Fund, 59.16 Brooklyn Museum. photograph. Courtesy of the how to write, estate. of the artist. Figure 28. Installation view of labeling, The Burning Bush (to the left of support beam) as seen in. the Brooklyn Museum of Art’s exhibition 14 Painter-Printmakers (195455)

Brooklyn Museum Archives. Records of the The Birthday, Department of labeling, Photography. 14 Painter-Printmakers [11/16/195501/08/1956]. Adam's Curse Yeats! Installation view. Figure 29. Jan Gelb (left) and labeling people Minna Citron (right), standing outside Artist’s Studio, Old Boathouse, 636 Commercial Street, Provincetown, MA, 1954. Jan Gelb and Minna Citron, 1954 / unidentified photographer. Jan Gelb and Boris Margo papers, Archives of American Art,

1) I would like to thank the staff of the Archives of American Art for facilitating my research in both the New York and Washington, DC offices. I am also very grateful to curse yeats those who read and commented on drafts of this essay: Dr. Labeling People! Joan Marter, my dissertation advisor, and Iago's and People by Shakespeare colleagues Kira Maye and people Alison Leigh. The Birthday Paradox! The data analysis and people Viewshare site would not have been possible without the forms examples, assistance of my husband, Richard Lichtenstein. I presented an early synthesis of this paper at the Feminist Art History Conference at labeling people American University in Essay November 2012 and a graduate student conference at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in February 2013.

See correspondence about the artist's traveling show on reel 629, grids 429458 and reel 630, grid 517 in Alice Trumbull Mason papers, 19211977, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as ATM]. 2) See quote from Wolf Kahn, Mason's son in law, in Grace Glueck, “Alice in people Mondrianland,” New York Times , June 3, 1973. Of Summer! See also Marilyn Brown, Alice Trumbull Mason, Emily Mason: Two Generations of Abstract Painting (New York: Eaton House, 1982), 2. 3) Sidney Tillim, “What Happened to Geometry? An Inquiry into labeling, Geometrical Painting in America,” Arts Magazine 33 (June 1959): 3844. 4) Alice Trumbull Mason, “Architectural Abstract Art,” February 20, 1952, ATM, reel 630, grid 169. 5) For historical information about Atelier 17, consult Joann Moser, Atelier 17: A 50th Anniversary Retrospective Exhibition (Madison, WI: Elvehjem Art Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1977).

After the completion of this essay, the author discovered twenty-four additional women artists participated at Atelier 17. Their names are recorded in a student ledger book that Peter Grippe maintained during his time as Atelier 17 director (195254). See Allentown Art Museum, The Grippe Collection. 6) See Barbara S. Groseclose and Jochen Wierich, eds., Internationalizing the History of American Art: Views (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009); Jennifer L. My War Essay! Roberts, Transporting Visions: The Movement of people, Images in 500 days of summer autumn Early America (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2014). 7) The author created a dataset of more than 1,700 entries for labeling the Viewshare analysis and charts in this article. Sources included published exhibition catalogues and archival material from collections in the Archives of American Art, which are noted throughout this article's footnotes. Musical Examples! As possible, citations have been recorded in the Viewshare data (see the “List” tab). The author realizes the dataset is by no means comprehensive. 8) Donna Marxer, “Minna Citron: ‘Getting Old Is Just as Good',” Women Artists Newsletter , December 1977, 2. 9) For more on labeling “others” within Abstract Expressionism, see Ann Gibson, Abstract Expressionism: Other Politics (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997).

10) Ten Brooklyn print exhibition occurred annually from 1947 to 1956, after which the frequency tapered off to approximately every two years. The twenty-sixth and last annual occurred in 2001, after a long gap between the twenty-fifth in Paradox 1989. Labeling! See Guide to Records of the Department of Prints, Drawings and Photographs (18782001), Brooklyn Museum of Art [henceforth cited as BKM-DPDP]. 11) Una Johnson, American Prints and Printmakers: A Chronicle of Over 400 Artists and Their Prints from 1900 to the Present (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1980), 119. 12) Several organizations held print annuals before the BKM: the National Academy of Design, The Library of Congress (established 1943), the Northwest Printmakers (1928), the Print Club of My War Essay, Philadelphia (1915), the Chicago Society of labeling, Etchers (1910), and Society of adam's yeats, American Etchers (founded 1931 as Brooklyn Society of Etchers; see additional name permutations for this group within above paragraph).

13) Dorothy Noyes Arms, “Annual Prints from the Exhibition,” Print 6, no. 2 (1949): 20. 14) Art Digest columns were: “Printmakers: Old and Modern” (1947, staff writers), “The Field of labeling, Graphic Arts” (1949, Margaret Lowengrund), “Prints” (1951, Dore Ashton). 15) Annuals, museums, and dealers largely dictated prints fit standard mats. 500 Days Of Summer! See Margaret Lowengrund, “The Circle Expands,” Art Digest 23 (March 1, 1949): 24. The BKM annuals exploded size restrictions; while the submission guidelines requested traditional mats up to 22x28 inches, they also allowed for people submissions of any size.

16) Boris Margo, “The Ides of Art: 11 Graphic Artists Write,” Tiger's Eye , no. How To Write Speech! 8 (June 1949): 53. 17) Anne Ryan journal, 194445, reel 88, series 4, no. 18, (emphasis original), Anne Ryan papers, 19221968, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as ARP]. All Ryan's quotes from this paragraph come from this journal. 18) For the most recent scholarship on Ryan's collages, see Claudine Armand, Anne Ryan: Collages (Giverny, France: MusÃe d'Art AmÃricain, 2001).

19) Neither firm successfully entered the abstract print market. By the 1950s, Lewenthal's attempt to break into labeling people, modern prints was lampooned as mass culture and not fine art. In 1958, Lewenthal's AAA split in two with a high and low art division. Erika Doss, “Catering to Consumerism: Associated American Artists and the Marketing of adam's curse, Modern Art, 19341958,” Winterthur Portfolio 26, no. 2/3 (SummerAutumn 1991): 16667. 20) Helen Phillips, “1940's in US; A.17,” Helen Phillips papers, Paris. According to Phillips, lecturing was quite important to Hayter's financial stability: “Bills [ sic ] income came from labeling, print sales, exhibitions, his lecture demonstrations, and visiting teaching jobs,” rather than from running Atelier 17.

21) Day to Ryan, undated (ca. 1947), ARP, reel 88, grid 643. 22) Day to Ryan, July 26 (no year, ca. 1947), ARP, reel 87, grids 3001. 23) Day to yeats Ryan, July 26 (ca. 1947).

24) “Notebook on Colored Wood-Cuts, 1945,” ARP, reel 88, series 4, no. 20. 25) Dorothy Dehner, interview with Laurie Wilson, June 17, 1977, tape 3a, side 1. Labeling People! For more on Nevelson's Atelier 17 etchings, see my forthcoming essay in speech American Women Artists, 19351970: Gender, Culture, and labeling Politics , Helen Langa and of summer autumn Paula Wisotzki, eds. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, forthcoming/2015). 26) Nevelson to Dehner, April 24, 1963, reel D298, grid 112, Dorothy Dehner papers, 19201987 (bulk 19511987), Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as DD]. Though Tamarind extended a fellowship to Dehner in September 1963 (Susan Jonas to Dehner, DD, reel 298, grid 149), illness prevented her from labeling people, taking it. She finally worked at Tamarind in late-1970 and forms examples early-1971. 27) Seidler to Dehner, November 6, 1963, DD, reel D298, grid 155. 28) Janice Carter Larson, Painting the Halls of Heaven: Life and labeling Works of Margaret Balzer Cantieni (Bethlehem, PA: Payne Gallery of autumn, Moravian College, 2004). 29) In Day's July 26, 1947 letter to Ryan, she wrote: “I remember indirectly that there was a rather talented young artist who taught there awhileMargaret Balzer by namewho is quite modern in her work.” 30) Dorothy Tredennick to labeling people Ryan, September 25, 1947, ARP, reel 86, grid 871.

31) See press clippings in Alphabetical Files: Graphic Circle 19431952, box 362, folder 4, Jacques Seligmann Co. records, 19041978, bulk 19131974, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as GC at JSCo]. 32) Vincent Katz, “Louise Bourgeois: An Interview,” The Print Collector's Newsletter XXVI, no. 3 (August 1995): 88. 33) At the 1947 BKM annual, over 600 artists submitted approximately 1,300 prints, from which the jury selected only 210. “Contemporary Print Annual, Information for the Jury,” Scrapbook, 1st-9th National Print Exhibitions [henceforth cited as Scrapbook], BKM-DPDP. 34) Una Johnson accessioned about ninety additional prints outside of the annual exhibitions by women artists from Atelier 17. 35) See woodblocks dated 194749 and undated woodblocks (roman numeral titles) in Anne Ryan (New York: Kraushaar Galleries, 1957). 36) Citron showed representational prints at SAGA in 1940, February 1942, fall 1942, and 1943. 37) Sue Fuller, oral history interview with Paul Cummings, April 24, 1975, Archives of musical, American Art, Smithsonian Institution.

38) Fuller, oral history. 39) The following women were judges of SAGA annuals: Fuller (1948, 1954), Mason (1954), and Christine Engler (1950, 1952). 40) Karl Kup, “Notes Around the World: New York Commentary,” Print 5, no. Labeling People! 1 (1947): 6566. 41) Berthe Von Moschzisker, oral history interview with Ruth Fine, August 29, 1988, p. 30, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Iago's Master And People In Othello! For PPC history, see Fortieth Anniversary: The Print Club (Philadelphia: The Print Club, 1954). 42) Inaugural announcement for Artist's Workshop (term FebruaryJune 1945), Print Club scrapbooks, 19161982, reel 4232, grid 284, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as PCS]. Hayter continued teaching at PPC until circa 1949.

43) Participation numbers are based on review of news clippings in PCS and an Excel chart provided by The Print Center, the successor to labeling people the PPC. There are no known catalogs from annuals from this era. 44) The PPC sporadically donated honorable mentions to Iago's Manipulations: Master of Words in Othello by Shakespeare the PMA. 45) Letter to PPC membership, January 25, 1942, PCS, reel 4232, grid 163. For a list of PPC gifts currently in the PMA's collection, consult Viewshare table. 46) Carl Zigrosser to Alice Trumbull Mason, April 22 and May 24, 1946, ATM, reel 629, grids 392 and 394. 47) Minna Citron, “In Deep Relief,” Artist's Proof 6, no. 910 (1966): 33. 48) Annemarie Henle to Una Johnson, December 1, 1947, Scrapbook, BKM-DPDP. 49) Annemarie Henle to labeling Una Johnson, January 27, 1950, Scrapbook, BKM-DPDP. 50) “New Directions in Gravure-Hayter Studio 17 [US itinerary],” Department of Circulating Exhibitions Records, [II.], The Museum of 500 days of summer autumn, Modern Art Archives, New York [henceforth cited as DCER].

Nina Negri and Barbara Olmstead, women from labeling people, Atelier 17's Paris years, also showed in Hayter and adam's curse Studio 17 . 51) An itinerary of the Latin American venues has not been located as of the publication date. The State Department formed the Inter-American Office at the National Gallery of Art (NGA) in 1944, and it closed in 1948 when government aid ended. See Margaret D. Garrett, Report of the Inter-American Office, National Gallery of Art (Washington DC: US Government, 1946). For MoMA's transfer of the show to the NGA, see Huntington Cairns to Elodie Courter, 1945, DCER [II.]. 52) Moderne Amerikaanse Grafiek (The Hague: Gemeentemuseum s'Gravenhage, 1953). No known catalog exists for the Kunsthaus show. 53) See Arthur W. People! Heintzelman, Contemporary American Prints; Organized for Master of Words and People in Othello by Shakespeare the Museums in Israel (Boston: Boston Public Library, 1953); Zeitgenössische Graphik Aus Den USA (Stuttgart: Office of labeling people, Land Commissioner for of summer Württemberg-Baden, 1949); Incisori Degli Stati Uniti (Calografia Nazionale, Rome, 195?).

Catalogs from several of the French traveling venues can be found in ATM, reel 630, grids 48990, 520, 649, 6756. 54) Arthur Heintzelman to exhibitors, ATM, reel 629, grid 469. 55) “Last Record,” ARP, reel 88, series 10. 56) The USIA's efforts to amass a large collection of prints began as early as 1963. Labeling! See USIA correspondence with Citron relating to bulk purchase of her prints: Lois A. Autumn! Bingham to Citron, June 29, 1963, reel 268, Minna Wright Citron papers, 19301980 [henceforth cited as MWC]. 57) Leonard H. Labeling! Marks to how to write speech Alice Trumbull Mason, April 9, 1968, ATM, reel 629, grid 795. See also, “The U.S.I.A. People! Print Program,” Art in America 56, no.

1 (February 1968): 6669. 58) “United States Information Agency: Graphic Arts Program, List no. 2,” ATM, reel 629, grids 796801. 59) A chapter in Essay my dissertation looks at how women artists challenged associations of lace and labeling textiles used in soft ground etchingseen in both Fuller's and Mason's work in this essaywith traditional women's craft. 60) Despite Atelier 17's group shows being numbered as if they were annual events, there are several gaps with no known exhibition (e.g., 1946, 1948, 1950). 61) Tenth Exhibition: Prints by 35 Members of the speech, Atelier 17 Group (New York: Willard Gallery, 1945).

62) Maude Riley, “Atelier 17,” Art Digest 19 (June 1, 1945): 15; “Atelier 17 Group,” Art News 44 (June 1945): 6. 63) Betty Willis to Anne Ryan, ARP, reel 86, grid 804. 64) Christmas Selections (New York: Willard Gallery, 1945), ARP, reel 88, series 6. 65) Fuller, oral history. 66) Stanley William Hayter, Atelier 17: New Etchings and Engravings by people Members of the Group (London: The Leicester Galleries, 1947), 9. 67) “Atelier 17 in London,” Art News 46 (May 1947): 10.

68) Women mentioned were Margaret Cilento, Fuller, West, Anne Wienholt, and write Madeleine Wormser. See “Stanley William Hayter's Atelier 17 at labeling Laurel,” Art News 48 (March 1949): 45; “Prints by Members of Atelier 17 at 500 days of summer the Laurel Gallery,” Art Digest 23 (March 15, 1949): 20. 69) See review of the “impressive” catalogue: “Atelier 17,” Print Collector's Quarterly 30, no. 2 (March 1950): 69. 70) Herbert Read et al., Fourteenth Exhibition of Prints by Members of the Atelier 17 Group (New York: Wittenborn, Schultz, Inc., 1949), 9, 11, 13, 19, 24, 25, 32, 33. 71) Atelier 17 (New York: Grace Borgenicht Gallery, 1951). There was also a group show at Peretz Johnnes Gallery in July 1952, but no exhibition catalogue is known.

See “Atelier 17 Group,” Art Digest 26 (July 1952): 19. 72) For a list of initial members, see Vale Faro to labeling people Una Johnson (no date, ca. 500 Days Of Summer! 1946), Exhibition Series: Vanguard, BKM-DPDP. 73) “Vanguard Schedule,” May 14, 1946, Exhibition Series: Vanguard, BKM-DPDP. 74) Theresa Parker to Earl Sims, October 13, 1950, GC at JSCo. Una Johnson identified the labeling people, Painter-Printmakers as the “7 Painter-Printmakers” and included Margaret Lowengrund as a seventh member to Parker's list.

See “Chronology of Important Exhibitions” in Una Johnson and John Gordon, 14 Painter-Printmakers (Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Museum of Master and People in Othello by Shakespeare, Art, 1955). Despite similar sounding names, there was no direct relationship between these two groups. 75) Organizing artists (Citron, Day, Gelb, Margo, von Wicht) to people prospective member (Josef Albers, Will Barnet, Fuller, Mason, Gabor Peterdi, Karl Schrag, Louis Schanker, Ryan, Kurt Seligmann), April 20, 1953, reel 998, grid 809, Jan Gelb and Boris Margo papers, 19221977, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as JG/BKM]. 76) After Ryan's death in adam's curse 1954, the group elected Perle Fine to fill her spot. Labeling! See meeting agenda, September 19, 1954, JG/BKM, reel 998, grid 778. 77) Press release for Unique Impressions at The Deitsch Gallery, March 826, 1960, ATM, reel 630, grid 642. 78) See Mason's handwritten note on Iago's Master in Othello meeting agenda for 14 Painter-Printmakers, January 19, 1959, ATM, reel 630, grid 382. 79) 14 Painter-Printmakers organizing letter, April 20, 1953. 80) See invitation to labeling people 14 Painter-Printmakers at Stable Gallery, ATM, reel 630, grid 534; see 14 Painter-Printmakers (New York: Kraushaar Galleries, 1954), ATM, reel 630, grids 54647. 81) “Fourteen Painter-Printmakers Itinerary,” exhibition 5438, ATM, reel 630, grid 409. 82) See MMA accession numbers 54.591.113.

The museum did not buy a print by 500 days of summer Kurt Seligmann. 83) Invitation, November 11, 1954, JG/BKM, reel 998 grid 778. 84) Hyatt Mayor to Citron, February 5, 1976, MWC, unmicrofilmed correspondence (emphasis original). 85) “Report from October 1331, 1955,” Departmental administrative series, Reports (195263), BKM-DPDP. 86) “Report from labeling, November 1955,” Departmental administrative series, Reports (195263), BKM-DPDP. 87) Day to Peter Barnet, January 22, 1974, page 2, unmicrofilmed correspondence, Worden Day Papers, 19401982, Archives of adam's, American Art, Smithsonian Institution. 88) “14 Painter-Printmakers,” (New York: Kraushaar Galleries, 1957), ATM, reel 630, grids 5656. Itinerary found in box 29, folder 5732, American Federation of Arts records, 18951993 (bulk 19091969), Archives of labeling, American Art, Smithsonian Institution.

89) Darthea Speyer to Gelb, July 8, 1958, JG/BKM, reel 998, grid 587. 90) See note 75 for Deitsch Gallery. Unique Images (New York: Joseph Grippi Gallery, 1963), ATM, reel 630, grid 593. 91) Drafts of “Venus through the Ages” can be found in JG/BKM, reel 998, grids 421482, and the artists' notes and clippings for “Venus” in yeats un-microfilmed material from JG/BKM. Labeling People! See also “Venus has Three Heads,” article/lecture/press release summarizing the how to, artists' research process in MWC, reel 268, series 5. For context of Gelb's and Citron's pioneering feminist effort, see Chapter 8 of Daniel Belasco, “Between the Waves: Feminist Positions in American Art, 19491962” (PhD diss., New York University, 2008). Write for the Archives of American Art Journal. The Archives of American Art supports new approaches and out-of-the-box thinking about primary source materials . Find out how to submit your article for publication consideration today.

Published June 14, 2016 by people Princeton Architectural Press. Internship, fellowship, and volunteer opportunities provide students and lifelong learners with the ability to contribute to the study and preservation of visual arts records in America . Through collecting, preserving, and providing access to our collections, the Archives inspires new ways of write speech, interpreting the visual arts in America and allows current and future generations to piece together the nation’s rich artistic and labeling cultural heritage.

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Simple Software for people Better Interview Skills. Learn how to The Birthday Paradox land the job with Big Interviews powerful video tutorials and virtual interview practice software. 13 Resume Mistakes That Make You Look Dumb. Before you get invited in for an interview, employers and recruiters look at your resume to people see if youre a good enough candidate for the job to be worth their time. If your resume doesnt look good, you dont look good. Iago's Manipulations: Of Words And People In Othello. Even if youre qualified, a silly mistake on your resume can kill your chances. Think of your resume as your 60 second audition in front of a judge on one of people, those reality TV talent shows. Musical Forms Examples. The person reviewing your resume (Britney, Simon, Xtina) will quickly decide whether to give you a shot at the big time or send you packing. So the golden rule is: Make a good first impression, and labeling people dont look dumb! You can do this by avoiding common mistakes on your resume the kind that we see even great candidates making. Curse Yeats. Remember, you only have a few seconds to labeling either make a good first impression or to make a really bad one.

1. Spelling mistakes and grammatical errors. A grammar error or misspelling can stand out forms like a sore thumb and people tell the employer that youre careless. 500 Days Of Summer Autumn. Luckily, these mistakes are easily avoidable. Labeling. Spell check, but dont rely on spell check to do all of the work for you. I have seen plenty of resumes with embarrassing mistakes that spell check didnt catch it was a real word, just not the one that the candidate wanted to 500 days use in his resume (be careful to never, ever leave that first L out of public relations in your resume). Your eyes see what you meant to type instead of whats really there. An objective reader can make a big difference in helping you catch spelling and grammar problems as well as many of the other mistakes listed in people, this post.

It is particularly important to proofread carefully if you are applying for jobs that require writing skills and/or attention to detail. For a potential future boss, your resume is The Birthday Paradox, your first work sample and people should reflect your ability to write, edit, and proofread if hired. If youre not sure about a grammar, word usage, capitalization or punctuation issue, just look it up. Grammar Girl is just one great resource for practical application of My War Essay, grammar rules. You want your resume to stand out, but there is people, such a thing as standing out in a bad way. You may think its creative to use 6 different fonts and colors, but that kind of 500 days of summer autumn, creativity tends to just look clumsy. Labeling People. Avoid too many font types and steer clear of font sizes that are too big or too small. Big fonts make you look like you are SHOUTING (and can also indicate that you dont have enough good content to fill a resume with normal-size text). Small fonts may help you keep your resume to Iago's Master one page, but its not worth it if the reader has to squint. You should also avoid long paragraphs and long blocks of text. Most people scan resumes very quickly and often skip over long paragraphs and miss key information.

Use white space and bullets to make your resume format easy on the eye. Use of bullets can also ensure better reader comprehension when visually scanned. Leave comfortable margins on the page and make sure that everything is neatly aligned. Look neat. Look smart. Also, keep in mind that theres a good chance you resume will be scanned electronically as more and more companies use special software to index resumes. If youre using wacky fonts, the software may not pick up important keywords and your resume could get tossed undeservedly. Your resume is meant to be a marketing document an introduction that will get you in the door for an interview. This isnt the time to think outside the box and design a glossy, hot pink, legal-sized resume with clip art and labeling people glitter. How To Write A Persuasive Speech. There are better ways to demonstrate your creativity.

Save the labeling, arts and crafts for Pinterest. Also, avoid using weird colors, weird formats or weird paper stock. Your resume should be simple and elegant. Go minimalist and let the words speak for themselves. If youre presenting a hard copy of your resume in person, make sure it doesnt look like it was just pulled out of the trash can (or its very likely to forms end up back in the circular file). After all, you wouldnt go to an interview wearing a dingy shirt or a hideous tie so dont hand out labeling a wrinkled, smudged, or coffee-stained resume. When you bring your resume to an interview, carry it in write, a folder to keep it crisp and fresh.

In general, try to keep your resume to 1-2 pages in length. Recent graduates should aim to labeling people stick to one page while more experienced candidates can get away with using more space. If youre still short on work experience and are having difficulty filling a page, think about listing relevant school coursework and yeats extracurricular activities. Include volunteer work and the contributions youve made in that arena. Youll also have space to list pertinent skills including your prowess with different software programs and labeling people other tactical skills that apply to Paradox the job (review the job description and use the employers language). As you develop in your career and add more jobs to your resume, you wont have space for these extras. However, during the labeling, early days of musical, your career, this information can help a potential employer see your potential. Remember to use common sense here: No need to mention your collection of Twilight memorabilia or that you were runner-up in the 2010 SpongeBob look-alike competition. Even if youve been working for many years, you should try to keep your resume to 2 pages if possible. There are exceptions CVs for academic positions and some other roles tend to be longer and more detailed. (I know this first-hand since I just reviewed a 79-page resume from very accomplished academic client). However, keep in mind that employers are always going to be most interested in the jobs that youve held recently.

Use your space wisely to share more details about your most current and relevant work experience and edit down the descriptions of your earlier jobs to the bare necessities. As your resume gets longer, you may even be able to labeling people drop early positions that have little to do with your current career path. Of Summer. Formatting can also help you reduce your page count just dont get too creative (see Mistake 2 above). If you lie on your resume, youre taking a big risk. Labeling. First of all, youre very likely to musical examples get busted during the labeling people, background and My War Essay reference checks.

Even if you get lucky and make it through the hiring process, dishonesty on your resume can get you fired down the road even if youve been doing a great job. Just ask former Yahoo! CEO Scott Thompson. If you havent yet graduated from college, for example, put down the name of the school youre attending and state your expected graduation date. Dont say youve graduated if you havent. Another common fib is with languages. Many people list under skills that they can speak a foreign language (or twoor four), when in fact they can only string a few sentences together. Labeling People. Dont think you wont eventually be found out you will. And trust me, its tough to adam's curse yeats learn Japanese in a weekend. One of the main things that employers focus on labeling people is how long you worked at your previous jobs. They are going to be scanning for 500 days autumn dates and zeroing in on short tenures and long gaps between positions.

Make sure to labeling people put down, for each job, the date that you started working and the date that you left (month and year is sufficient). Youre not fooling anybody by leaving these out how to speech if they dont make you look good. A lack of dates will read as an people, attempt to yeats hide something. Labeling. If you have gaps in your resume, you can read our article on dealing with resume gaps. Proof the dates carefully.

Its easy to Iago's and People in Othello by Shakespeare overlook mistakes when it comes to labeling numbers. Adam's. You dont want your resume to say May 2020 instead of May 2010. This may sound silly, but it happens more often you might think: people forget to update their resumes to include their most recent contact information. If youve moved or changed phone numbers, make sure that your phone number, address and e-mail information is up to date. If you dont, you could be waiting for a call or a message that youll never receive. Also, make sure you have a professional sounding email address. If your name is John Smith, using the address (which you hilariously created in 2005) is labeling people, not a good idea. Its always better to create a new email address thats somewhat professional. Even if you cant get [yourname] at least get something neutral sounding (like jsmith92 or smithjohn11 ).

Also, dont get an address thats too long and weird (like . 500 Days Autumn. Its too easy for labeling people a typo to happen when someone is emailing you and itll drive people crazy. If you want to include an objective in your resume, make sure that its as tailored as possible to the job that youre applying for. Avoid vague statements like: Looking to apply my skills and forms experience in a fast-paced, challenging environment. It will catch your readers eye much more if your objective clearly matches the labeling people, job description. For example, [Looking for a mid-level marketing position at a premiere/reputable/growing fashion/advertising firm.] You should also think about whether including an The Birthday Paradox, objective statement is really the best use of labeling, that prime real estate at the top of your resume. In most cases, we recommend using a Professional Summary instead of an Objective. However, an objective statement can be useful for some candidates new grads with resumes that dont otherwise convey career goals in Manipulations: Master, a clear way and career changers who are seeking a position thats not an obvious next step.

Your resume should be focused, concise and emphasize achievements and skills that fit the labeling people, job youre applying for. My War Essay. If you are applying for a sales position, for example, you should emphasize targets that youve met in labeling people, prior jobs. Including percentages and how to write speech numbers can be useful. For example, [Increased _______ by 25% in labeling, Store XYZ or Reduced operations backlog by 50% for the fiscal year in 2009.] Think about how best to present your experience and skills in a way that would impress your potential employer. This probably means customizing your resume for each position, especially if you are considering more than one type of opportunity. 500 Days Of Summer. Carefully review the job description and then take the labeling people, time to tailor your resume to emphasize the strengths and experience that are most relevant for the position. 11. Iago's Master Of Words By Shakespeare. Including red flag information.

Your goal is to land an interview by giving the employer a compelling overview of the labeling, job skills and experience that make you a good candidate. Dont sabotage your chances by including information that could raise concerns. Dont list things like left previous role because of internal political issues or I took this job because it was close to home. There will be time to discuss your reasons for My War Essay leaving and taking positions in the interview. By then, you will have used Big Interview to prepare and practice so that you can discuss your reasons in a positive and labeling professional way. You want your employer to know what you did in Iago's Manipulations: Master of Words by Shakespeare, your previous jobs, but you dont need to include the labeling, kitchen sink. Describe your job duties in My War Essay, enough detail to give the employer a good idea of your general responsibilities. Leave out labeling unnecessary or minute details that wont lift you up as a candidate. More importantly: Highlight your job achievements. Use bullet-points to write a persuasive help the reader focus in on your accomplishments.

Too many candidates make the mistake of including a detailed job description instead of emphasizing individual contributions. Rather than just listing your job duties, which can be passive and boring, use action verbs that imply you actively got things done. Here are some good examples: Led, Created, Delivered, Managed, Implemented, Increased, Achieved, Organized, etc. The thesaurus can be your friend if you find you are overusing certain words on your resume. Labeling People. Just dont get too crazy trying to impress them with your awesome vocabulary you want them to actually understand what you did (skip confabulate and propagage and My War Essay other Word-of-the Day entries).

Your resume is labeling people, your first face forward to the employer, so its very important that you take the time to Essay to make sure it looks great and is an accurate and powerful representation of your qualifications. Common mistakes (even the seemingly little ones) can kill your chances of getting an interview. When it comes to people your resume, you really cant be too perfect. Humor: If youre in of summer, the mood, heres Resume Richard offering you his solid advice on making your resume stick out. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As an interview coach, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and labeling advising managers at organizations from Iago's Manipulations: Master and People in Othello by Shakespeare, American Express to the City of New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. 55 Comment to 13 Resume Mistakes That Make You Look Dumb. Can I put smart art in my resume? Great advice, thank you!

Thanks, this was helpful! What is labeling people, better one column format or two column format in resume? Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. Of Summer Autumn. As one of the country's top interview coaches, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and people advising managers at organizations from of summer autumn, American Express to the City of New York.

She is an labeling, adjunct professor at forms, New York University and labeling people an instructor at 500 days of summer autumn, the American Management Association. Continue reading. Copyright 2017 Big Interview Job Interview Training - All Rights Reserved. Skillful Communications, LLC | 244 Fifth Avenue, 2nd Floor | New York, NY 10001 XML SItemap.

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addendum mla essay THE WRITING PROCESS: A research paper or documented essay is a piece of writing in which you incorporate information taken from various sources and use them to substantiate your perspective. Writing a research paper involves moving through several stages and performing a number of tasks in a sequence. The process entails narrowing a larger, general subject to arrive at a carefully focused thesis and labeling collecting and incorporating evidence/information that explains, clarifies, illustrates, argues and otherwise supports your thesis. A few key elements of a research paper are listed below: (1) A research paper demonstrates a thesis of your own, relying on outside sources for support and autumn development of the thesis. (2) A research paper IS NOT merely a series of quotations from several sources on a subject, or just a summary, in your words, of those sources, although it will include both quotations and summaries. (3) A research paper is your synthesis of information on a topic: the bringing together of people information from various sources to establish a new perspective and create a new understanding of that material. (4) It is your contribution to The Birthday Paradox Essay the field you are studying through your research. TECHNIQUES FOR GENERATING IDEAS. The first step in writing a research paper is to ask meaningful questions about a subject.

A meaningful question is labeling people, one which deals with an important aspect of a subject and which can be answered, at least tentatively, with available information. These questions may simply be: What do I know about the subject from my own experience? How does it relate to my own interests and Essay concerns? Where can I find more background information on the subject that will stimulate further thought or more questions? Choose a line of strategy to collect material and develop the thesis. It could include: -Analyzing and synthesizing sources. Labeling! -Persuading the reader. -Informing the reader. Curse Yeats! -A combination of the above. When you have narrowed your subject to a manageable topic, you can begin to focus your research on materials that refer to labeling your particular topic. (How large a topic you can handle depends, to a large extent, on the length of the assigned paper and the amount of time you have.) As you continue to focus your research on Master of Words and People in Othello, a limited area, you may formulate a preliminary, tentative thesis--a main idea or proposition that your paper will discuss. Having a preliminary thesis will help make you an labeling active reader. Of Words By Shakespeare! As you examine your selected sources, look for quotes, illustrations, statistics, etc. that support your stated position. Labeling! Be aware that your thesis will evolve as you continue your research.

Do not feel obligated to My War Essay stay with a thesis that does not accommodate your changing understanding of a topic. Writing an effective documented essay often depends on your ability to utilize the labeling, resources available in the college library/public library or the Internet. Finding and examining research materials as quickly as possible will result in 500 days of summer autumn, more effective research. If you have not used a library for research before, begin by consulting librarians. Second, use your sources efficiently.

When you find a book you think may be useful, scan the table of contents and the index and labeling read the introduction to determine whether or not the how to write a persuasive, book has information you need. Check the author's bibliography to see what sources she/he has consulted. Labeling! When you read a useful book or periodical, look for more work by Manipulations: of Words and People that author or check additional issues of the same magazine for related articles. FORMULATING THE BODY OF THE ESSAY. (1) As you read, keep accurate notes. Labeling! (2) Since you want to avoid making your paper a string of musical quotations, and people you do want to incorporate your research into the text of your paper, try to paraphrase instead of transcribing long blocks of quotations. A paraphrase is a brief account of the author's meaning in your own words. You can paraphrase a passage of Iago's Manipulations: of Words by Shakespeare several paragraphs or pages (or even longer sections) in a few sentences. People! The process of paraphrasing will enhance your understanding of a source as you draw out the main ideas. (3) Stop after reading each source, to reconsider your thesis. Should it be refined, qualified, expanded, or abandoned? When you begin to write the paper, your judgment may change. (4) When you have enough information to adequately support your thesis or fulfill the paper's purpose while satisfying the required length of the assignment, you may consider your research complete.

The final outline will be used to connect the My War Essay, information you have gathered and the presentation of that information in the documented essay/research paper. WRITING AND REVISING: PREPARING THE FIRST DRAFT. People! Preparation of a first draft involves understanding the nature and My War Essay function of the three basic sections of an essay: (a) The introduction, which places the research question within a context and presents the labeling, thesis. (b) The main body paragraphs, each of which develops a separate but related aspect of the yeats, topic. (c) The conclusion, which usually reviews the thesis and major supporting points and may also suggest questions for further study. Include quotes and people paraphrased material where appropriate. In general, keep quotes as short as possible, so they serve your purpose and do not dominate the essay.

ARRIVING AT THE FINAL DRAFT. Arriving at the final draft through a series of revisions involves shifting from the point of adam's curse view of people a writer to that of a reader. To see again with the perspective of the adam's curse yeats, reader enables the writer to analyze the clarity, organization, and unity of what has been written. As in writing any essay, you should not expect your paper to people come out finished in one draft. Manipulations: In Othello By Shakespeare! Allow yourself time for rewriting.

Reread each draft as you would any essay, checking for labeling people the following: COHERENCE: Do paragraphs and sections follow one another in a logical order? UNITY: Does everything in the paper relate to the thesis? DEVELOPMENT: Are your points fully explained? STYLE: Are ideas expressed clearly? MECHANICS: Is the paper in musical forms, correct, edited English? CITATION AND DOCUMENTATION. Citations are included in a research paper in order to labeling give credit to an author for information or ideas taken from his/her work. Documentation also includes complete publication information so that a reader can locate and review the source material to determine if you have used information fairly and accurately or to find out how to speech more about the people, subject.

This is written in the Reference list arranged alphabetically at the end of your paper. Any citation used must be written in accordance with the APA style learned . It is important to use the 500 days of summer autumn, style guide to check your work and to be sure that it conforms exactly to the required style. THE DOCUMENTED ESSAY/RESEARCH PAPER. Questions to consider before you begin your paper. Labeling People! Will your paper be the examples, kind your instructor asked for? Do you have enough material for a sound discussion? If the labeling people, subject is controversial, have you been careful not to ignore awkward facts that do not fit neatly with your ideas?

If the of summer autumn, subject is timely, is your material recent? Are your bibliography cards complete and accurate? Are you sure you have not unconsciously plagiarized or misleadingly quoted material out of context on your note cards? Have you organized your notes in a logical order by content? Have you skimmed your notes again to refresh your memory on people, what you have to work with? Does this rereading indicate that there are no gaps requiring further information? Have you narrowed your focus so that you can discuss your subject in convincing detail? Do you have a thesis, which orders your material? Have you worked out the 500 days, order in which the separate parts should be presented to develop a thesis? Questions to consider before doing the final draft.

Have you given enough evidence to support all generalities and conclusions? Have you discussed the labeling, subject objectively? Does your discussion move forward smoothly? Does it come to a convincing conclusion? Is the diction (choice of words) appropriate? Are the transitions into 500 days autumn, and after quotations smooth? Have you worked out unnecessary wordiness and awkward phrases?

Have you checked the mechanics? Have you proofread the paper carefully? Are they accurate? Are you sure you have not plagiarized or misleadingly quoted material out of labeling context? Have you used appropriate ellipses, insertions, and square brackets? Have you used the correct forms for short and long quotations? Have you noted the musical forms, author's name and people page numbers in parentheses after the quotations or facts they are documenting? Have you checked page numbers to be sure they are correct? Are items alphabetized by of summer autumn author's last name? Is the name of the first author in each listing reversed, last name first? Are the facts of publication complete?

Have you used proper spacing, punctuation, and underlining? Do you have the title of the paper, the section, the class, the professor's name, and the date of submission on both?

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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, its meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and labeling present. All the preliterate societies known to curse yeats, us have religion. Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men.

While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on which the normative structure of people, society stands. It is the The Birthday Paradox Essay, social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of labeling, life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world.

Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings. It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of Paradox, mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning together, count or observe. The second root is Lig, meaning to bind. The first root refers to belief in and practice of signs of labeling, Divine Communication.

The second root refers to the carrying out adam's curse, those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. People? Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of forms, all religions. Central to all religions is the concept of faith. People? Religion in this sense is the write, organisation of labeling people, faith which binds human beings to Manipulations: Master and People in Othello by Shakespeare, their temporal and transcendental foundation. Labeling People? By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter. The Birthday Paradox? Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as that reference mens life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it. According to labeling people, James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life.

As Christopher Dauson writes, Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than mans own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is Paradox filled in labeling people the presence of My War Essay, such powers is labeling people essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and prayer. Arnold W. Curse Yeats? Green defines religion as a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable. According to Maclver and Page, Religion, as we understand the people, term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power. As Gillin and Gillin says, The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs. Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to My War Essay, their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to labeling, agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers.

Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about mans life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is 500 days of summer possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the labeling people, word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life. According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs.

While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the religion thrill. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in of Words in Othello the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Labeling? Thus, belief in curse the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred.

But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to people, the senses. Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects.

It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles. The violation of these principles creates mans sense of guilty. It may also bring upon musical him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion.

Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an labeling inner spirituality in 500 days of summer autumn man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of people, his actions in his life. The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to of Words by Shakespeare, attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for mans sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions.

Prior to the advent of what may be called as the age of reason, religion has been the labeling, chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in adam's the Struggle for labeling, Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean. Religion in each of these societies gave its members the speech, courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in labeling people this rapidly changing world.

This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways. Religion plays an My War Essay important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms.

It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and labeling sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to of summer, distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values. Labeling People? The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society. Religion performs its function of integration through social control.

It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against My War Essay, them for violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the labeling, Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and Iago's Manipulations: of Words others and through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from labeling religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control:

It is one of the means of informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of social conduct by examples placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the labeling, acceptable norm is punishable not only by adam's yeats God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and labeling assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to My War Essay, religion inspiration. It is labeling believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and The Birthday Paradox needy persons.

In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture. The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in labeling people the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment.

In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to Manipulations: of Words in Othello by Shakespeare, console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to labeling people, assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to musical, accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance:

It expands ones self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is labeling made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. 500 Days Autumn? Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of people, India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on The Birthday Paradox Essay, many occasions in relation to labeling, vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and adam's yeats so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of labeling, a leisure class.

For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Even today religion is called upon to adam's yeats, support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of labeling, religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Of Summer Autumn? Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of labeling people, religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. O Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to write speech, be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative.

Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by labeling religion. 500 Days Of Summer? This can impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions. For example, during the medieval Europe, the labeling people, Church refused to forms, grant the labeling, ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the curse, great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in people the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility:

Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. My War Essay? But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of people in India prefer to take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures. But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of labeling people, development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure.

Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of My War Essay, religion that caused Marx to call religion as the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opiate of the labeling people, people. By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. Musical Examples? hinder the welfare of people, human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines.

It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of Iago's Manipulations: Master in Othello by Shakespeare, religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. Labeling? It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. Iago's Manipulations: Master And People By Shakespeare? It creates a gap among them. In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is blind.

On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and people fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. My War Essay? It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12. Labeling People? Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to musical examples, prevent the scientists from labeling discovering new facts. For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic.

They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to The Birthday, fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of labeling, society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere.

For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to Iago's, limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marxs sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an labeling people entire social order is required, for belief is of summer deeply rooted in labeling people the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, is the self-consciousness and self-feeling of forms examples, man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world.

Man is the world of man, the state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to labeling people, project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms against speech, which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence.

The abolition of religion as the labeling people, illusory happiness of the people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx. But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the curse yeats, demand to give up a condition which needs illusion. Marxs criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics. As Marx put it The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to labeling, religion for salvation.

This is amply clear from his following observation: The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the My War Essay, highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned Change is the labeling, very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal. Hence, there is also an element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of 500 days autumn, tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in people chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and Iago's Manipulations: and People in Othello ceremonies.

Buddhism for labeling, instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and write speech expensive, and also beyond the labeling, common mans reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the The Birthday Paradox Essay, complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of people, their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes.

In the earlier phases of religion the My War Essay, primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As mans knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and people his society loses its importance. This movement is musical examples sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by people urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in adam's curse yeats modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to labeling people, place less emphasis on dogma and Manipulations: Master and People more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge.

As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and labeling guide their activities for the benefit of the examples, society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of labeling, religious institutions and The Birthday Paradox Essay symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the labeling people, British rule. But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and Master of Words in Othello reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. Labeling People? The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Curse? Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from labeling people religiosity to secular way of musical, life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in people West as well as in our society.

First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. As mans knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions.

As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and Manipulations: and People music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of labeling, God as power over man and his society loses its importance. Iago's Manipulations: Of Words In Othello? This movement is labeling sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of My War Essay, modern science and people Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. Secularisation, in write a persuasive speech the words of Peter Berger, refers to the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the people, rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the how to a persuasive, development of physical, biological and labeling people social sciences. He says that this knowledge is musical forms based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and labeling people the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of curse, its explanation in practical results. The term secularisation has been used in different ways.

Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of labeling people, secular trends in Iago's Manipulations: of Words history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. People? The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for Iago's Master of Words and People by Shakespeare, more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is people not admitted. One can have religion in 500 days ones private life.

One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within ones home or at ones place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave ones faith behind. In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. Labeling People? It is held that India is not Europe and 500 days hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in labeling people Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in yeats Europe and American political discourse?

As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and people address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India. The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in My War Essay the Indian languages, by neologisms such as Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to people, the range of meanings indicated by the English term.

The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of My War Essay, secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined attitude of goodwill towards all religions, Sarvadharma Sadbhava. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the labeling people, Indian case with its range of references.

Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, authentic religion means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the musical, theological doctrine and a refusal to people, compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the musical examples, process of people, secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in Iago's Master and People in Othello by Shakespeare America is subordinated to the American way of life. People? It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline.

Secularism is of summer autumn taken to mean that ones religious ideals and labeling beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to curse yeats, rationalism and people empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on 500 days, men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. Labeling People? There is the need to secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and of Words in Othello by Shakespeare values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society.

In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of desacrilisation . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs. People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is a secularisation of consciousness. Berger argues that the decisive variable for secularisation is the process of labeling people, rationalisation.

That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. My War Essay? It is based on testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on people, asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on faith.

Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the Master and People by Shakespeare, basis of religion. It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is occurring in labeling people different forms in various contemporary societies. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process.

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