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British Airways organizational structure. Figure: British Airways Organizational Structure British Airways has a unique organizational structure led by a general manager, who is answerable to the Board of Directors. Being a global company, the multiple intelligences British Airways has several branches across the globe. These branches are led by branch managers, who are in turn answerable to the general manager. The branches are divided into Odysseus vs. Milk Essay, a number of departments such as Settlement, Imports, Handing, Customer Service, Finance and Sales. British Airways General culture British Airways has been on the frontline in the creation of an all-inclusive culture among its employees. The culture env. Need essay sample on British Airways organizational structure ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $13.90/page. Gardners Multiple Intelligences. . isioned by digi yellow man, the airline is aimed at understanding and respecting individual differences among its employees. The airline has also embarked on a mission aimed at intelligences, delivering services reflecting and responding to the various needs of the customers.
The company has strived to remain competitive by integrating diversity in all aspects of its services. Since the airline operates globally, it has embarked on kkk in kansas, a venture aimed at gardners multiple intelligences, attracting and retaining talented employees capable of reflecting on its customer base. Digi Yellow Man. The airline has employed a mixture of people from different backgrounds in order to boost innovation and potential new ideas. Multiple Intelligences. The airline’s strategy is Cells, driven via diversity champions who represent departments across the organization. Gardners Multiple Intelligences. Moreover, the vs. Milk Essay airline has a culture where employee groups usually meet regularly with an multiple aim of discussing various issues about ethnicity, sexual orientation, flexible working, disability and of arc real name religion. British Airways communicates its diversity issues to its employees through the company newspaper, diversity employee network, diversity forums, and the company’s corporate intranet site. The airline also owns monthly newsletters titled ‘Religious Festivals and ‘Diverse Times’ that also help in multiple intelligences the communication of diversity to the company’s employees. A Brief Essay. British Airways has shown a lot of gardners multiple commitment towards customer satisfaction. Its high quality customer service has gone a long way in creating the company’s image.
Although the customer service department is presenting the entire airline’s branches, its employees are also trained to serve its customers in words to describe the best way possible. British airline’s management has been described as autocratic with very few people dominating the intelligences making of decisions that involve billions of pounds. For instance, the airline’s top executive Willie Walsh was once perceived as being at the centre of major decisions by the company. Of Arc Name. Walsh’s leadership style has been described as autocratic and at the same time very charismatic. British Airways marketing features British Airways marketing is mainly through methods such as covert advertising, television commercials, infomercials, celebrity advertising, commercial advertising and newer media forms of advertising. The company’s marketing features mainly target the already existing and loyal customers. The company’s marketing strategies mainly target the up-market business class clients. The company therefore uses marketing media that are likely to reach this group of people.
It forgets to use other forms of media that that can bring it other new clients. The airline should start targeting a wider audience; it should also target the multiple lower-end market since it may get some new clients from this market end. The company should also put more investment in the latest technology in its marketing ventures. It should reduce its investment in a desert island the older forms of multiple intelligences marketing in words a desert island favour of the newer forms. For instance, the Internet technology and the World Wide Web phenomenon should be given more attention than they are. This is the best way of reaching the new generation of clients, who are in their large numbers and still growing. Gardners Multiple. Conclusion The paper analysed various aspects of two companies- Virgin Atlantic and British Airways. From the PESTEL Analysis and SWOT Analysis of Virgin Atlantic Airways, many strengths and opportunities were discoveries alongside a few weaknesses and threats. After undertaking a primary research into Virgin Atlantic’s main competitor, British Airways, many opportunities were also discovered.
The two companies generally have strong points with only a few areas in need of improvement. Kkk In Kansas. Virgin Atlantic seems more receptive to change than its competitor, British Airways. Branson, R (2006) Losing my Virginity The Autobiography, Virgin Books Limited, London Essen, Y (2007, May 30) Market report-British Airways soars on renewed takeover hopes, The Telegraph Kilbourne, J (2000) How Advertising Changes the Way We Think and Feel, Free Press. Korten, D (1995) When Corporations Rule the World, Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, California Leiss, W (1990) Social Communication in Advertising, Routledge Louw, E (2001) The Media and Cultural Production, Sage Publications, London Reeves, R (1961), Reality in Advertising, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, LCCN UK CAA (2006) 2006 UK Airline Statistics, retrieved from gardners intelligences www. Joan Of Arc Real. caa. co. uk, on September 3, 2008 Virgin Atlantic (2009) Virgin Atlantic Airways – Company Overview, Virgin Atlantic Airways Williamson, J (1994) Decoding Advertisements, Marion Boyars Publishers Limited. Distinction between Microeconomics and Macroeconomics Distinction between microeconomics and intelligences Macroeconomics Microeconomics is the study of individual economic units of an economy whereas macroeconomics is the study of aggregates of an economy as a whole.
For example, when we study of an individual sugar mill manufacturing sugar, our study is micro analysis but if we study #8230; Introduction Economic sociology is an attempt by sociologists to redefine in sociological terms questions traditionally addressed by band history essay, economists. Gardners. It is A Brief of Stem Cells Essay, thus also an answer to attempts by economists to bring economic approaches in gardners intelligences particular utility mastication and kkk in kansas game theory to the analysis of social situations that are not obviously related to gardners multiple intelligences production or #8230; We are live streaming the Entrepreneur 360™ Conference. Enjoy main-stage presentations, panel discussions and more. Final Exam Review Questions 1) A bill becomes a law by getting passed by both sides of digi yellow man congress and then getting approved by the president. 2)Civil- usually involve private disputes between persons or organizations Criminal- involve an action that is considered to be harmful to society as a whole 3) The three branches of multiple government #8230;
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Martin Luther King Jr. Gardners Multiple Intelligences. biography essay: The Life and digi yellow man, Times Of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. The Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay provides an multiple intelligences insight into the thinking of this man who was considered as a genius of his time. Vs. Milk Essay. In order to intelligences understand Dr. King, we will be required to look through the life and the times he had to Essay learn about how he came to be considered as a person who was different from the rest. A number of gardners multiple intelligences, essays have been written about Dr.
King some of which look like thesis topics and could very well confuse a newcomer about the subject being spoken about. However, it must be understood this is just the Essay, way of writing a writing a persuasive essay and must not be confused with some other subject. It was on January 15, 1929 when Michael King Sr. and Alberta Williams King had a baby, who was their middle child and decided to intelligences Christian him as Michael King Jr. The families of King and Williams had a firm foothold in rural Georgia where the grandfather of Martin Jr., A.D. Williams was a rural minister before moving to Atlanta in 1893. He had taken over digi yellow man the tiny but struggling Baptist church of Ebenezer along with 13 members to convert it into a congregation that was strong. AD married Jennie Celeste Parks with whom he had one surviving child who was christened as Alberta. Intelligences. The union between the families took place in 1926 after a courtship of eight years with the newlyweds moving into kkk in kansas the A. D. Williams home in Atlanta. Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay: What Led To the Birth of gardners multiple intelligences, The American Dream? Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay looks into the reasons why Dr. King believed in the American dream and the reasons why a movement was established to show the way forward for people to believe that indeed it is an American dream.
It can be said that this is one of the best case study examples to have been seen in Odysseus vs. Milk Essay, a long time. Gardners Multiple Intelligences. History is evidence to the fact that a number of people have been coming to America in search of a better life because of a perception this is the land of opportunities. When Dr. King said, I Have a Dream he believed all humans were created equal and should be allowed to pursue their dreams by A Brief Examination Cells Essay utilizing the opportunities available in the country for education and multiple, work. During those times, these opportunities were restricted to 6 modern history essay some races, be it the Japanese or even the African-Americans. There was a difference of opinion about who could write anengineering paper and who couldn't because of the restrictions placed by the law. It was these differences that led Dr. King to make the proclamation that African-Americans did not have the freedom and therefore, led to the Declaration of Independence. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Multiple Intelligences. biography essay attempts to give an understanding of the man and the reasons why he decided to take the actions needed.
It was the segregated bus policy of Montgomery, which initially gave rise to the movement in 1955 when a girl just aged 15 refused to offer her seat to a white man on a city bus, which was then considered as a violation of the law. Odysseus Essay. The incident saw the gardners multiple, arrest of the girl who was taken to jail. Another incident in December 1955 fueled further sparks to the incident when again a colored woman refused to give up her seat and was arrested to Cells be found guilty of violating the court and also had to intelligences pay a fine. It was these incidents and at the prompting of the head of the local NAACP leader who had a meeting with Dr. Digi Yellow Man. King Jr. and multiple intelligences, other leaders of the civil rights movement that a plan to Odysseus vs. Milk boycott the citywide bus was put in place. As a young and well-trained individual with good family connections, Dr. Gardners Intelligences. King was considered as a great leader of professional standing. Digi Yellow Man. What made things even better was that he was new to the community and did not have adversities of any kind. The opportunity allowed Dr. King to use the dissertation methodology and explain to people why he was fit to lead them. Therefore, it was believed he would be credible enough with the community of multiple, Blacks.
Alabama's civil rights struggle received fresh energy from the skillful rhetoric of Dr. King Jr. leading to a bus boycott that lasted 382 days causing plenty of difficulties for island, the African-American community. After a period of litigation going through several courts, the Supreme Court decided to lift the segregated public transportation mandate, which had been put, in place by the law. The leaders of the civil rights movement recognized the need for coordinating their efforts under the leadership of Dr. King Jr. and other ministers leading to the formation of the Southern Christian leadership conference to harness the authority along with the gardners, organizing power of churches within the community of Blacks. It also served as a national platform because it had the participation of King Jr. and this was the island, place, which gave African-Americans the voice to multiple enfranchise themselves in the process of voting. A number of protests organized by the SCLC were held in February 1958 with Dr. King meeting civil rights and religious leaders and talking about race -related issues throughout the country. It was a struggle, which continued until August 1963 and the historic March on digi yellow man, Washington, which led Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. to make the speech, which is now famous as the I have a dream speech. Dr.
Martin Luther King Jr. essay is an explanation of gardners, how Dr. King made it possible for African-Americans to overcome the second-class treatment they were getting from the infamous Jim Crow laws, which had been enforced nearly a century ago. The civil rights movement finally resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964 and authorized the federal government to do away with desegregation of all kinds. Dr. Real Name. Martin Luther King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his acts in multiple intelligences, 1964. The various struggles he was involved in finally had an 6 modern history essay impact on Martin Luther King Jr. after a number of confrontations and by living under the threat of death constantly. Intelligences. The slow progress of the civil rights movement was also proving to be a discouragement for Dr. King and a number of digi yellow man, African-American leaders. It was finally in 1968 that Dr. King was assassinated in gardners multiple intelligences, his motel room balcony when he was struck by a sniper's bullet. Kkk In Kansas. The assassin was finally apprehended and sentenced to 99 years in prison.
Martin Luther King Junior biography essay is not an attempt to give people an understanding who Dr. King was but just to make clear, he had certain qualities, which prompted many leaders from the African-American community to choose him as their leader. The qualities to gardners intelligences describe them best are as follows: Dr. King was exposed to racism from an early age.
He had an education and a solid background to be classified as a leader for African-Americans. He had a belief and the conviction to say all Americans must be treated equally regardless of their race. Most importantly he had a dream, which most others had not thought about. The dream Dr. King made it possible for them to bring about permanent changes in the American way of Odysseus vs. Milk, life, which until this day believes that it is a land of opportunities where all humans are created equal. The movement created by Dr. King established the fact that America is a land of gardners multiple intelligences, limitless opportunities and is open to all people who wish to make it a goal to get there.
The Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay provides an insight into the thinking of Odysseus vs. Milk, this man who was considered as a genius of his time. Intelligences. In order to understand Dr. King, we will be required to look through the life and real name, the times he had to learn about how he came to be considered as a person who was different from the rest. A number of essays have been written about Dr. King some of which look like thesis topics and could very well confuse a newcomer about the intelligences, subject being spoken about. However, it must be understood this is band history just the way of writing a writing a persuasive essay and must not be confused with some other subject. It was on January 15, 1929 when Michael King Sr. and Alberta Williams King had a baby, who was their middle child and gardners multiple intelligences, decided to Christian him as Michael King Jr.
The families of King and Williams had a firm foothold in rural Georgia where the grandfather of Martin Jr., A.D. Digi Yellow Man. Williams was a rural minister before moving to Atlanta in 1893. He had taken over the tiny but struggling Baptist church of Ebenezer along with 13 members to convert it into a congregation that was strong. AD married Jennie Celeste Parks with whom he had one surviving child who was christened as Alberta. The union between the families took place in 1926 after a courtship of multiple, eight years with the newlyweds moving into the A. D. Williams home in 6 modern history, Atlanta. Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay: What Led To the multiple intelligences, Birth of digi yellow man, The American Dream?
Martin Luther King Jr. Multiple. biography essay looks into the reasons why Dr. King believed in the American dream and the reasons why a movement was established to show the way forward for people to believe that indeed it is an kkk in kansas American dream. It can be said that this is one of the best case study examples to have been seen in a long time. Gardners Multiple. History is evidence to kkk in kansas the fact that a number of people have been coming to America in search of a better life because of a perception this is the land of opportunities. When Dr. King said, I Have a Dream he believed all humans were created equal and should be allowed to pursue their dreams by utilizing the opportunities available in the country for education and gardners multiple intelligences, work. During those times, these opportunities were restricted to some races, be it the Japanese or even the African-Americans.
There was a difference of opinion about who could write anengineering paper and who couldn't because of the restrictions placed by the law. It was these differences that led Dr. King to make the proclamation that African-Americans did not have the freedom and therefore, led to digi yellow man the Declaration of Independence. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay attempts to give an understanding of the man and the reasons why he decided to multiple take the actions needed. It was the band 6 modern history essay, segregated bus policy of multiple intelligences, Montgomery, which initially gave rise to the movement in 1955 when a girl just aged 15 refused to offer her seat to Odysseus a white man on a city bus, which was then considered as a violation of the multiple, law. The incident saw the arrest of the girl who was taken to jail. Another incident in December 1955 fueled further sparks to the incident when again a colored woman refused to give up her seat and joan of arc real, was arrested to be found guilty of violating the court and also had to pay a fine. It was these incidents and at the prompting of the head of the local NAACP leader who had a meeting with Dr. King Jr. and other leaders of the civil rights movement that a plan to gardners boycott the citywide bus was put in place. As a young and well-trained individual with good family connections, Dr.
King was considered as a great leader of digi yellow man, professional standing. What made things even better was that he was new to the community and did not have adversities of gardners, any kind. The opportunity allowed Dr. King to Odysseus vs. Milk Essay use the dissertation methodology and explain to people why he was fit to intelligences lead them. Therefore, it was believed he would be credible enough with the community of Blacks. Alabama's civil rights struggle received fresh energy from the digi yellow man, skillful rhetoric of Dr.
King Jr. Gardners. leading to a bus boycott that lasted 382 days causing plenty of difficulties for the African-American community. After a period of litigation going through several courts, the Supreme Court decided to lift the segregated public transportation mandate, which had been put, in place by the law. The leaders of the civil rights movement recognized the need for coordinating their efforts under the leadership of Dr. King Jr. and other ministers leading to the formation of the Southern Christian leadership conference to harness the authority along with the Odysseus, organizing power of churches within the community of Blacks. It also served as a national platform because it had the participation of King Jr. and this was the intelligences, place, which gave African-Americans the voice to band 6 modern history essay enfranchise themselves in the process of voting. A number of protests organized by the SCLC were held in February 1958 with Dr. King meeting civil rights and religious leaders and talking about race -related issues throughout the country. It was a struggle, which continued until August 1963 and the historic March on Washington, which led Dr.
Martin Luther King Jr. to make the speech, which is now famous as the I have a dream speech. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Gardners. essay is an A Brief of Stem Cells explanation of how Dr. King made it possible for gardners intelligences, African-Americans to overcome the of arc real name, second-class treatment they were getting from the gardners multiple intelligences, infamous Jim Crow laws, which had been enforced nearly a century ago. The civil rights movement finally resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964 and authorized the vs. Milk Essay, federal government to do away with desegregation of intelligences, all kinds.
Dr. Martin Luther King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his acts in 1964. The various struggles he was involved in finally had an impact on Martin Luther King Jr. after a number of confrontations and by living under the threat of death constantly. The slow progress of the civil rights movement was also proving to of arc real be a discouragement for Dr. King and gardners multiple intelligences, a number of African-American leaders. It was finally in 1968 that Dr. King was assassinated in his motel room balcony when he was struck by a sniper's bullet. The assassin was finally apprehended and sentenced to 99 years in prison. Martin Luther King Junior biography essay is not an history essay attempt to give people an multiple understanding who Dr.
King was but just to make clear, he had certain qualities, which prompted many leaders from the African-American community to choose him as their leader. The qualities to describe them best are as follows: Dr. King was exposed to racism from an early age. He had an education and a solid background to of arc real name be classified as a leader for African-Americans. He had a belief and the conviction to say all Americans must be treated equally regardless of their race. Most importantly he had a dream, which most others had not thought about.
The dream Dr. King made it possible for them to bring about permanent changes in the American way of life, which until this day believes that it is a land of multiple, opportunities where all humans are created equal. The movement created by Dr. King established the kkk in kansas, fact that America is a land of limitless opportunities and is open to all people who wish to make it a goal to get there. The Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay provides an gardners multiple intelligences insight into the thinking of this man who was considered as a genius of his time. In order to understand Dr. King, we will be required to look through the kkk in kansas, life and the times he had to learn about how he came to be considered as a person who was different from the rest.
A number of gardners, essays have been written about Dr. King some of which look like thesis topics and could very well confuse a newcomer about the subject being spoken about. However, it must be understood this is just the way of writing a writing a persuasive essay and must not be confused with some other subject. It was on January 15, 1929 when Michael King Sr. and Alberta Williams King had a baby, who was their middle child and decided to Christian him as Michael King Jr. The families of King and Williams had a firm foothold in rural Georgia where the grandfather of Martin Jr., A.D. Williams was a rural minister before moving to Atlanta in 1893. He had taken over A Brief the tiny but struggling Baptist church of Ebenezer along with 13 members to convert it into a congregation that was strong. AD married Jennie Celeste Parks with whom he had one surviving child who was christened as Alberta.
The union between the families took place in 1926 after a courtship of intelligences, eight years with the newlyweds moving into 6 modern essay the A. D. Williams home in Atlanta. Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay: What Led To the Birth of The American Dream? Martin Luther King Jr. Gardners Multiple Intelligences. biography essay looks into the reasons why Dr. King believed in the American dream and the reasons why a movement was established to show the way forward for people to believe that indeed it is an American dream. It can be said that this is one of the words a desert island, best case study examples to have been seen in a long time. History is evidence to gardners intelligences the fact that a number of people have been coming to America in search of a better life because of a perception this is the land of joan of arc real, opportunities. When Dr. King said, I Have a Dream he believed all humans were created equal and should be allowed to pursue their dreams by utilizing the opportunities available in the country for education and work. During those times, these opportunities were restricted to intelligences some races, be it the Japanese or even the African-Americans.
There was a difference of opinion about who could write anengineering paper and who couldn't because of the restrictions placed by the law. It was these differences that led Dr. King to make the digi yellow man, proclamation that African-Americans did not have the freedom and therefore, led to the Declaration of Independence. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. biography essay attempts to intelligences give an understanding of the man and the reasons why he decided to take the actions needed. It was the segregated bus policy of Montgomery, which initially gave rise to the movement in 1955 when a girl just aged 15 refused to offer her seat to words to describe a white man on a city bus, which was then considered as a violation of the law. The incident saw the arrest of the girl who was taken to jail.
Another incident in December 1955 fueled further sparks to the incident when again a colored woman refused to give up her seat and was arrested to be found guilty of violating the court and also had to gardners pay a fine. It was these incidents and at the prompting of the head of the local NAACP leader who had a meeting with Dr. King Jr. and other leaders of the civil rights movement that a plan to history essay boycott the citywide bus was put in place. As a young and gardners, well-trained individual with good family connections, Dr. King was considered as a great leader of professional standing.
What made things even better was that he was new to the community and did not have adversities of any kind. The opportunity allowed Dr. King to use the dissertation methodology and explain to people why he was fit to lead them. Therefore, it was believed he would be credible enough with the digi yellow man, community of Blacks. Alabama's civil rights struggle received fresh energy from the skillful rhetoric of Dr. King Jr. leading to a bus boycott that lasted 382 days causing plenty of difficulties for the African-American community.
After a period of litigation going through several courts, the Supreme Court decided to lift the segregated public transportation mandate, which had been put, in multiple, place by the law. The leaders of the civil rights movement recognized the need for coordinating their efforts under the leadership of vs. Milk, Dr. Gardners Multiple. King Jr. and other ministers leading to the formation of the Southern Christian leadership conference to harness the authority along with the organizing power of churches within the community of Blacks. It also served as a national platform because it had the participation of King Jr. and band history essay, this was the place, which gave African-Americans the voice to enfranchise themselves in gardners multiple, the process of voting. 6 Modern Essay. A number of protests organized by the SCLC were held in February 1958 with Dr. King meeting civil rights and religious leaders and gardners multiple, talking about race -related issues throughout the country. It was a struggle, which continued until August 1963 and the historic March on Washington, which led Dr.
Martin Luther King Jr. to Cells make the speech, which is now famous as the I have a dream speech. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. essay is an explanation of how Dr. King made it possible for African-Americans to overcome the second-class treatment they were getting from the infamous Jim Crow laws, which had been enforced nearly a century ago. The civil rights movement finally resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964 and authorized the federal government to gardners multiple intelligences do away with desegregation of digi yellow man, all kinds.
Dr. Martin Luther King was awarded the gardners multiple, Nobel Peace Prize for his acts in 1964. The various struggles he was involved in finally had an impact on Martin Luther King Jr. after a number of confrontations and by living under the threat of death constantly. The slow progress of the civil rights movement was also proving to be a discouragement for Dr. King and a number of African-American leaders.
It was finally in 1968 that Dr. King was assassinated in his motel room balcony when he was struck by digi yellow man a sniper's bullet. Multiple. The assassin was finally apprehended and digi yellow man, sentenced to 99 years in prison. Martin Luther King Junior biography essay is not an attempt to intelligences give people an understanding who Dr. Vs. Milk. King was but just to make clear, he had certain qualities, which prompted many leaders from the African-American community to choose him as their leader. The qualities to describe them best are as follows: Dr. King was exposed to racism from an early age. He had an education and a solid background to be classified as a leader for African-Americans. He had a belief and the conviction to multiple intelligences say all Americans must be treated equally regardless of their race. Most importantly he had a dream, which most others had not thought about.
The dream Dr. Odysseus Vs. Milk. King made it possible for them to bring about permanent changes in the American way of life, which until this day believes that it is a land of multiple, opportunities where all humans are created equal. The movement created by Dr. King established the fact that America is a land of limitless opportunities and is open to all people who wish to make it a goal to get there.
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(Teaching) Essayist Literacy in the Multimedia World. Abstract: This article presents an argument for the “re-turn” of essayist literacy in multiple intelligences multimedia and multiliteracy contexts. For its democratic, pedagogical, and history essay intellectual potential, essayist literacy is too important to be removed from composition curriculum, but it needs to be re-imagined within a diversity of essay traditions, including the turn toward multimedia writing undertaken in diverse writing classrooms. This article analyzes the findings from a study of one such ‘re-imagined’ essayist literacy unit/assignment in intelligences a composition course designed to focus on multiliteracies at a research university in the Northeast United States. Douglas Hesse The decline in essayist literacy has been viewed as the decline of kkk in kansas, knowledge itself. Ron Scollon and gardners intelligences Suzanne Scollon. Adam Banks’s chair’s address at the 2015 Conference on College Composition and Communication in Tampa, FL, triggered heated discussion on the place of “the essay” in writing curriculum. In his speech, Banks weighed in on the status of the essay and declared its promotion to “dominant genre emeritus.” While recognizing the value of “the essay,” Banks wanted to “acknowledge the rise and promotion of many other activities around which writing and communication can be organized” and urged writing teachers to move past this dominant genre and teach writing in to describe island its expanded sense, including “multimodal, multimedia forms of composing.” From Twitter to listservs, writing teachers and scholars reacted to gardners multiple intelligences, his speech, some interpreting it as a call for the field to vs. Milk, abandon the essay, and others maintaining that Banks was just opposing a mechanical and stilted version of the academic essay, not the genre of the essay itself. Gardners Multiple. For instance, Andrea Lunsford posited that Banks’s speech itself was an essay “in the very best sense of the word” (WPA Listserv), or, as David Green noted, it was “an interesting, exploratory, meditation on a topic through language and kkk in kansas symbols” (WPA Listserv).
As these scholars pointed out, Banks was not, in fact, pitching the idea of intelligences, sacrificing essayist literacy in all its manifestations; his major issue was with the kkk in kansas, static five paragraph, thesis-driven, academic textual form that has potential to stifle the creative and intelligences innovative use of band 6 modern, multiple media/modes, languages, and intelligences forms of expression in variegated forms of composing. As Banks’s speech and the ensuing discussion illustrate, the Odysseus Essay, genre of “the essay” and its place in the writing curriculum is a contentious one. Many scholars argue that essayist literacy should not be removed from composition curriculum since it is valued for its historical and current role in knowledge production, preservation, organization, and dissemination; for its flexible form, which can sponsor its writers’ and readers’ space for critical reflections and conversations with other genres and text forms; for its pragmatic function in multiple intelligences numerous situations, ranging from the college admission process to a job search; for its humanistic and democratic values; and for its merit as the medium of inquiry, argument, or pursuit of Odysseus Essay, knowledge (Badley, Hesse, Olson, Bloom, Scollon and Scollon, Heilker, Trimbur). Gardners Multiple. Therefore, as the argument goes, essayist literacy should be given the due space it deserves in composition curriculum. A Brief Essay. This article considers how we can make essayist literacy instruction and writing assignments steeped in that tradition pertinent to a diverse body of gardners multiple, students in this age of words a desert, multimedia. While some argue for primacy of multimodal composition, sometimes even at the cost of traditional, print-based essays, others insist on the value of the essay and adherence to its traditional form (Badley, Hesse, Heilker). It is within this context that this study addresses one central question: what does a multimediated essayist literacy look like in a 21st century classroom? In an attempt to explore this question critically, and extensively, I designed a research study of the gardners multiple, writing practices of college students that explores how the form we ask students to band history essay, produce can be re-imagined within diverse essay traditions, multimedia contexts, and students’ multiliteracy practices. Essayist Literacy for multiple intelligences a Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Classroom.
The typical essay form our students are being asked to joan of arc, produce now is far removed from the original notion of essay introduced by Michel de Montaigne and has been challenged by the plural literacy traditions our students bring to the classroom and the increasing trend of multimodal essay composition inside and outside the academy. In the Montaignean sense of the multiple, term, subjectivity, pursuit of words to describe a desert island, truth, and exploration characterize an gardners, essay, as opposed to the objective and band essay neutral tone associated with the current ‘standard’ academic essay. Like Montaigne, many other thinkers and scholars foreground subjectivity, exploration, and the search for gardners multiple intelligences truth as the major qualities of an A Brief Examination Essay, essay. One among them is Georg Lukacs, who argues that “[T]he essay . must be an multiple intelligences, uncertain exploration of received opinion that searches for truth rather than trying to establish it” (qtd in Paul Heilker’s The Essay 38). Essayists advocating for a Montaignean approach present the essay form as antithetical to science or logic or even the rational order imposed by kkk in kansas disciplinary conventions. However, a typical thesis-driven academic essay, Ron Scollon and Suzanne Scollon contend, is a particularly western communication pattern “carefully inculcated through processes of socialization” (9). Therefore, it is wrong to assume that everyone across the intelligences, world has this same pattern of writing or speaking, as it is not an “automatic outcome of band 6 modern essay, maturation” (9).
Essayist literacy, in multiple that sense, can be seen as a historical and cultural construct of the Western world. But Marcia Farr has a different take on the evolution of essayist literacy. In her view, “[E]ssayist literacy may have arisen as a genre style (Olson, 1977; Scollon Scollon, 1981; Trimbur, 1990), but it currently represents a situational style because it is associated more generally with academic situations (classrooms, academic conferences, public lectures) than specifically with essay writing” (8). Farr makes another striking observation about A Brief Examination of Stem Essay, essayist literacy that, as a Western historical and cultural construct, “[E]ssayist literacy can be understood as one way, or style, of “speaking” among many. Here “speaking” refers to both oral and written uses of language, as it does in Bakhtin’s (1986) work on gardners intelligences ‘speech’ genres” (7). If we were to accept Farr’s position on essayist literacy, it raises a critical question: What happens if we teach or attempt to teach this genre of discourse to a diverse body of students? Heilker states that through this practice we “impose strict limits upon the various discourses students bring to classtheir regional, racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic jargons . ” (55), whereas Linda Brodkey posits that such a practice rejects “minorities and women . as either scholars or subjects” in kkk in kansas the name of maintaining “the processes of gardners, disinterested, intellectual inquiry (Said 1982)” (13). Digi Yellow Man. Farr herself contends that many groups of students are discriminated against as they “use spoken and written language in gardners ways that contrast sharply with the to describe, implicit model of language use underlying much writing instruction in this country” (5). Our current model of instruction privileges some over other groups of students, continues Farr, because “[T]hose who already know and use, at least in some contexts, discourse that resembles this taught model relatively closely have less difficulty learning to produce texts that conform to gardners, it than those whose naturally acquired discourse differs from of arc real name it” (5). This implies that students from other cultures and discourse conventions are disadvantaged within the current model of instruction on essayist literacy.
So, while discussing essayist literacy, we should be mindful of the fact that our classrooms are rife with the “multiplicity of discourse styles” which in no way are “deficient versions of the Western European (male) tradition of rational discourse but simply may differ from it in some, though, perhaps not all, ways” (Farr 7). We should also be aware that “reasoning can be carried out and displayed in a variety of discourse styles” (Farr 32) across cultures. Gardners Multiple. As Farr states, “A text that may appear “illogical” through the lenses of essayist literacy may be quite logical when looked at through other lenses. The logic may become clear (to outsiders) only with an kkk in kansas, understanding of unstated cultural assumptions” (32). The implication of this for our instruction is that “[S]tudents whose ‘ways of speaking’ may differ significantly from the intelligences, ways of essayist literacy are not taught effectively by instructors who do not understand and appreciate the sociolinguistic repertoire they have brought to the classroom with them” (Farr 33). Hence, the re-imagination of this literacy form and the ways it is being taught to diverse students in composition classes is imperative. Such a re-imagination of words island, essayist literacy, however, entails an multiple, integration and kkk in kansas incorporation of multimodal and multilingual literacy practices that our students regularly engage in their daily lives, and/or that regularly feature in many contemporary media platforms.
Expanding the genre this way facilitates a more critical understanding of its “traditional” designation as a neutral and objective academic prose form, for intelligences it recognizes that this genre is not necessarily a static and stilted text form, but a flexible semiotic mode capable of accommodating multiple media and joan real discourse styles that our students bring with them to our classrooms. Responding to increasing influence of multimedia technology in students’ literacy practices, Kathleen Blake Yancey argues that we need to gardners multiple, re-conceive “composition in a new key.” According to her, such a reconceived notion of composition or writing includes print, but it also includes writing for digi yellow man the screen and an understanding that writing is not just textual but also visual. Yancey’s view of writing reflects Gunther Kress’s ideas of the changing landscape of writing and literacy in this age of multimedia/new media. Kress writes that given the “theoretical change . from multiple intelligences linguistics to semioticsfrom a theory that accounted for language alone to a theory that can account equally well for gesture, speech, image, writing, 3D objects, colour, music and no doubt others” (35-36), the language modes, such as speech and band essay writing should have to be “dealt with semiotically” as they constitute “a part of the whole landscape of the many modes available for representation” (36). Jodie Nicotra also speaks of the literacy landscape, but from the point of view of gardners multiple intelligences, changes in material technologies of kkk in kansas, literacy, shedding light on the evolution of literacy and literacy technologies over timefrom orality to writing, from writing to gardners intelligences, print, and from print to digital media. She explains that digital media technologies are not changing the fact that we write and speak, but only the ways we write and speak.
In following Nicotra’s line of argument, it can be said that we and of arc real name our students still compose, but compose with different media technologies, and this fact challenges the ways we teach our students to compose, as Steven Fraiberg notes: “composition for the twenty-first century requires a shift toward conceptualizing writers as ‘knotworkers’ negotiating complex arrays of gardners, languages, texts, tools, objects, symbols, and real tropes” (107). Fraiberg argues that writers these days remix multiple modes or media as they “design” composition of different kinds. According to him, as the “flow of content across multiple media platforms” collides, intersects, crisscrosses, and interacts “in unpredictable ways” (Jenkins qtd. in 107), 21st century writers naturally bring together content from those “multiple media platforms” (107) when they compose texts of diverse sorts, including academic essays. So, one way to challenge the gardners multiple, limitations of essayist literacy might be to Essay, contextualize it within multiple media platforms that include print, visual, digital, etc. As are multimodal literacy practices, multilingual literacy practices are also integral to our students’ literate lives these days; therefore, essayist literacy needs to take that reality into account as well. There is already a lot written in World Englishes, intercultural communication, as well as in multiple rhetoric and composition about the role of language, language varieties, cultures, and Odysseus Essay students’ past literacy traditions in shaping students’ current literacy practices. Cynthia L. Intelligences. Selfe and Gail E. Hawisher, for instance, argue that cultural ecologies influence literacy practices, whereas Steven Fraiberg contends that multilingual writing is a design like any other literate practice. Fraiberg advocates for mashing or the complex blending of multilingualism and multimodality as a new framework for composition (117). In fact, multilingualism and Odysseus vs. Milk Essay English language varieties (World Englishes) are long held to be great semiotic resources for composition as they contribute to and increase what Selfe calls the bandwidth of semiotic resources for gardners multiple composition by making available all means of persuasion (Selfe, Aurality and Multimodal Composing ). For instance, Yamuna Kachru notes that writers from Outer (countries where English is Odysseus vs. Milk Essay spoken as a second language) and Expanding Circles (countries where English is spoken as a foreign language) use different rhetorical organizations in writing because of “nativization of intelligences, English” and “Anglicization of indigenous languages” due to increasing “contact between English and local languages” (379). Her characterization of textual structures by writers from different places highlights the possibility of the varied literacy traditions our diverse students are likely to bring to our classrooms.
Our students’ plural discourse structures and literacy practices ask us to re-vision our current understanding of essayist literacy and how we teach the essay genre in a globalized writing classroom, informed by multiple languages, modes of representation, and meaning making practices. Essayist Literacy Instruction in the Multimedia Age: A Research Study. It is a desert island within this context that this essay addresses the research question: How do students negotiate multiple literaciesincluding essayist literaciesin a 21st century classroom? In an attempt to explore this question critically, and extensively, I designed a research study of the writing practices of college students. For the study, I collected argument essays from unit 2 in my course focused on essayist literacies (see Appendix 1) but situated among assignments that were less traditional and called on multiple multiple literaciesessay reflections, blog posts and digi yellow man responses, portfolios and portfolio reflectionsfrom fourteen student research participants.
I also conducted interviews with each participant immediately after the unit was over. In addition, as another set of data, I collected the participants’ literacy narratives from the first unit, along with interviews with students about their literacy traditions. Additional data included my field notes, and gardners curricular artifacts from unit 2, including the unit syllabus, calendar, assignment descriptions, evaluation criteria, class heuristics, and unit objectives. I examined this data in light of relevant theoretical insights from scholarship in essayist literacy and other closely connected fieldsintercultural communication, World Englishes, rhetoric and composition, and words a desert new media. The research participants for this study included diverse students from my sophomore level writing class in the Spring of 2012one Haitian female, one Mexican male, one Mexican female, one South Korean male, one African American male, one African American female, two Puerto Rican females, one Indian male, two white American females, two white American males, and one mixed race (white and African American) female. My course for gardners multiple this particular class was framed around the idea of multiple literacies, or multiliteracies (New London Group, Schwartz, Lynch and Wysocki) for digi yellow man diverse students in this age of globalization and intelligences technologies. Inspired by Michele Anstey and Geoff Bull’s argument that “Globalization provides a contextual necessity for us to words island, become multiliterate” (175), my course took up multiliteracies in multiple intelligences its broader frame, with multiliteracies not only kkk in kansas encompassing the notion of plural literaciessuch as visual, cyber, academic, critical, digital, new media, and gardners multiple intelligences intercultural, among other kinds of literacies (Kalantzis and Cope; New London Group; Anstey and Bull; Hawisher and Selfe; Selber)but also entailing the ability to interact using multiple Englishes in English speaking contexts and multiple writing/communication styles across cultures and disciplines. In addition, this notion of multiliteracies also encompassed the ability to critically evaluate information and A Brief Cells Essay resources and to use them ethically across contexts. In my course, mutliliteracies, therefore, meant a repertoire of creative, critical, reflective and rhetorical skills that students need to successfully navigate the complexities of the globalized world. With regards to essayist literacy, in particular, the gardners intelligences, notion of multiliteracies spoke to students’ acquisition of skills and name ability to choose, practice, and negotiate different forms and levels of gardners, essayist literacy as the writing context or occasion calls for them.
In fact, essayist literacy was included in my curriculum as a subset of multiliteracies, and re-imagined within the context of multiple media, Englishes, languages, and writing styles. Through triangulation and rhetorical analysis of all the data sources, I found a complex negotiation happening in the students’ process of essay writing, from topic selection, to kkk in kansas, location and evaluation of sources, to adoption of a particular essay form or style. I also discovered similar negotiation in place with regards to gardners, students’ past and present linguistic, cultural and literacy traditions, and their personal and academic ‘selves.’ Even though the degree of digi yellow man, negotiation varied across students as expected given their different positionalities (detailed discussion to follow), they nonetheless demonstrated that exploratory and academic essays are not watertight compartments as some scholars tend to maintain, but more flexible. The findings from this study also challenged my assumptions about diverse students’ linguistic and stylistic negotiations during the gardners multiple, composing process in English for academic audiences. Based on my prior readings of scholarship in digi yellow man rhetoric and composition, applied linguistics, and literacy studies (Canagarajah; Young; Lu; Pennycook; Horner, Trimbur and gardners Royster; New London Group), my assumption going into vs. Milk this research was that if provided with an appropriate assignment, instruction, and resources, international multilingual students would negotiate multiple languages, writing styles, essay forms and literacy traditions much more actively and effectively than domestic American students.
But findings from this study complicated that assumption and challenged me to re-evaluate any preconceived notions I had about any group of students. An analysis of student artifacts showed that domestic American students also negotiate, but negotiate differently because their positionalities and negotiating factors are different. Furthermore, American students negotiate slightly different elements to varying degrees than their international multilingual counterparts. As the case studies analyzed below also demonstrate, domestic American students do not negotiate linguistic or cultural differences as complexly as international students while writing in English for American institutions; they nevertheless negotiate, for example, formal and informal tones, personal and academic ‘selves,’ and thesis driven and gardners multiple intelligences exploratory essay forms if their composing and research processes are supported with relevant resources and instruction. Thus, on vs. Milk the one hand, this study challenged my assumption about the composing process of some groups of gardners, students; on the other, it also demonstrated the effectiveness of my pedagogical strategy that students in globalized classrooms (Khadka) should be taught to negotiate a number of factors, such as linguistic, cultural, and stylistic differences, and binaries in essay forms (such as exploratory/thesis-driven, inductive/deductive, alphabetic/multimodal etc.), encouraging them to retain the foundational values of essay, such as ‘personal,’ ‘exploratory’ and ‘situated,’ while being rhetorically persuasive to their intended audiences, including the academic ones. In short, this study showed that students can and should negotiate multiple literacies, including more traditional print literacies, while taking up essayist literacy in a writing class. Examination Of Stem. The findings from this study suggest that we can productively foreground negotiation, or shuttling (Canagarajah, Toward ) on multiple fronts of language, culture, dialect, style, and media, as the major goal while teaching essayist literacy in a diverse 21st century writing classroom.
In this study, I made triangulation the gardners, central part of analysis because it is highly valued in qualitative research for its function of cross-verifying interpretations and research findings with additional testimonials. For triangulation, I used multiple sets of datastudent texts, interviews, field notes, curricular artifacts, and relevant insights from multiple interconnected fields of studyintercultural communication, World Englishes, new media, globalization, and rhetoric and composition, which also served as analytical frameworks for my study. Another factor I accounted for kkk in kansas in this study is participants’ positionalities in light of the prevailing research theories that a writer’s position in intelligences a context (essay writing context, for to describe island instance) is shaped by his or her gender, class, race, culture, language, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, political views, literacy background, and/or personal and professional experiences. Therefore, a particular literacy practice of a writer reflects imprints of his or her positionality. For this specific reason, I examined the implications of positionalities in my diverse student participants’ essayist literacy practice. I collected the details on their positionalities by asking them to compose extended literacy narratives and by conducting follow-up interviews with additional questions around their literate lives in the past and present. Gardners. I also asked them to reflect on their writing and joan of arc research process for the argument essay, connecting their rhetorical choices (of persona, tone, style, resources etc.) with purpose and/or with their cultural, literacy, and multiple linguistic traditions. I used all these data in conjunction with other sets of data collected through multiple research methods for the purpose of triangulation, and for analyzing participants’ research and writing process in this particular assignment. These multiple approaches to digi yellow man, collecting and analyzing data helped me to explore and multiple answer my research question: How do students negotiate multiple literaciesincluding essayist literaciesin a 21st century classroom? Taking into kkk in kansas consideration interdisciplinary conversations about essayist literacy, and multiple intelligences literacy in general, I divided my sophomore-level writing course into four units focused on the theme of multiliteracies.
I took up multililiteracies as a topic for digi yellow man the course because it was broad enough to let students choose something they were interested in or wanted to explore further. I settled on this topic also because I could teach this course informed by, what I prefer to call, a multiliterate composition pedagogy. Multiple. Moreover, multiliteracies as a topic was multifaceted and closely aligned with other productive research areas, such as globalization, information and communication technologies, World Englishes, new media, and intercultural communication. In order to familiarize students with the concept of multiliteracies, I had a small set of articles, and videos in my calendar. Words To Describe Island. I assigned them The NCTE’s Definition of 21st Century Literacies ; The New London Group’s A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures ; Howard Gardner’s The Washington Post article: The End of Literacy? Don't Stop Reading ; Victoria Department of Education’s Video Series: 1. Considering Multiliteracies and 2. Gardners. Exploring Multiliteracies; and two YouTube videos: A Vision of Students Today (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGCJ46vyR9o) and Multimedia and Multi-literacies in A Brief of Stem Essay the Composition Classroom (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c4zSDOQ9mVY). The first unit (See Appendix 2 for assignment details) in my course was dedicated to learning from students about their literacy traditions (literacy narrative assignment) and teaching/practicing critical and visual literacies (rhetorical analysis of multiple, a digital artifact project), whereas the third unit was meant to band 6 modern essay, introduce students to the notion of gardners intelligences, remediation (Bolter and Grusin) with some hands-on training with “repurposing” media (See Appendix 3 for details on remediation project).
Students were asked to essay, remediate their unit 2 print-based argument essays into gardners multiple intelligences web forms in this unit. Words A Desert Island. This particular project was intended to put students to work with multiple media or modalities, introduce them to convergence culture (Jenkins), as well as make them cognizant of the rhetoricity of different media (e.g. Multiple Intelligences. website vs. Odysseus. print), or the dynamics of intercultural/interracial communication. Gardners. Unit four, on the other hand, was dedicated to documentary production (See Appendix 4 for details on collaborative documentary film-making project), in which students collaborated in groups of three to produce a movie on a controversial contemporary topic like Occupy Wall Street, the digi yellow man, Trayvon Martin (shooting) case, or the Democratic Movement in the Middle East. While units 1, 3, and 4 were fruitful and multiple interesting for digi yellow man students and multiple me, the unit given relatively more time and space in the curriculum was the 5-week-long unit 2. This unit was given due importance in recognition of the of arc real, value of essayist literacy in students’ academic and professional lives, and for intelligences its key place in course structure and 6 modern the assignment sequence. While unit 2 culminated in a traditional print-based argument essay, unit 3 activities and its web design projects were built on the foundation laid in unit 2. While designing unit 2 based on gardners essayist literacy in particular and joan real the course itself in general, I had to negotiate a number of gardners, thingsmy research agenda/s, my program requirements/course learning objectives, current scholarship in essayist literacy and multiliteracies, and my own evolving sense of composition curriculum for a diverse classroom.
For instance, I was flexible in source requirements for the essay even though one of the designated outcomes for the course specifically states that the course is geared toward teaching students to use “library resources” and some methods of primary data collection. With that statement, the course outcome leaves aside popular texts and vs. Milk Essay many multimedia sources found on the web, so I expanded it to include those kinds of sources as well. This demonstrated that sources, in this age of multimedia, are available in digital mediums as much as they are in print mediums; that information is available in popular sources as much as they are in scholarly sources; that each medium (such as image, text, and gardners intelligences sound) has its own unique affordances, and joan of arc real mediums work more productively in combination than in isolation; that compositions, even essays, now are increasingly multimodal and/or multimedia; and that information abundance is both a boon and bane at the same time. In order to ensure that students actually get acquainted with and use both scholarly and popular sources in different formats, I specified the potential types and number of intelligences, sources to vs. Milk, be used in the essay, and also provided them with the description of the evaluation process for locating and multiple intelligences selecting credible and relevant sources. My assignment description also had specific directions about avoiding too broad topics or research questions while still giving students freedom to choose any issue(s) associated with the of arc real name, course inquirymultiliteracies. Students were specifically asked to narrow their scope for the essay around one or two central research questions on their chosen topic but to “engage the complexities (social, political, ideological, economic, historical) of and current debates about that topic” (Writing Program Outcome). Moreover, I added a separate note regarding English language varieties and styles of writing or literacy traditions on the assignment description, aiming to encourage plurality and originality in students’ work. This particular note on language and gardners multiple style was intended to kkk in kansas, make students aware of the fact that communities across the gardners, world compose texts in different styles; they do speak different languages, even if only different varieties of the same language. Additionally, the note on of arc name language brought attention to the fact that privileging one language, or language variety over another, or one writing style above another could prove discriminatory to gardners intelligences, some groups of students, while other groups could feel at home and, as a consequence, may have unintended advantages. Next, I made it clear in of arc real name the language of the assignment that academic writing, and academic language, is gardners multiple intelligences what I value, but that there is kkk in kansas no single universal academic writing style or academic language. With that note on World Englishes and multiple intelligences plurality of academic writing styles around the world, I negotiated the notion of academic writing articulated in the designated course outcomes while complicating the traditional notion of essayist literacy in the context of globalization and increasing cross-cultural and cross-linguistic interactions.
Academic writing in a general sense is what the Writing Program wants instructors to teach students; the course description says: “WRT [. ] focuses on the rhetorical strategies, practices, and conventions of critical academic researched writing,” which implies plurality of 6 modern history, academic writing with the multiple intelligences, term “conventions,” but neither the course description nor the a desert, learning outcomes speak specifically about the multiple, form of the essay or the type of sources, or the writing style, or the language variety to digi yellow man, be used or adopted in multiple intelligences the class. The story of negotiation did not end there; putting together materials and activities for digi yellow man the unit constituted another kind of negotiation. On the one hand, there is no denying that a course driven by multiliteracies as an inquiry should reflect ‘multi’ in its course materials and artifacts too, which means the course materials should ideally be an assemblage of texts in multiple media, multiple modalities, and multiple forms; on the other hand, this particular unit was dedicated to essayist literacy, which in a traditional sense is print-based literacy. There were also programmatic priorities to be mindful of, such as the strong tradition of academic writing instruction in the field. Nonetheless, the negotiation was productive, and ultimately I gathered three videos ( A Vision of Student Today, Multimedia and Multiliteracies in the Composition Classroom, and Epic 2014 ), one online news article (Howard Gardner’s The Washington Post article: The End of Literacy? Don't Stop Reading ), one website (Victoria Department of Education’s multiliteracies web page), three print texts, ( Making an Effective Argument, a chapter from multiple Jack Selzer and Lester Faigley’s Handbook, Good Reasons ; Yamuna Kachru’s book chapter, Speaking and Writing in World Englishes from The Handbook of World Englishes ; and Sheila J. Ramsey’s journal article, Interactions between North Americans and Japanese: Considerations of Communication Style ), a set of handouts on different aspects of writing and research (such as narrowing the research focus; locating and real name evaluating print and gardners Internet sources; textual, visual and multimodal analysis and argumentation; drafting a research proposal; evolving thesis; claim making and synthesizing sources; annotated bibliography; composing, revising and editing process; codemeshing and translanguaging; methods of data collection and analysis; stylistic and linguistic plurality/diversity; dialoguing with sources; and documenting sources), and some sample documents as unit texts. These multiple texts and topics enabled me to place essayist literacy within a context of island, multimedia and gardners intelligences multiliteracies.
Case studies of band 6 modern essay, how students responded to such a re-designed essayist literacy unit yielded some interesting findings. I will present some of them here. In the following discussion, I closely look at the data specific to two of my research participants, who I call Sophia and Andre. My analysis is specifically focused on the kinds and gardners intelligences degrees of negotiations these participants engaged in their writing and research processes within the context of essayist literacies. I particularly examine the moments and instances of negotiation in action with respect to their choice of topics, languages and/or English varieties, their decision on A Brief of Stem Cells Essay “personas” and writing styles, and their determination of sources and gardners multiple forms for their respective essays.
For instance, I analyze how these participants explored and a desert island narrowed topics for their research; how they evaluated and selected sources for their essays; how they settled on multiple intelligences writing styles including the kkk in kansas, use of tone, diction, languages and/or English varieties; and how they decided on multiple the form/s for joan of arc real name their essays. Gardners Multiple Intelligences. The analysis organized this way helps to make sense of multiple sets of data and also to examine in joan of arc real detail how or whether students engaged essayist literacy in intelligences its expanded sense. In order to frame my analysis better, I use the first course assignmentthe literacy narrativeto contextualize the second unit and to give insight into these participants’ positionalities and previous literacy experiences. Sophia is a Hispanic female student from history Puerto Rico. Her alphabetic literacy began with her learning writing and reading in gardners multiple intelligences Spanish, her first language. From first grade on, she also started taking English and Math classes. Band 6 Modern Essay. Her computer literacy also began from grade one, although computer intensive classes began in her high school years, around the same time her Internet literacy began. Her literacy narrative details her preliminary literacy education as follows: The first language I started using for writing was Spanish, a year after I also started writing in intelligences English.
I began reading in English and Spanish when I was about five or six years old, yet I have always made use of the English language when it comes to working on name a computer. I come from Puerto Rico, making this my first language Spanish, and English my second language. I learned to gardners multiple intelligences, speak English because my mother and grandmother would always play Disney sing along videos and movies for me, and kkk in kansas the books they bought me were usually in English, so that I was able to learn it more quickly and have a better core or base in this language than what was taught in school. (literacy narrative) In Sophia’s digital literacy learning experience, the hegemony of English is gardners multiple evident; she reports that she has always used English in digital activities even though Spanish is her first language. Odysseus Vs. Milk Essay. As an English-as-a-second-language speaker, she confesses that she struggles to switch between her first and second language while writing in English: “Having to gardners, switch languages back and digi yellow man forth also makes my writing experience confusing and limited, if I happen to not know how to write something in multiple specific or the vs. Milk Essay, way I think of it in Spanish is not ‘the correct way’ to write it in English” (literacy narrative). Here, it is also important to note that her entire pre-university education was done in Puerto Rico. In her argument essay for unit 2, Sophia discusses the language policy debate in intelligences Puerto Rico in some length, exploring the larger cultural and historical issues associated with this high-stakes topic, and presenting her position on the debate. Initially, she had planned to talk about the band, English language policy in Latin American and Caribbean countries, but later narrowed her focus to the language policy in Puerto Rico. She discusses her narrowing process in her reflection essay:
I had the gardners, curiosity of learning about how the English language is presented and taught in Latin America and the Caribbean, but this topic resulted to band 6 modern history essay, be too broad and I was not able to find many good articles or specific books on the topic since these countries have a wide range in culture, and laws and policies on gardners multiple language. Kkk In Kansas. I had to change my topic and focus of the essay into one specific region and that choice . was the English language in intelligences Puerto Rico. My research into her source use found that Sophia used some Spanish language sources. For instance, IV Congress of the Examination of Stem Cells, Spanish Language by Eugenio Besnard-Javaudin, and The Spanish of Puerto Rico by Centro Virtual Cervantes are sources written in Spanish and available only online. Multiple Intelligences. Similarly, The Singularly Strange Story of the digi yellow man, English Language in gardners intelligences Puerto Rico is an digi yellow man, online article in Spanish by Alicia Pousada from Universidad de Puerto Rico. Sophia also used a Spanish print article, Manuel Alvarez Nazario’s Historia de la lengua española en Puerto Rico (History of the Spanish Language in Puerto Rico). Of course, she also had sources that ranged from gardners multiple intelligences images to videos in English that were produced within the United States. In that sense, there is diversity in her source use, and her sources come from scholars and publication forums (both print and web) from across borders. As expected, she provides translations of texts cited in digi yellow man languages other than English. Sophia is aware that her native language and culture influenced her writing style.
She says: “because my main language is Spanish . I was translating from Spanish to gardners intelligences, English, my thoughts, ideas and opinion . I would read books in Spanish and would translate them” (interview). Kkk In Kansas. True to gardners, her words, she uses some quotes in Spanish in A Brief Examination of Stem Essay the essay, but provides English translations for them. She begins her essay with an epigraph in Spanish: “Un idioma debe servir como herramienta de paz. Nunca para oprimir. Siempre para liberar. Ivelisse Rivera”, which she translates as: “A language should serve as a tool for intelligences peace.
Never for oppression. Always for vs. Milk Essay freedom.” Since she is more proficient in Spanish than in English, she says that she has to “switch languages back and forth,” which makes her “writing experience confusing and gardners multiple intelligences limited” (literacy narrative). Band. She also regrets that translation did not come as naturally or sound as good as the original: “translated stuff . does not sound like an English” (interview). This confusion and translingual challenge is reflected in her style. In that sense, even though her essay was submitted in English, she actually composed it in multiple Spanish, which suggests that her writing has the style of a Spanish essay. Structurally, Sophia says, Spanish and Odysseus English essays are different, and gardners she was taught to Essay, compose them differently: “Spanish essays begin with an introduction, and multiple intelligences they really do not talk much about thesis statement” (interview). Even though she claims that she was taught to write essays in both languages and differently for real name each one, the organization of her essay is more Spanish-like than English. For instance, at the beginning of her essay she had a long section that traced the intelligences, historical accounts of language policy in a desert Puerto Rico: “I provide a summarized history of Puerto Rico since the multiple, Spanish colonial times until the colonization of the United States and how these various establishments have affected the people of Puerto Rico” (from her essay). Although she states that at the beginning of her essay, she does not give a reason why that historical survey was necessary. Only after that long section follows her thesis, which she reinforces time and again in kkk in kansas the essay except for in the gardners multiple intelligences, conclusion. Instead of reinforcing or circling back to her claim, she ends her essay with a call to language teachers of words to describe a desert, Puerto Rico: “Teachers have to work with motivating students to appreciate the Spanish language more and learn it with passion as part of their culture, and also encourage them and teach that it is gardners multiple also important to learn English, and many other languages to expand their knowledge and become better intellectual human beings” (from her essay).
In that sense, her essay has a hybrid structure and conclusion different from conventional western academic essay. Sophia also has a dominant personal voice present in the essay that reflects her positionality: “I included my perspective” because “I care about this topic . it has directly affected me, my family, my community and everyone around me” (essay reflection). Her strong personal presence in the essay has to do with her personal investment in the topic: “I personally support the idea of learning another language to expand our horizons, yet it should not be done by force, but because the people actually have an interest and a need to be more intellectual in terms of learning the language” (essay). She has an engaged voice in that she directly addresses her audience, for instance, in this excerpt from her essay: “I think that language creates and joan of arc real helps shape the culture of a country or region. Gardners Multiple Intelligences. When you take away something as unique as language from someone, you are taking away their culture, their identity, their way of expressing without limitation and kkk in kansas direction” (essay). In her essay reflection, she makes it clear that her personal presence in the essay was her deliberate rhetorical choice: “I chose to write about the English Language in Puerto Rico . because it is a topic that I as a Puerto Rican can relate to and have knowledge of . because it has directly affected me, my family, my community and everyone around me” (portfolio reflection). Sophia’s composing process is notable for a number of reasons. As a multilingual writer, she works her way through a number of intelligences, forces that defined her composing situationassignment requirements, current writing instruction, her multilingual and Odysseus Essay multicultural positionality, her past literacy learning (particularly past writing instruction), and her translingual challenges, among others. For instance, she uses an epigraph from a Spanish text and gardners also cites a number of sources produced by Spanish-speaking authors outside the Unites States.
Her practice is kkk in kansas ideal from a point of view of integrating multiple sources; it nonetheless raises a number of questions about translation and its complexityhow close to originals are her translations or the multiple, translated versions of originals she cites? A monolingual or even a bilingual teacher has no way of assessing translation accuracy unless she or he speaks the same set of languages that the kkk in kansas, student speaks, which is a rare coincidence in a globalized classroom. Similarly complex is the issue of writing style that she adopts in her essay. She notes that she is aware of the differences in organizational patterns of typical English essays and Spanish essays, yet her essay organization does not reflect her adherence to an English essay writing style. Despite her awareness, she explores and adopts a style that resonates with her topic, and is intrinsic to her positionality. My goal in intelligences this unit/assignment was to digi yellow man, encourage students to negotiate writing styles, languages, and media for particular audiences and situations. Gardners Multiple Intelligences. Sophia’s essay is band 6 modern history testimony to the fact that she negotiated a number of gardners multiple, factors while composing this text for American academic audience, and her essay form departs from a traditional thesis-driven academic essay form. A Brief Examination Of Stem Cells Essay. Therefore, her case affirms that essayist literacyand traditional print-based assignmentscan also cultivate the same attention to gardners, multiplicity as multimedia assignments. In addition, her composing style and essay form serves as a good example of the play of “multiplicity of discourse styles” in a writing class. Essay. More importantly, her case supports the idea that essayist literacy can contribute to the aims of multiple, a course based on multiliteracies.
Andre’s first language is English, and he is an words to describe island, African American male student in multiple intelligences his sophomore year. He notes that his writing began with story composition in the fifth grade. His intense writing experience, however, began with his international baccalaureate program, where he enrolled in writing intensive courses. Kkk In Kansas. Regarding his overall writing experience, he notes, “I’ve experienced the growth in my writing. From the thematic essays in history class to the analysis of novels, I’ve been introduced to the different sides of writing” (literacy narrative).
He is also digitally literate: “Being born in the generation that I am, I was forced to become accustomed to gardners intelligences, the digital literacy” (literacy narrative). He began his digital literacy with typing and video games but later worked up to the complex tasks of assembling and disassembling the vs. Milk Essay, hardwares of desktop computers. He also learned to work with the Internet soon after. Gardners Multiple. He, however, laments that he is an English monolingual speaker: “I feel like I have a disadvantage. So many people come from of arc real different places, and they have two languages or more. Most of my friends speak other languages.
Their mother tongue may be Spanish or French; they come here and learn English, and I feel if I was born somewhere else or have different tongue, I would have two languages” (interview). In his argument essay, Andre explored the relationship between technology and mental capacity with an overarching claim“as technology increases, our mental capacity decreases” (interview). In his reflection, he reveals that he struggled a lot while composing this essay: “I ran into writers block around the 5 th page because I knew the gardners multiple, essay wasn’t supporting my thesis. Digi Yellow Man. Also, I didn’t have enough sources to help me justify my claims for 10 pages, so that was another reason I was stuck. But once I change my thesis for the better, I was able to gardners multiple, find sources for my argument and the oppositions” (essay reflection). His strenuous process, including his evolving thesis, shows that he evolved as a person and learned new things in the process of A Brief Examination Cells, researching and writing this essay. Multiple. More importantly, it shows his awareness of the need to interact with multiple sources in order to be able to construct an informed argument.
Andre’s source use is not much different from many other students in the class. He used print sources, such as Plato’s Phaedrus and Ziming Liu’s Reading Behavior in the Digital Environment: Changes in Reading Behavior Over the Past Ten Years, and multimedia sources including some YouTube videos, Rachel Dretzin’s documentary Digital Nation, , and some videos on multiliteracies taken from Bill Cope and Mary Kalanztis’ New Learning website. However, when it comes to his writing style, Andre reports that he consciously chose to represent himself, and his topic, in a particular fashion based on his positionality: [F]or writing style, I had to think about how I wanted the tone of the essay to sound, because in unit 1 it was very communicative/funny and it was like to get the audience to laugh a little bit and this is a research paper, I want it to be stern, I want it to be like this is my voice and this is what I am saying, you guys should believe this, but also at history essay the same time I did not want to scare the multiple, reader away. I want the kkk in kansas, people to have the comedic side: a couple jokes, metaphors so that people could actually have fun reading so I combined more of humorous side to what’s really stern and multiple what an academic paper is all about. So I leaned more towards my academic part of it, but I was still able to slide [in] my humorous side too. (interview) From this excerpt, it becomes apparent that he deliberately chose two different approaches for the two different unit assignments of the same course. Vs. Milk. This also shows that he is mindful of the academic writing situation where a serious approach to multiple, a chosen topic is band history expected.
That is the reason he moderates his humorous side in the interest of an academic tone. His humorous side, he says, he inherited from his father: “My dad he was always that funny comedic guy . always tells jokes and gardners intelligences never stops. History. I put that into gardners multiple my writing and push it a bit too much so which is my downfall, so I got to pull back . because I am serious but my tone could come out real, as not serious because of the comedy in the paper” (interview). As he claims, his style in the argument essay has a fusion of humorous and academic tones. Structurally, however, his essay begins with an epigraph from a popular documentary, Digital Nation, and is organized around subtitles, such as “Introduction,” and “Decline of Thought.” His thesis in the very first paragraph reads, “As technology increases, our ability to think critically suffers” (essay). Multiple. To support his thesis he offers local as well as global examplesa primary research result and transnational (Korean kids’ addiction to video games) case study. Andre also includes a section devoted to opposing arguments in which he presents some potential arguments that people challenging his claim might present. This clearly shows that he is adhering to the structure of a thesis-driven essay and the traditional strategy of refuting the opposing arguments in order to establish his own point. In that sense, his essay is well organized. Maintaining the form of a conventional academic essay, he closes his essay by offering a potential solution to the issue he raises and reinforces his claim.
Additionally, throughout the essay, his tone is mostly neutral, detached and formal, yet is blended well with his ‘humorous side.’ In fact, the only instance where his personal side was brought into the essay was when he mentioned his own writing class to further his argument that technology should complement the to describe island, human brain, but not rule over it: “The style of teaching is intelligences changing. For example in my Writing class at [. ] University, students are requested to blog about readings that are done outside of Odysseus vs. Milk Essay, class” (essay). He argued that blogs, or any other teaching technologies, should facilitate actual interactions in the class, but not substitute for them. Thus, stylistically speaking, his essay is multiple intelligences primarily thesis-driven with a slight personal touch. This is significant because he is able to negotiate multiple discourse styles (personal humor with objective academic style, for instance) for a specific rhetorical purpose despite the words a desert island, fact that he is gardners intelligences a monolingual writer trained to write in Odysseus vs. Milk Essay a specific way, and intelligences also despite the fact that he is writing a traditional print-based essay. His case demonstrates a more complex view of band history, essayist literacy in practice.
In addition, Andre’s is an interesting example of an multiple intelligences, essay being a catalyst for the pursuit of knowledge, and band 6 modern essay its form a carefully crafted style of presenting ideas. As he mentions in his literacy narrative, essay and portfolio reflections, and interview with me, his essay writing has been a journey of exploration about a number of interrelated issues pertaining to his topic. His evolving thesis that he describes when talking about gardners multiple intelligences, his writer’s block speaks to a desert, the fact that his essaying was tantamount to gardners multiple intelligences, learning and discovery. His essay form is thesis-drivensomething expected of a domestic American student schooled in American academic system all his life, but, in his case, it is something carefully chosen to fit the academic audience. Examination Of Stem Essay. Another interesting thing about his style is intelligences that, even within a traditional thesis-driven form, he could incorporate his ‘humorous side’ and some personal reflections, which corroborates the kkk in kansas, idea that the academic essay is not necessarily a stilted form.
Instead the multiple intelligences, essay form should be considered malleable to the writer’s rhetorical decisions, as was evident from Andre’s stylistic choice of a particular tone for the essay. These two case studies are not representative of essay, all fourteen research participants in my larger study, let alone of all domestic and international students in American higher education. In the larger study, I found that both domestic American and international multilingual students actively negotiated, though in different degrees, multiple factors, including languages, dialects, writing styles, tones, essay forms, literacy traditions, and media, while producing their argument essays. While the particular positionalities of these participants informed the gardners, nature and degree of negotiation in the composing process, this study suggested that foregrounding negotiation of multiple literacies in a writing course or a writing assignment can encourage students’ learning and practice of “multiplicity of discourse styles” in a writing class. It would be premature, though, to vs. Milk Essay, generalize anything based on multiple the couple of case studies presented above or even based on the findings from the analysis of my entire sample. Vs. Milk Essay. It could be safe, however, to say that each student writer (research participant for that matter) labored or labors at the crossroads of multiple, multiple forces, including language, assignment requirements or expectations, and her/his past literacy practices. Kkk In Kansas. This composing situation makes negotiation a skill imperative for each one of our student writers.
Another aspect this study highlights is that writing teachers play an important role in student writers’ learning and practice of “multiplicity of discourse styles,” and skill of gardners multiple, negotiation. However, supporting the growth of this ability in students involves redesigning both the curricular and pedagogical artifacts we use in or for the class. An essayist literacy unit or assignment is just a case in point, which I redesigned keeping in view the changing student demographics, the complex tradition of A Brief, academic or essayist literacy, and increasingly multimediated forms of writing inside and outside the gardners multiple intelligences, academy. This curricular and pedagogical experiment was driven by my conviction that we can no longer overlook the linguistic and cultural diversity in our classrooms, nor can we ignore the increasing global interactions of people and ideas, and the unprecedented influence of media and technology in essay our and gardners multiple our students’ literacy practices. In fact, it could be counterproductive for our students, rhetoric and composition as a discipline, and for American academic institutions for us to promote and enforce only the western essayist textual form in our classrooms, for doing so would be tantamount to imposing a norm from kkk in kansas one particular culture or context on intelligences to the other. It would also mean privileging some groups of students and their stylistic conventions above other groups and their textual conventions. In plain terms, it would be equivalent to adhering to an undemocratic practice, something we should forgo sooner rather than later.
Relinquishing this practice would involve expanding the boundaries of the course, unit, or assignment on essayist literacy in joan of arc real name order to create spaces for multiple languages, multiple media, literacy conventions, and subjectivities or positionalities of the essayists. However, expanding the boundaries should not be understood to mean the gardners intelligences, sacrifice of basic reading and writing skills in composition classes. Expansion should always be an ‘addition to,’ not a ‘subtraction from,’ what we have been doing in Odysseus vs. Milk our classes. Gardners. For instance, students in my class did most of the things students in any traditional writing class would do: critical summary, paraphrasing, critical responses to unit readings and texts, critical source evaluation, synthesis of multiple sources, textual and visual analysis, annotated bibliography, proposal writing, claim-making, evolving thesis, and to describe a desert so on. But they also obtained crucial insights that their positionalities and literacy backgrounds have, or can have, bearing on gardners multiple their literacy practices. This meta-awareness of a desert island, how multiple factors shape their writing performance benefitted them personally and academically. Gardners Intelligences. They could see that their positionalities and past literacy practices could serve as a reservoir of resources to turn to as and when needed to joan name, make their communicative acts, essays for that matter, rhetorically effective. Intelligences. They also gained the insight that depending on the writing context they might find themselves in, they should even be able to of arc real name, suppress their positionalities and gardners multiple intelligences past literacy habits in order to write in a style and convention of a particular genre in a particular composing situation. Therefore, it is imperative that a course, or unit, on essayist literacy has components of multiple essay forms, multiple writing styles, multiple modes and mediums of writing, and Odysseus Essay multiple presentation patterns incorporated into it. These components contribute to the development of the gardners, shuttling abilitythe idea that students should be able to move back and forth between differing essay forms, discourse styles, writing modes, and/or organization patterns, as the writing situation demands. They should even be able to negotiate those forms or styles towards their rhetorical end effective and to describe persuasive arguments and claims on the topic at hand.
Given the gardners multiple intelligences, value of shuttling ability in the globalized world (and classroom), I foregrounded it even in another assignment in the sequencethe remediation project. The remediation project was an island, extension to the argument essay assignment, where students repurposed their print-based essays for different media and different target audience. They remediated their academic essays into web forms, and the process involved therein brought into relief the complex relations among media, audience, context, resources, and multiple presentation style. Working on this project, students particularly understood how their rhetorical and stylistic choices are shaped by the consideration of audience, and medium of 6 modern essay, delivery. Building further on this thread, the final assignmentthe collaborative documentary projectprovided students with an multiple, additional opportunity to reflect on and respond to a different composing situation, where a shuttling ability of slightly different sort was called into service. Therefore, it would be in the best interest of cultivating negotiation or shuttling skill in students to expand the breadth of course materials by situating essayist literacies within the of arc real name, context of multiple media and modalities, multiple languages, and multiple literacy traditions. This would essentially mean expanding the narrow bounds of essayist literacy, writing, and rhetoric and composition as a discipline. In addition, this would mean adopting a global outlook to writing by incorporating into our curriculum, among other things, how writing is done and taught around the multiple intelligences, world and how its practice is shifting with the change in digi yellow man writing technologies (Khadka). In broader terms, it all would mean the intelligences, co-evolution of writing curriculum with multiple technologies, multimedia, and multiple literacy practices around the world. This would also entail larger shifts in Examination Essay the mission of composition classes, discipline of rhetoric and composition, and of American higher education. This would mean making the American academy conducive to multiple, the growth and joan of arc flourishing of plurality of languages, literacy traditions, and multiple forms and genres of writing.
Finally, this would mean making composition classes, and gardners multiple intelligences the discipline of rhetoric and composition, relevant to students and the world outside the academy through substantial transformation in their outlook towards ‘other’ Englishes, ‘other’ languages, ‘other’ writing styles, ‘other’ composition media and technologies, and band ‘other’ student populations. Appendix 1: Unit 2 Essayist Literacy Assignments. A. Multiple Intelligences. 10-12 Pages of Argument Essay on Course Inquiry. You will investigate an issue, debate, problem, controversy or a question about multiliteracies in joan relation to other attendant issues, such as globalization, information and communication technologies, World Englishes, new media or intercultural communication in some length and intelligences depth. You are required to use primary and words island secondary, scholarly and popular, and print and digital (online) sources in your essay.
When you research and develop your argument, you do a number of things simultaneously: extend a conversation, historicize, make a new claim, complicate an existing claim or established fact, find a gap in the studies done, and propose a solution or offer an alternative perspective. As a college-level student writer, you also make moves that academics make in their essays: state your thesis or theses at some points in the essay, make general or specific claims, and furnish evidences for the claims made. Intelligences. I am aware that it is almost impossible to come up with some grand universal claims or some irrefutable thesis or set of theses in Odysseus a paper of this length, but you can and have to attempt to present a tentative claim or set of claims in this paper corroborated by the data or sources you retrieve through different research methods. Even though it is an academic essay and you might have been schooled to avoid personal in your academic essays, I am open to you implicating yourself in multiple the essay i.e. Odysseus. using “I” or bringing in relevant personal narratives or experiences from your life. Multiple Intelligences. In other words, your essay should ideally be a combination of personal and academic, experiential and joan of arc real empirical, and facts and narratives. A Note about multiple, English Varieties and Styles of Writing. As a writing teacher, I am aware that while requiring you to compose academic essay in academic English, I should not privilege one variety of English or one particular literacy tradition over other English varieties or literacy traditions (or writing styles).
So that no one in kkk in kansas the class feels discriminated against or underprivileged both linguistically and culturally, I entertain the play of English varieties or literacy traditions in your argument essays within reason. No doubt, I want you to compose your essay in academic language, the gardners, language that other scholars in the academy use, but I am also cognizant of the Essay, fact that there is no single universal academic language across disciplines or cultures. So, as you attempt to write as or like academic writers, you can bring in your local English variety/ies or literacy tradition/s (or writing style/s) if the context demands or allows (e.g. Multiple Intelligences. while citing the local sources or authors, while remixing your original writing style with the academic writing style or while offering examples of local/different argumentation pattern or information presentation style). I won’t even have a problem with you citing sources in an/other language/s as long as you make the sense clear to your audience either through translation/s or discussion/explanation of cited text/s in English. In this paper, you reflect on a number of choices you make during the selection of the topic for your research, while conducting actual research on your chosen topic, while composing the kkk in kansas, essay, and while revising the essay for or before final submission. You tell your audience why you chose a particular topic or question or debate/controversy you did as well as what research methods you used to collect sources/information/data pertaining to that particular topic. You also tell your audience about your writing processwhen, how and where did you begin your essay? What were the challenges of putting together research data/findings and your experiential/situational dimensions towards proposing or formulating a claim/claims about your chosen topic?
How did you decide on the tone, style, language variety or cultural references of your essay? How much time did you spend on multiple composing or revising the draft? Why did you revise if you did? In what way did the A Brief Examination of Stem Essay, assignment description or requirement or grading criteria affect your composition process or the gardners multiple, final essay form? What is Odysseus vs. Milk your overall experience of working on this particular assignment?
Your portfolio should include every thing you do during the process and period of composing your unit 2 essay assignmentclass notes, drafts, sources, interview questions, interview tape or transcription, field notes, class works/ activities, peer review drafts, email exchanges, blogged texts, blog responses etc., and 1 page reflection on portfolio content/s. Appendix 2: Unit 1 Literacy Narrative, and Rhetorical Analysis Assignments. A. Alphabetic and Digital Literacy Narratives: 1000 words. Literacy narrative is composing a story about reading and composing in multiple print and/or digital media. Step 1: Alphabetic Literacy Narrative. Compose your literacy narrative in alphabetsusing letters and words. Consider the following questions as you compose: When and how did you learn to Odysseus vs. Milk Essay, read or compose texts on papers and (or) screens? What made that learning possibleschools, parents, community centers, relatives or something/somebody else? What language(s) did you first use for gardners multiple intelligences reading, writing and/or online activities?
Is English your first language? When and how did you learn to digi yellow man, speak, read and write in English? What about computers and the Internet? When and where did you first encounter them? What did you begin with?
What were the multiple intelligences, programs/applications you began your digital or cyber literacy with? Choose key events/moments in your literate life, and carefully organize your narrative around them. You might want to consider these questions as you compose: Where did you stand in relation to alphabetic literacy or digital literacy and where are you now? If you speak more than one language, you can write your story in the first language and then in the second language and reflect on the difference in the story itself because of the kkk in kansas, language. You can also talk about literacy in the first language and the second language and the degree of intelligences, proficiency in kkk in kansas each of them. You can also shed light on the cultural or linguistic differences and literate practices or talk about digital divide and literacy learning (for example, English as the default language in computers or access to the Internet or computer programs and digital literacy etc.) if that speaks to your situation. Step 2: Digital Literacy Narrative. Video or audio record the narrative.
Camera on your computer or your phone should be fine. If you don’t have access to camera, talk to me. Step 3: Upload the recorded narrative to gardners multiple intelligences, a computer. Step 4: Submit me both the narratives in a CD and/or via email. Appendix 3: Unit 3 Remediation Assignments. A. Remediation of Argument Essay in Web Form, Presentation, and Blog Post. Remediation is the incorporation or representation of one medium into another. In their book Remediation: Understanding New Media, J. David Bolter and Richard A. Grusin argue that digital or new media are characterized by vs. Milk Essay remediation because they constantly remediate (present in different media) the multiple intelligences, contents from their predecessors such as television, radio, and real print journalism (old media). Gardners. Remediation, however, is of Stem Cells not just an adaptation of the old. Sometimes, new media present old media in entirely new ways without any clue to the old and only people familiar with both know that remediation is taking place.
And another significant fact about gardners multiple intelligences, remediation is that it is not that only new media remediate the old but it works both ways. Television screens and newspaper designs these days look more and more like websites with convergence of Examination of Stem Cells, multiple media and modes in those platforms. Remediation and gardners multiple media convergence therefore are the major phenomena characterizing the media and composition landscapes in band 6 modern essay this time of major technological change. As a tribute and response to gardners multiple intelligences, this ongoing media and composition trend, in this unit, you will remediate your progression 2 print-based argument essay in to describe island a new medium. I encourage you to remediate it in a well-designed web site. The assignment is multiple intended to give you an understanding of relationship among audience, medium, content and style. Upon completing the A Brief of Stem, assignment, you will see, learn and experience how audience and medium shape the content and style of presentation. It is up to you to decide what media assets you want to use for composition and design ranging from videos, songs, audio interviews, images, alphabetic text (from your argument essay or additional texts), graphics to intelligences, animations. Only limitation is that all those assets and resources should be rhetorically (effectively) used to represent (remediate) your progression 2 essay, which is to say that you should attempt to present similar argument that you made in your alphabetic argument essay.
Connected with the remediation project, you will also compose and post a 3-page long blog post on your profile in the course site about the rhetorical situation and composition style, audience factor and kkk in kansas source and gardners language variety choice, audience and document or web design, and media and composition patterns or forms. You must consider how the media shape the messages/contents or more explicitly, you must talk about what changed or did not change during your remediation of the unit 2 argument essay, and why. In other words, in your blog post you must engage the dynamics of media and message, content and forms, audience and words a desert island rhetorical choices. Gardners Multiple Intelligences. You should also explain your project’s targeted audience, context, and purpose. Appendix 4: Unit 4 Documentary Production Assignments.
A. Digi Yellow Man. Collaborative Documentary Film Project, and Presentation. In this unit, you will work collaboratively in a group of 3 and gardners intelligences produce 8 to 10 minutes of documentary film. You will choose a movement or event (current or historical) that you find relevant and interesting and that also connects with some aspect of course theme. Some potential topics could be Occupy Wall Street Movement, social media and protest (e.g. in Middle East and kkk in kansas Africa), gaming and politics, gaming and learning, various civil rights movements (including LGBT issues), indigenous land rights issues etc. You might want to emulate the gardners, documentaries on Steve Jobs and Occupy Wall Street Movement we watch together in the class. Your documentary should incorporate a good amount and variety of Odysseus, sourcesalphabetic texts (books, articles, newspaper editorials etc.), audios, videos, still images, among others- and be organically composed. It should also demonstrate your knowledge or learning of intelligences, a number of techniques such as handling video camera, still camera, incorporating voice over into Odysseus Essay the film or editing skills.
The juxtaposition of different texts and narrative voice and their organic unity will be the key evaluation criteria for your project. Your project should also reflect your understanding of audience, textual cohesion, and ethical treatment of sources etc. In this paper, your group must reflect on gardners multiple intelligences each and A Brief Examination of Stem Cells every choice/decision made during the whole process of documentary production. You might, for gardners multiple intelligences instance, talk about the collection or selection of Odysseus vs. Milk, source materials, decision on English variety to be used, narrative voice or work division or other critical dimensions of the process of collaborative research and composition. Anstey, Michele, and intelligences Geoff Bull. Teaching and Learning Multiliteracies: Changing Times, Changing Literacies . Examination Of Stem Cells Essay. Newark: International Reading Association, 2006.Print. Badley, Graham. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values. Research in Post-Compulsory Education 15.1 (2010): 103115.
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Composition 2.0: Toward a Multilingual and Multimodal Framework. A Brief Examination Essay. CCC 62.1(2010): 100-126. Print. Green, David F. Re: Video of Bank’s Talk? WPA Listserv , 25 March 2015. Gardners Multiple. Web. Hawisher, Gail E., and Cynthia L. 6 Modern History. Selfe.
Globalization and Agency: Designing and Redesigning the multiple, Literacies of Cyberspace. Joan Real Name. College English 68 (2006): 619-636. Multiple. Print. Hawisher, Gail E. et al. Becoming Literate in the Information Age: Cultural Ecologies and the Literacies of Technology . College Composition and Communication 55. 4 (2004): 642-692. Print.
Heilker, Paul. The Essay: Theory and Pedagogy for an Active Form. Urbana-Champaign: NCTE, 1996. Print. Hesse, Douglas. Saving a Place for Essayistic Literacy. Passion, Pedagogies and 21st Century Technologies. Digi Yellow Man. Eds. Gail E. Hawisher, and Cynthia L. Selfe. Logan: Utah University Press, 1999.
34-48. Print. Horner, Bruce, Min-Zhan Lu, Jacqueline Jones Royster, and John Trimbur. Language Difference in Writing: Toward a Translingual Approach. Multiple Intelligences. College English 73.3 (2011): 303-21. Print. Jenkins, Henry. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide . New York and London: New York University Press, 2006. Print. Kachru, Yamuna. Speaking and Writing in World Englishes.
The Handbook of World Englishes . Eds. Braj B. Kachru, Yamuna Kachru, and Cecil Nelson. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2008. 366-85. Print. Kalantzis, Mary, and Bill Cope. A Brief Cells. Multiliteracies: A Framework for Action. Gardners Intelligences. Transformations in Language and Learning: Perspectives on Multiliteracies. Kkk In Kansas. Eds.
Mary Kalantzis and Bill Cope. Gardners Multiple. Australia: Common Ground Publishing, 2001:19-31. Print. Khadka, Santosh. Rhetoric of World Englishes, Writing Instruction Around the World and a Global Outlook for the U.S. Kkk In Kansas. Composition Classroom. Gardners Multiple. Journal of kkk in kansas, Global Literacies, Technologies, and Emerging Pedagogies 1.1 (2012): 21-37. Intelligences. Web. Kress, Gunther R. Literacy in the New Media Age.
London and New York: Routledge, 2003. Print. Lu, Min-Zhan. Metaphors Matter: Transcultural Literacy. JAC 29.1 -2 (2009): 285?94. Print. Lunsford, Andrea. Re: Video of Bank’s Talk? WPA Listserv , 25 March 2015. Web. Lynch, Dennis A, and Anne F. Wysocki.
From First-year Composition to Second-year Multiliteracies: Integrating Instruction in words island Oral, Written, and Visual Communication at a Technological University. WPA 26. 3 (2003): 149-170. Print. Matsuda, Aya, and Paul Kei Matsuda. World Englishes and the Teaching of Writing.
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Olson, David R. From Utterance to Text: The Bias of Language in 6 modern Speech and Writing. Harvard Educational Review 47.3 (1977): 257-281. Multiple. Print. Pennycook, Alastair. Language as a Local Practice . Band Essay. London: Routledge, 2010. Print. Scollon, Ron, and Suzanne B.K. Multiple. Scollon.
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College English 71.1 (2008): 27-47. Print. Selber, Stuart A. Multiliteracies for real name a Digital Age. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2004. Print. Selfe, Cynthia L. Aurality and Multimodal Composing.
College Composition and Communication 60.4 (2009): 61663. Gardners Multiple Intelligences. Print. Trimbur, John. Essayist Literacy and the Rhetoric of Deproduction. Rhetoric Review 9.1. Band History Essay. 1990. Multiple Intelligences. 72-86. Print. Yancey, Kathleen Blake. Made Not Only in Words: Composition in a New Key. CCC 56.2 (2004): 297-328.
Print. Young, Vershawn. Your Average Nigga. College Composition and Communication 55.4 (2004): 693-715. Print. (Teaching) Essayist Literacy from Composition Forum 32 (Fall 2015) Online at: http://compositionforum.com/issue/32/essayist-literacy.php. Copyright 2015 Santosh Khadka. Composition Forum is published by the Association of Teachers of Advanced Composition with the support and generous financial assistance of band, Penn State University.
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